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Adalat (Nifedipine)
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Adalat

Adalat is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of hypertension or high blood pressure, angina or chest pain. Adalat acts by relaxing blood vessels (such as veins and arteries), which makes it easier for the heart to pump and reduces its workload.

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Also known as:  Nifedipine.

Description

Adalat is a perfect remedy in struggle against hypertension or high blood pressure, angina or chest pain.

Adalat acts by relaxing blood vessels (such as veins and arteries), which makes it easier for the heart to pump and reduces its workload.

Adalat is also known as Nifedipine, Nicardia, Nifedical, Procardia.

Generic name of Adalat is Nifedipine.

Brand names of Adalat are Adalat CC, Procardia, Procardia XL.

Dosage

Adalat should be taken orally with or without food.

It is better to take Adalat at the same time every day. Take on an empty stomach.

Avoid grapefruit juice during treatment with Adalat.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Adalat suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Adalat and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Adalat are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Adalat if you are allergic to Adalat components.

Do not take Adalat if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Adalat can harm your baby.

Do not use Adalat in combination with salt substitutes or potassium supplements.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Avoid grapefruit juice during treatment with Adalat.

Try to be careful using Adalat if you suffer from kidney disease, liver disease, diseases of the heart or blood vessels (sick sinus syndrome), aortic stenosis, heart failure, low blood pressure, or coronary artery disease.

Do not stop taking Adalat suddenly.

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Neuronal Ca(2+) channels are rapidly inactivated by a mechanism that is termed Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation (CDI). In this study we investigated the influence of intracellular Ca(2+) release on CDI of high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels in rat thalamocortical relay neurons by combining voltage-clamp, Ca(2+) imaging and immunological techniques. Double-pulse protocols revealed CDI, which depended on the length of the conditioning pulses. Caffeine caused a concentration-dependent increase in CDI that was accompanied by an increase in the duration of Ca(2+) transients. Inhibition of ryanodine receptors and endoplasmic Ca(2+) pumps (by thapsigargin or cyclopiazonic acid) resulted in a reduction of CDI. In contrast, inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate receptors by intracellular application of 2-aminoethoxy diphenyl borate or heparin did not influence CDI. The block of transient receptor potential channels by extracellular application of 2-aminoethoxy diphenyl borate, however, resulted in a significant reduction of CDI. The central role of L-type Ca(2+) channels was emphasized by the near-complete block of CDI by nifedipine, an effect only surpassed when Ca(2+) was replaced by Ba(2+) and chelated by 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N',-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). Trains of action potential-like stimuli induced a strong reduction in high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) current amplitude, which was significantly reduced when intracellular Ca(2+) stores were made inoperative by thapsigargin or Ba(2+)/BAPTA. Western blotting revealed expression of L-type Ca(2+) channels in thalamic and hippocampal tissue but not liver tissue. In summary, these results suggest a cross-signalling between L-type Ca(2+) channels and ryanodine receptors that controls the amount of Ca(2+) influx during neuronal activity.

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A meta-analysis reported that nifedipine increased mortality dose-dependently in patients with coronary artery disease. However, there have been few studies (specifically in Asians) on the long-term prognosis of patients treated with calcium antagonists after successful coronary angioplasty (PTCA). The subjects consisted of 583 consecutive patients (461 males, aged 59 +/- 10), who underwent successful elective PTCA between 1985 and 1990. First, they were divided into two groups; the calcium antagonist (+) group (n = 560) and the calcium antagonist (-) group (n = 23), and were evaluated in terms of total survival and cardiac events. Second, the calcium antagonist (+) group was further divided into 4 groups according to calcium antagonist type, i.e., short-acting nifedipine group (n = 156), long-acting nifedipine group (n = 203), diltiazem group (n = 184) and the other group (n = 17), and these groups were evaluated in the same way. The primary end-point was set as death from any cause. Secondary end-points were any cardiac events, including non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass surgery and repeat PTCA. The mean follow-up period was 4.5 +/- 1.8 years. A multivariate analysis was performed with the Cox proportional-hazard model. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the calcium antagonist (-) group had significantly worse prognoses than the calcium antagonist (+) group (p < 0.05), and that there was no significant difference among the prognoses of the four calcium antagonists groups. The multivariate analysis revealed that the use of a calcium antagonist was one of the independent factors positively contributing to the prognosis. The use of any type of calcium antagonist did not increase mortality in patients who underwent successful elective PTCA, rather, it contributed to a favorable outcome.

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Based on this evidence, we examined the role of BDNF release and the impact of L-type VDCCs on the behavioral actions of ketamine.

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The effect of thrombin, collagen, ADP, PAF, PDGF, GRGDS, and the TxA2 mimetic U46619 on CPA-47-cytoplasmic Ca++ transients was evaluated using a Platelet ionized Calcium Aggregometer, after cells were loaded with the photoprotein aequorin.

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Ca2+ imaging and patch-clamp techniques were used to study the effects of serotonin (5-HT) on ionic conductances in rat cortical astrocytes. 1 and 10 microM serotonin caused a transient increase in intracellular calcium (Ca(i)) levels in fura-2AM-loaded cultured astrocytes and in astrocytes acutely isolated and then cultured in horse serum-containing medium for over 24 h. However, the acutely isolated (less than 6 h from isolation) astrocytes, as well as acutely isolated astrocytes cultured in serum-free media, failed to respond to 5-HT by changes in Ca(i). Coinciding with the changes in Ca(i) levels, inward currents were activated by 10 microM 5-HT in cultured, but not in acutely isolated astrocytes. Two separate types of serotonin-induced, small-conductance inward single-channel currents were found. First, in both Ca2+-containing and Ca2+-free media serotonin transiently activated a small-conductance apamin-sensitive channel. Apamin is a specific blocker of the small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (sK(Ca)) When cells were pre-treated with phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 no 5-HT-induced sK(Ca) channel openings were seen, indicating that this channel was activated by Ca2+ released from intracellular stores via IP3. A second type of small inward channel activated later, but only in the presence of external Ca2+. It was inhibited by the L-type Ca2+ channel blockers, nimodipine and nifedipine. Both types of channel activity were inhibited by ketanserin, indicating activation of the 5-HT2A receptor.

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A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted at two centers of Shahed University. One hundred and thirty patients with chronic anal fissure aged 18 to 60 years managed in our clinics were included in this study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixty-five patients received topical nifedipine (TN) and the same number received oral nifedipine (ON).

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These findings suggest that both oral nifedipine and intravenous labetalol are effective for safely reducing blood pressure to target levels in patients with severe pre-eclampsia.

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The effects of the Ca2+ antagonists nifedipine (NF) and diltiazem (DL) and of the cardioselective beta 1-adrenergic blocking agent atenolol (AT) on the hexobarbital (HB) sleeping time and on the activity of some liver drug-metabolizing enzyme systems in male Wistar rats were studied. Two hours after single oral administration, atenolol (150 mg/kg) did not change hexobarbital sleeping time, while nifedipine (50 mg/kg) and diltiazem (30 mg/kg) prolonged it by 171.2 and 99.6%, respectively. Coadministration of atenolol with diltiazem or with nifedipine significantly prolonged hexobarbital sleep by 205 and 283%, respectively. Administered alone, atenolol decreased the ethylmorphine-N-demethylase (EMND) activity, but the amidopyrine-N-demethylase (APND) activity was not changed in any of the treated groups. Atenolol and nifedipine significantly increased aniline-4-hydroxylase (AH) activity and this effect was also observed with the combinations AT + NF and AT + DL. The NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase activity was significantly decreased by nifedipine and diltiazem. Only nifedipine increased the total content of cytochrome P-450 (by 23.8%). Atenolol and diltiazem tended to increase the content of cytochrome b5 which was increased by nifedipine by 97.6%. The same effect was observed with the combinations AT + NF and AT + DL. The results suggest that NF, AT + NF and AT + DL produced the manifested changes in hepatic oxidative metabolism. The decreased EMND activity by atenolol, however, and the prolongation of hexobarbital sleeping time by nifedipine, diltiazem and their coadministration with atenolol did not correlate with enhanced microsomal P-450 and b5 content.

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The data suggest that both nifedipine and interleukin-1 beta play an important role in DIGO via androgen receptor upregulation and that gingival overgrowth is mainly due to collagen accumulation. Flutamide decreases the gene expression and protein production of collagen from dihydropyridine-induced overgrowth cells.

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A voltage-activated Ca++ channel has been identified in the apical membranes of cultured rabbit proximal tubule cells using the patch-clamp technique. With 105 mm CaCl2 solution in the pipette and 180 NaAsp in the bath, the channel had a conductance of 10.4 +/- 1.0 pS (n = 8) in on-cell patches, and 9.8 +/- 1.1 pS (n = 8) in inside-out patches. In both on-cell and inside-out patches, the channel is active by membrane depolarization. For this channel, the permeation to Ba++ and Ca++ is highly selective over Na+ and K+ (PCa(Ba):PNa(K) >200:1). The sensitivity to dihydropyridines is similar to that for L-type channels where the channel was blocked by nifedipine (10 microM), and activated by Bay K 8644 (5 microM). When activated by Bay K 8644, the channel showed subconductance levels. Treatment with forskolin (12.5 microM), phorbol ester (1 microM), or stretching (40 cm water) did not activate this channel. These results indicate that this Ca++ channel is mostly regulated by membrane voltage, and appears to be an epithelial class of L-type Ca++ channel. As such, it may participate in calcium reabsorption during periods of enhanced sodium reabsorption, or calcium signaling in volume regulation, where membrane depolarization occurs for prolonged periods.

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The therapeutic use of progesterone following traumatic brain injury has recently entered phase III clinical trials as a means of neuroprotection. Although it has been hypothesized that progesterone protects against calcium overload following excitotoxic shock, the exact mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of progesterone have yet to be determined. We found that therapeutic concentrations of progesterone to be neuroprotective against depolarization-induced excitotoxicity in cultured striatal neurons. Through use of calcium imaging, electrophysiology and the measurement of changes in activity-dependent gene expression, progesterone was found to block calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels, leading to alterations in the signaling of the activity-dependent transcription factors NFAT and CREB. The effects of progesterone were highly specific to this steroid hormone, although they did not appear to be receptor mediated. In addition, progesterone did not inhibit AMPA or NMDA receptor signaling. This analysis regarding the effect of progesterone on calcium signaling provides both a putative mechanism by which progesterone acts as a neuroprotectant, as well as affords a greater appreciation for its potential far-reaching effects on cellular function.

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adalat 30mg tablets 2017-09-10

Transfected Caco-2 cells, Caco-2 TC7 cells, and wild-type Caco-2 cells Vasotec 10 Mg grown onto Millicell were used. We determined the morphological characteristics of transfected cell monolayers using light and transmission electron microscope. We determined the transport and metabolic capabilities of the transfected cells, TC7 cells, and wild-type cells with a variety of drugs, nutrients, and marker compounds.

adalat medication nifedipine 2017-08-23

Thapsigargin (TG), a plant-derived sesquiterpene lactone, inhibits several isoforms of both the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases. Thus, intracellular Ca2+ stores found in the endoplasmic reticulum can be released by this compound. The mammalian sperm acrosome reaction (AR) depends on influx of extracellular Ca2+. However, few reports have presented evidence for the involvement of putative Ca2+ stores and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in the AR. Thus, we designed experiments to evaluate the effect of TG on the hamster sperm AR. Thapsigargin stimulated-in a dose-dependent manner-the AR of spermatozoa previously capacitated for at least 3 hr, not affecting sperm motility. A maximal stimulatory effect was apparent 3 min after addition of TG to spermatozoa previously capacitated for 4 hr and was dependent on external Ca2+ since ethyleneglycol-bis-(b-amino-ethyl ether) N,N'-tetra-acetic acid added 1 min before TG completely inhibited AR stimulation. The Ca2+ channel blockers diltiazem and nifedipine also abolished the TG-stimulatory effect when added to capacitated spermatozoa 10 min before the inhibitor. In addition, the trypsin inhibitors p-nitrophenyl-p'-guanidine-benzoate hydrochloride and benzamidine Lipitor Pill added to the sperm suspensions 10 min before TG inhibited by 70-80% the TG-induced AR. These results indicate that putative Ca2+ stores release may be involved in stimulation of extracellular Ca2+ influx required for the occurrence of the AR. In addition, a sperm trypsin-like protease may be part of the mechanism by which TG induces the hamster sperm AR.

adalat tablets 5mg 2015-12-26

Despite clinical and experimental interest in the osmotic opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the mechanism underlying the phenomenon remain undetermined. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of intracellular Ca2+ change in brain microvascular endothelial cells subjected to hyperosmotic stress. Cultured rat brain capillary endothelial cells were obtained by two-step enzymatic purification. Intracellular Ca2+ was measured by a confocal laser scanning microscope. After exposing the endothelial cells to 1.4 M mannitol for 30 seconds, the Aldactone Brand Name change of intracellular Ca2+ concentration was monitored. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration increased rapidly and reached its peak value within 10 seconds after the application of mannitol. The Ca2+ concentration returned to the basal level within 200 seconds. A calcium channel blocker nifedipine (100 microM, 10 microM) did not block the increase. A specific blocker (KB-R7943) of Na+/Ca2+ exchange did not affect the rapid elevation of intracellular Ca2+. However, it blocked the return phase almost completely. The results indicated that the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger pumped out the increased intracellular Ca2+ during the return phase. Reversible osmotic disruption and reconstruction of the BBB is not due to simple mechanical shrinkage of the endothelial cells but is due to the intracellular Ca(2+)-activated complex mechanism. The manipulation of the reconstruction phase, which depends on Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, may have clinical implications.

adalat cc medication 2015-05-01

The pharynx of Caenorhabditis elegans is a tubular muscle controlled by its own set of neurons. We developed a technique to voltage clamp the pharyngeal muscle and demonstrate by analyzing mutants that the pharyngeal action potential is regulated by three major voltage-gated currents, conducted by a T-type calcium channel CCA-1, an L-type calcium channel EGL-19 and a potassium channel EXP-2. We show that CCA-1 exhibits T-type calcium channel properties: activation at -40 mV and rapid inactivation. Our results suggest that CCA-1's role is to accelerate the action potential upstroke in the pharyngeal muscle in response to excitatory inputs. Similarly to other L-type channels, EGL-19 activates at high voltages and inactivates slowly; thus it may maintain the plateau phase of the action potential. EXP-2 is a potassium channel of the kV family that shows inward rectifier properties when expressed in 600 Mg Voltaren Xenopus laevis oocytes. We show that endogenous EXP-2 is not a true inward rectifier--it conducts large outward currents at potentials up to +20 mV and is therefore well suited to trigger rapid repolarization at the end of the action potential plateau phase. Our results suggest that EXP-2 is a potassium channel with unusual properties that uses a hyperpolarization threshold to activate a regenerative hyperpolarizing current.

adalat r tablet 2015-02-01

We initially performed a functional study using an organ bath system to investigate the effect of AVL extract on isolated porcine basilar artery. We Propecia Pills then measured the change in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration elicited by AVL using cultured smooth muscle cells loaded with the Ca(2+) indicator fluo-4. Finally, using HPLC, we determined the active components in AVL.

adalat drug 2017-09-19

Antivascular agents that act by destabilizing microtubules, such as ZD6126 (N-acetylcolchinol-O-phosphate), are associated with adverse cardiovascular effects, including transient hypertension, cardiac ischemia, myocardial infarction, and increases in circulating levels of markers of cardiac damage (e.g., troponins). We investigated mechanisms underlying these effects of ZD6126 in rats by continuously monitoring their heart rate and blood pressure and by assessing heart histopathology and plasma troponin T levels. ZD6126 induced acute transient hemodynamic changes (hypertension and delayed tachycardia), which were associated with statistically significant increases in circulating troponin T levels (median level 3 hours after treatment with vehicle or 12.5 mg/kg ZD6126: <9 pg/mL and 563 pg/mL, respectively; P <.001 [two-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test]) and in the incidence of left ventricular myocardial fiber necrosis (incidence 24 hours after treatment with vehicle or 12.5 mg/kg ZD6126: 0/10 rats and 9/10 rats, respectively; P <.001 [two-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test]). Pretreatment of rats with atenolol and nifedipine ameliorated the acute hemodynamic changes and prevented ZD6126-induced increases in both troponin T and myocardial necrosis but did not prevent ZD6126-induced Ventolin Syrup tumor necrosis in an Hras5 tumor xenograft model in nude rats. Our findings suggest that ZD6126-induced acute hemodynamic changes are a prerequisite for cardiac damage in rats.

adalat 60 mg 2017-11-25

Cyclophosphamide induces a severe haemorrhagic cystitis characterized by bladder overactivity. The study was conducted to examine effects of a phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor rolipram on bladder overactivity in rats with cyclophosphamide treatment. 42 female Wistar rats were used. 30 rats received a single i.p. injection of cyclophosphamide, and after 72 h, bladder function was evaluated by (1) in vitro preparations of whole bladders and (2) cystometry with continuous saline infusion under urethane anesthesia. Cyclophosphamide-treatment dramatically potentiated the basal spontaneous contractions of isolated whole bladders compared to control rats. Atropine, guanethidine or suramin was ineffective on the spontaneous contractions whereas nifedipine completely abolished. Rolipram (5-80 microM) induced a significant concentration-dependent decrease on the amplitude, frequency (contractions/min) and area under the curve of spontaneous contractions. Carbachol elicited phasic contractions superimposed on a tonic contraction. Rolipram caused a relaxation on the tonic contraction whereas it could not affect the phasic contractions induced by carbachol. In anesthetized rats, during continuous infusion cystometry, intercontraction interval was significantly Depakote Overdose Levels shorter in cyclophosphamide-injected rats than in control rats. Rolipram at 5-40 microM has no significant effect on the intercontraction interval and contraction pressure while it significantly decreased pressure threshold. At 80 microM, it significantly decreased the intercontraction interval and contraction pressure. In conclusion, PDE4 inhibitor rolipram caused a significant decrease on the amplitude, frequency and area under the curve of basal spontaneous contractions in cyclophosphamide-treated rats, at doses that have no effect on the carbachol-induced phasic contractions and cystometric parameters. PDE4 inhibitors may be considered as an attractive strategy for the treatment of cyclophosphamide-induced bladder overactivity.

adalat 40 mg 2015-01-05

This study was designed to investigate whether combination therapy Lopressor Pill with metoprolol and nifedipine provides a greater anti-ischemic effect than does monotherapy in individual patients with stable angina pectoris.

adalat xl dosage 2015-01-18

We investigated the effects of bepridil and 3',4'-dichlorobenzamil (DCB), 2 blockers of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, in rat striatal spiny neurons by utilizing intracellular recordings in brain slice preparations to compare the action of these drugs on the membrane potential changes induced either by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) or Prednisone 60 Mg by excitatory amino acids (EAAs).

adalat r dose 2016-07-05

The rats had significant gingival overgrowth induced by the Starlix Diabetes Medication administration of nifedipine. The space between the submandibular incisors and the width of buccal gingiva of maxillary left first molar were macroscopically measured. The buccal gingiva was microscopically examined.

adalat watch online 2015-02-24

Our objective was to determine the gender differences in the relation between the echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodeling and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic stable angina. The baseline ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume, and end-systolic volume were assessed in 7,016 patients in the study "A Coronary disease Trial Investigating Outcomes with Nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system" (ACTION). All-cause and cardiac mortality and incident heart failure were determined after a median of 5.0 years. Cox proportional hazard models were fit to determine the effect of gender on the relation between the echocardiographic parameters and clinical outcomes (interaction p <0.10). The association between the EF and mortality differed significantly between men and women, with women demonstrating a marked increase in risk as the EF decreased, compared to men (interaction p = 0.03, adjusted p = 0.07). Also, a significant interaction by gender was seen for the association between the end-systolic volume and the risk of heart failure (interaction p = 0.01, adjusted p = 0.05). In conclusion, the relation between EF and mortality differed according to gender in patients with chronic coronary disease, with women having a greater risk of adverse outcomes as the EF decreased. Similar findings were observed with the end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes and the risk of heart failure. These findings may reflect inherent gender-based differences in ischemic heart disease and cardiac remodeling and might help to identify women at high risk.

adalat generic name 2015-10-05

The clinical course in primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is improved by calcium channel blocker therapy in those with a favorable hemodynamic response during a trial of high-dose oral nifedipine. Although trials of nifedipine are performed only in patients who demonstrate pulmonary vasodilator reserve to short-acting agents, this response does not predict the safety of nifedipine treatment, which can result in severe first-dose hypotension and death.

adalat 5 mg 2017-03-21

Contraction of skeletal muscle is triggered by the release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in response to depolarization of the muscle membrane. Depolarization is known to elicit a conformational change of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) in the tubular membrane that controls in a time- and voltage-dependent manner the opening of the ryanodine receptor (RyR), the SR Ca(2+) release channel. At rest, it is assumed that RyRs are kept in a closed state imposed by the repressive action of DHPRs; however, a direct control of the RyR gating by the DHPR has up to now never been demonstrated in resting adult muscle. In this study, we monitored slow changes in SR Ca(2+) content using the Ca(2+) indicator fluo-5N loaded in the SR of voltage-clamped mouse muscle fibres. We first show that external Ca(2+) removal induced a reversible SR Ca(2+) efflux at -80 mV and prevented SR Ca(2+) refilling following depolarization-evoked SR Ca(2+) depletion. The dihydropyridine compound nifedipine induced similar effects. The rate of SR Ca(2+) efflux was also shown to be controlled in a time- and voltage-dependent manner within a membrane potential range more negative than -50 mV. Finally, intracellular addition of ryanodine produced an irreversible SR Ca(2+) efflux and kept the SR in a highly depleted state following depolarization-evoked SR Ca(2+) depletion. The fact that resting SR Ca(2+) efflux is modulated by conformational changes of DHPRs induced by external Ca(2+), nifedipine and voltage demonstrates that DHPRs exert an active control on gating of RyRs in resting skeletal muscle.

adalat tablets 2015-01-12

Tranilast did not interfere with cell proliferation at the low concentrations. MMP-1 concentration significantly increased at the lower doses of tranilast up to about 2-fold compared to controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, higher doses of tranilast significantly decreased activity to 30% and 20%, respectively. MMP-1 secretion was inhibited significantly by phenytoin, nifedipine, and cyclosporin A and the depressed MMP-1 recovered to the control level with tranilast. The amount of secretion from normal and periodontitis gingival fibroblast specimens did not differ, but that from the overgrown gingiva was significantly less than the other types. Moreover, TGF-beta secretion was significantly inhibited by 300 microM of tranilast.

adalat 90 mg 2015-06-04

Although glycine receptors (GlyRs) are responsible for the main spinal inhibitory responses in adult vertebrates, in the embryo they have been reported to mediate depolarizing responses, which can sometimes activate dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channels. However, these channels are not the only targets of dihydropyridines (DHPs), and we questioned whether GlyRs might be directly modulated by DHPs. By whole-cell recording of cultured spinal neurons, we investigated modulation of glycine responses by the calcium channel antagonists, nifedipine, nitrendipine, nicardipine and (R)-Bay K 8644, and by the calcium channel, agonist (S)-Bay K 8644. At concentrations between 1 and 10 microM, all these DHPs could block glycine responses, even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. The block was stronger at higher glycine concentrations, and increased with time during each glycine application. Nicardipine blocked GABAA responses from the same neurons in a similar manner. In addition to their blocking effects, nitrendipine and nicardipine potentiated the peak responses to low glycine concentrations. Both effects of extracellular nitrendipine on glycine responses persisted when the drug was present in the intracellular solution. Thus, these modulations are related neither to calcium channel modulation nor to possible intracellular effects of DHPs. Another type of calcium antagonist, verapamil (10-50 microM), also blocked glycine responses. Our results suggest that some of the effects of calcium antagonists, including the neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of DHPs, might result partly from their interactions with ligand-gated chloride channels.