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The weight neutrality of ziprasidone appears favorable compared with other second generation antipsychotics in this population. The response rate to ziprasidone targeting irritability may be lower than response rates associated with FDA-approved agents for this indication. Overall, ziprasidone use appeared well tolerated in youth with ASD.
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No difference observed in the rate of antimanic response or tolerability to SGA monotherapy in the presence of ASD comorbidity.
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We identified 176 reports, including 15 double-blind, controlled trials, 58 openlabel studies, 18 retrospective chart reviews, and 85 case series/reports. The majority of these studies (43%) were of risperidone. Evidence suggests that second-generation antipsychotics are efficacious in the treatment of psychosis, bipolar disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, and Tourette's Disorder, and are potentially useful in mental retardation, conduct disorder, and severe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The most frequently reported side effects included cardiovascular effects, weight gain, sedation, sialorrhea, extrapyramidal signs, and hyperprolactinemia, although the relative frequencies of these untoward effects vary among medications.
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Comprehensive search of PubMed- and MEDLINE-listed journals.
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The 6-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel study was conducted in 5 medical centers in mainland China from November 2007 to March 2011. A total of 279 subjects with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia were randomly assigned (with a randomization ratio of 1:1) to aripiprazole (n=139) or risperidone (n=140). Efficacy measurements included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total, positive, negative and general psychopathology subscale scores, and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S), and Improvement scale scores. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), weight gain, serum prolactin level, QTc interval, and self-reported adverse events were also assessed as measures of safety and tolerability.
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Bipolar disorder is an episodic condition usually requiring long-term, often life-long, treatment to control acute symptoms and stabilize mood. Clinicians face several challenges when deciding on the most appropriate long-term management strategy for patients with bipolar disorder, and consideration must be given to the heterogeneity of symptoms, tolerability and patient acceptability as well as individual history of response. Numerous treatments are available for the management of bipolar disorder, including lithium, divalproex, conventional antipsychotics, the anticonvulsant lamotrigine, and several newer atypical agents, including olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole. Antidepressants may also have a role in managing acute depressive episodes but are not recommended as monotherapy in either acute or long-term maintenance treatment. Studies suggest that pharmacologic treatment given in conjunction with cognitive therapy or group psychoeducation is superior to usual care. This article reviews current treatment options and management strategies for the long-term maintenance of health in patients with bipolar disorder. Particular emphasis is given to the atypical agents and psychosocial strategies aimed at optimizing treatment adherence and long-term outcomes.
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Treatment with aripiprazole is associated with significant reduction of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) scores in youth with schizophrenia, and reductions in items in the negative symptom scores at higher doses (30 mg/day). Significant reductions in the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) have been demonstrated in youth with bipolar disorder. In mixed populations, reductions in the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI-S) have also been demonstrated when compared with treatment with placebo. Head-to-head comparisons are fewer in number, and overall aripiprazole compares favorably with other atypical antipsychotics (ATAs) in the populations studied. Treatment with aripiprazole is reported to have a lower incidence of weight gain, and less elevation of prolactin. At higher doses, it appears more likely to result in extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and tremor.
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The initial enthusiasm for atypical antipsychotics, with a lower incidence of extra pyramidal symptoms, was tempered by the association with metabolic disorders. The presence of metabolic alterations significantly influences morbidity and patients' quality life. We performed this open-study to determine the relationship between antipsychotic efficacy and side effects, especially the impact of various antipsychotics on metabolic parameters after 20-year treatment with atypical (SGA) and typical antipsychotics (FGA).
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The objective of this study was to compare rates of all-cause hospitalization among patients receiving different classes of antipsychotics (SGAs, FGAs, both, or neither) in a large, all-ages sample of both institutionalized and noninstitutionalized Medicare beneficiaries.
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The objective of the study was to examine the efficacy and the degree of adverse effects connected with atypical neuroleptic drugs and haloperidol by using a previously described Bayesian statistical method that includes both direct and indirect comparisons simultaneously.
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Aripiprazole augmentation in a group of chronic schizophrenic outpatients treated with clozapine led to a substantial improvement in clinically significant residual symptoms, such as negative-depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment and quality of life, without worsening the side effect burden.
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This was a retrospective, propensity score-matched cohort study using the Ingenix I3/LabRx integrated insurance claims data set. Patients with bipolar disorder were included if they had >or=180 days of pre-index enrollment in the health plan without atypical antipsychotic exposure. Patients received mood stabilizers and subsequently received adjunctive atypical antipsychotic agents; they were then monitored for up to 90 days after the index antipsychotic prescription. The primary analysis was a Cox proportional hazards analysis to evaluate the time until psychiatric hospitalization comparing adjunctive aripiprazole with ziprasidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone after adjusting for age, sex, and preindex hospitalization.
In total, 345,937 patients who purchased antipsychotics and 1,426,488 unexposed individuals were included in the study. Among the total population, 50,379 individuals subsequently developed incident diabetes. Compared with unexposed individuals, treatment with first- (rate ratio, RR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.49-1.56) as well as second-generation (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.22-1.42) antipsychotics was associated with increased risk of subsequent incident diabetes. The rate of incident diabetes varied substantially between individual second-generation antipsychotic drugs (olanzapine, risperidone clozapine compared with unexposed individuals: low to moderate rate ratio between 1.17 and 1.57; ziprasidone and sertindol: two or more times increased rate ratio; amisulpride, quetiapine and aripiprazole: no significantly increased rate ratio). For both first- and second-generation antipsychotics, the incidence of diabetes increased with the number of prescriptions. Additionally, the incidence of diabetes increased with the number of combined antipsychotic drugs.
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In conclusion, although clinicians will have to have considerable patience before truly novel anti-schizophrenia treatments become obtainable, a number of interesting leads with considerable theoretical potential are being explored. As yet, it is difficult to predict which of these mechanisms will effectively augment the currently available treatments.