With hydatid cyst, the skeletal muscles and diaphragm are rarely affected, and hepatic and pulmonary hydatid cysts are far more common. We report a case with an unusual localization of diaphragmatic and serratus muscle anterior hydatidosis that occurred simultaneously.
A young soldier was brought to the emergency of Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Multan in a collapsed state with two day's history of chest pain. He was resuscitated and placed on ventilator. While the rest of examinations were normal, ultrasound examination of the abdomen revealed a cystic mass in liver most likely to be hydatid. The patient was fully conscious the next day and was put on tab albendazole (200 mg BID). CT scan of the abdomen revealed a large cystic mass having inner undulating wall with watery content diagnosed as hydatid cyst in right lobe of liver. Since anaphylaxis was considered consequent to hydatid cyst perforation, surgery was carried out. Approximately 100 ml of haemorrhagic fluid was aspirated and 10% hypertonic saline instilled. After re-aspiration, cyst cavity was opened and endocyst completely removed. Portion of ectocyst projecting away from the liver edge was also excised. He made an uneventful postoperative recovery and was discharged with the advice to continue tab albendazole 200mg BID for four weeks and weekly follow-up in surgical OPD. He is doing well now.
Ocular infection with microsporidia, although classically occurring in patients with HIV infection, may occur rarely in healthy individuals, especially if previously treated with systemic immune suppression or topical steroids. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a contact lens wearer with atypical multifocal diffuse epithelial keratitis.
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The Anthelmintic activities of different extracts of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers were evaluated separately on adult Indian earthworm (Pheritima posthuma). It was found that petroleum ether (PECD), chloroform (CECD), ethanol (EECD), aqueous extract (AECD) of C. dactylon showed anthelmintic activities at the concentration of 5 mg/ml of each. The anthelmintic effects of PECD, CECD, EECD and AECD at 10-mg/ml concentrations were comparable with that of the effects produced by the reference standards, albendazole (10 mg/ml) and piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml).
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These results extend the previously reported superior sensitivity of the FTS to areas with low residual infection rates following MDA, and this could affect mapping and post-MDA survey results in adults. However, our findings suggest that results of transmission assessment surveys (TAS) performed in school-aged children are likely to be similar with both tests.
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Hydatid disease, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is a common parasitic infection of the liver. Disseminated intra-abdominal hydatid disease may occur with the rupture of the hydatid cyst into the peritoneal cavity, producing secondary echinococcosis. But primary hydatid cyst in the pelvis is rare. We report a case of bilateral hydatid cyst of the pelvis in a 53 years old woman presented with adnexal cystic mass.
A 49-year-old female patient who had undergone surgery for hepatic echinococcosis five years previously was admitted with haemoptysis. MRI angiography showed total occlusion of the left inferior pulmonary artery. Echocardiography showed no pulmonary hypertension. The patient underwent pneumonectomy and cysts in the left pulmonary artery were observed. Pulmonary artery involvement should be considered in patients who have undergone hepatic cyst surgery if haemoptysis is the first presenting symptom, especially in endemic regions for hydatidosis.
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Echinococcosis of the musculoskeletal system is found in 0,5-4% of the patients suffering from hydatid disease. We describe a case of primary hydatid cyst of the posterior thigh in a 73 year-old woman, who presented with a painless mass. The diagnosis was set intraoperatively after biopsy of the cyst wall. A wide excision of the cyst with part of the attached muscles was performed. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. A postoperative CT-scan of the thorax and abdomen revealed no signs of other echinococcal cysts. Thus, the case was considered as a primary hydatid cyst of the thigh. The patient received adjuvant oral treatment with albendazole for six months. The patient remains in good general condition and without any signs of recurrence, one year after the operation. Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any cystic mass detected in the thigh, especially if occurs in regions where the disease in endemic.
Biomechanical properties of cancer cells have been proposed as promising biomarkers to investigate cancer progression. Cytoskeletal reorganization alters these characteristics in different grades of cancer cells. In the present study based on the micropipette aspiration method, whole body evaluation for two different colon cancer cells was performed to determine viscoelastic parameters of the cells. A finite element model was developed for verification of experiments and predicting some behaviors of cells. Western blot analysis and fluorescence intensity for actin microfilaments and microtubules were performed to measure cell content of the proteins. It was illustrated that the proportion of microtubules and actin microfilaments is different in grade I and grade IV colon cancer cells in a manner that microtubules attain an effectual role in progressive reorganization of cytoskeleton in transition from nonaggressive to malignant phenotypes in cancer cells. Furthermore, it was concluded that larger instantaneous Young's modulus value for high grade cells is related to the existence of extensively build-up actin networks at the cell cortex. Based on the cell mechanics results, a simple parameter is suggested for sorting different grades of colon cancer cells.
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The antimicrosporidial activity of albendazole was tested on Nosema bombycis in vitro in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and in vivo in Heliocoverpa zea larvae and pupae. Significant reductions in the percentage of infected S. frugiperda cells were obtained using a concentration of 5.3 micrograms/ml albendazole in tissue culture medium but recrudescence occurred after the drug was withdrawn from the cultures. Significant reductions in the number of spores harvested from 6th-instar larvae or pupae were obtained when doses of 0.2 to 4.0 mg were incorporated into the diet but, with the lower doses, some resurgence of infection occurred in pupae after cessation of drug intake. Established infections were almost eliminated from 6th-instar larvae and pupae after consumption of 2 or 4 mg albendazole and infections were not established at all when 4 mg was consumed concurrently with the infective spores. Even at the highest dose albendazole had no deleterious effect on the growth and viability of H. zea. Clumped chromatin in the nuclei of meronts, revealed by electron microscopy, reflected the selective anti-tubulin activity of albendazole and there was massive disorganization of sporogonic development.