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The Study group on HF Awareness and Perception in Europe (SHAPE) surveyed randomly selected C (2041), I/G (1881), and PCP (2965) in France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. Each physician completed a 32-item questionnaire about the diagnosis and treatment of HF (left ventricular ejection fraction <40%). This report provides an analysis of HF awareness among C, I/G, and PCP. Seventy-one per cent I/G and 92% C use echocardiography, and 43% I/G and 82% C use echo-Doppler as a routine diagnostic test (both P < 0.0001). In contrast, 75% PCP use signs and symptoms to diagnose HF. Fewer I/G would use an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor in >90% of their patients (64 vs. 82% C, P < 0.0001), whereas only 47% PCP would routinely prescribe an ACE-inhibitor. Worsening HF was considered a risk of ACE-inhibitor therapy by 35% PCP. I/G and PCP consistently do not prescribe target ACE-inhibitor doses (P < 0.0001 vs. C). Only 39% I/G would use a beta-blocker in >50% of their patients (vs. 73% C, P < 0.0001). Also, only 5% PCP would always, and 35% often, prescribe a beta-blocker and reach target doses in only 7-29%. Moreover, 34% PCP and 26% I/G vs. 11% C (P < 0.0001) do not start a beta-blocker in patients with mild HF, who are already on an ACE-inhibitor and are on diuretic. In mild, stable HF, 39% PCP and 18% I/G would only prescribe diuretics, vs. 7% C (P < 0.0001). In patients with worsening HF in sinus rhythm and on an optimal ACE-inhibitor, beta-blockade and diuretics, significantly more C would add spironolactone, but I/G would more often add digoxin.
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This is a two-center study conducted in university-based hypertension clinics directed by clinical hypertension specialists. Forty-six patients with resistant hypertension and stages 2 or 3 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 56.5 + or - 16.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) were evaluated for safety and efficacy of aldosterone blockade added to preexisting BP-lowering regimens. All patients were on three mechanistically complementary antihypertensive agents including a diuretic and a renin-angiotensin system blocker. Patients were evaluated after a median of 45 treatment days. The primary endpoint was change in systolic BP. Secondary endpoints included change in serum potassium, creatinine, eGFR, diastolic BP and tolerability.
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Chromatography of steroidal spirolactones on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 under selected pH conditions allowed efficient separation of these compounds from other steroids and many of the endogenous components of human urine. The spirolactones were recovered in high yield, mostly over 90%. Lipophilic-gel chromatography provided a useful method for group fractionation of mixtures of these spirolactones with high recoveries (generally over 90%), unaffected by the presence of endogenous material from normal human urine.
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Eplerenone (a selective aldosterone blocker) or vehicle (control), was given to male Wistar rats (50 mg/kg, twice daily) for 7 days before unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and for an additional 28 days after surgery. Body weight, blood pressure, renal histo-morphology, immune-staining for macrophages, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, α-smooth muscle actin, and serum and urine markers of renal function and oxidative stress were determined for both groups on 7, 14, and 28 days after surgery.
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Hyperstimulation appeared in one case on the 10th 11th day after ovulation, allowing by its presence the very precocious diagnosis of successful fecondation. The study of blood coagulation revealed that hypercoagulability was mainly related to hyperactivity of the thrombocytes and of the coagulation proteins. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is discussed. Increase in the permeability of the capillary vessels and hypovolemia seem to be responsible for the main accidents. Unfortunately as we have no real mean of decreasing the permeability of the capillary vessels, the treatment can be directed only against hypovolemia and its results. The infusion of macromolecular fluids, the restriction of sodium and water intake, together with the prescription of spironolactone have been successfully employed in those three cases.
In this open study, the potassium-sparing diuretic spironolactone/altizide decreases LVM index in hypertensive patients, who were selected for follow-up because they had echocardiographic LVH and because their BP had normalised during an initial 2-month treatment period.
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In the ARB-treated group, aldosterone concentrations remained unchanged (1.10 +/- 0.20 nmol/l, compared with 1.17 +/- 0.46 nmol/l in the control group), whereas systolic blood pressure (178 +/- 9 mmHg), left ventricular weight (0.372 +/- 0.035 g/100 g body weight), expression of collagen mRNA, and cardiac interstitial and perivascular fibrosis all decreased significantly compared with the control group (systolic blood pressure: 222 +/- 10 mmHg, P < 0.05; left ventricular weight: 0.483 +/- 0.021 g/100 g body weight, P < 0.05). Although blood pressure (217 +/- 9 mmHg) and left ventricular weight (0.467 +/- 0.027 g/100 g body weight) remained unchanged in the group receiving spironolactone, the expression of both types of collagen mRNA and cardiac interstitial and perivascular fibrosis showed a significant decrease compared with the vehicle-treated group. In the rats receiving combined treatment with the ARB and spironolactone, left ventricular weight (0.352 +/- 0.005 g/100 g body weight, P < 0.05), expression of collagen mRNA, and cardiac interstitial and perivascular fibrosis all showed a further improvement compared with both the ARB and spironolactone groups.
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The time of follow-up was from 2 to 3 years and the average was 29 months. In the treatment group, the rate of recurrence of esophageal varices was 19.0% (8/42) and the average time was 30 months; the incidence of esophageal variceal bleeding was 11.9% (5/42) and 2 patients died. In the control group, the rate of recurrence of esophageal varices was 43.3% (13/30) and the average time was 18 months; the incidence of esophageal variceal bleeding was 36.7% (11/30) and 7 patients died. The therapeutic efficacy of the treatment group was much superior to that of the control group.
The relative bioavailability was 99.2 ± 11.6% and 97.6 ± 7.4% under fasting and fed condition, respectively. The 90% confidence intervals of the adjusted geometric mean ratio (test/reference) of Cmax, AUC0-tlast, and AUC0-∞ were 89.7-113.8%, 93.9-103.3%, and 90.0-103.0% in fasting study and 87.7-102.3%, 95.1-99.5%, and 94.1-98.9% in fed study, respectively.
Personal, social, and medical factors unique to individual patients have a bearing on the efficacy of specific antihypertensive agents and on the frequency and severity of side effects. The factors relate to age, sex, occupation, potential for adherence to a prescribed program of therapy, and associated health problems. The importance of a simple, inexpensive program is emphasized.
Prior studies have linked renoprotective effects of estrogens to G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1) and suggest that aldosterone may also activate GPER-1. Here, the role of GPER-1 in murine renal tissue was further evaluated by examining its anatomical distribution, subcellular distribution and steroid binding specificity. Dual immunofluorescent staining using position-specific markers showed that GPER-1 immunoreactivity primarily resides in distal convoluted tubules and the Loop of Henle (stained with Tamm-Horsfall Protein-1). Lower GPER-1 expression was observed in proximal convoluted tubules marked with megalin, and GPER-1 was not detected in collecting ducts. Plasma membrane fractions prepared from whole kidney tissue or HEK293 cells expressing recombinant human GPER-1 (HEK-GPER-1) displayed high-affinity, specific [(3)H]-17β-estradiol ([(3)H]-E2) binding, but no specific [(3)H]-aldosterone binding. In contrast, cytosolic preparations exhibited specific binding to [(3)H]-aldosterone but not to [(3)H]-E2, consistent with the subcellular distribution of GPER-1 and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in these preparations. Aldosterone and MR antagonists, spironolactone and eplerenone, failed to compete for specific [(3)H]-E2 binding to membranes of HEK-GPER-1 cells. Furthermore, aldosterone did not increase [(35)S]-GTP-γS binding to membranes of HEK-GPER-1 cells, indicating that it is not involved in G protein signaling mediated through GPER-1. During the secretory phases of the estrus cycle, GPER-1 is upregulated on cortical epithelia and localized to the basolateral surface during proestrus and redistributed intracellularly during estrus. GPER-1 is down-modulated during luteal phases of the estrus cycle with significantly less receptor on the surface of renal epithelia. Our results demonstrate that GPER-1 is associated with specific estrogen binding and not aldosterone binding and that GPER-1 expression is modulated during the estrus cycle which may suggest a physiological role for GPER-1 in the kidney during reproduction.
The incidence of falls fell from 53 in 2011 to 29 in 2012, and there were no fall-related proximal femoral fractures for 3 years after the introduction of NY-mode diuretic therapy. We also found statistically significant differences in muscle and intracellular water volumes in our elderly participants: those with higher care requirements or lower levels of independence had lower muscle or water volumes.
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This article examines the emerging role of the heart failure nurse and the responsibilities and educational and training requirements surrounding such a role. There may be variations in the role and its responsibilities in different health care settings. However the principles are similar and include: history taking, carrying out clinical assessment and making appropriate decisions about patient management within the context of practice. An example of this is nurse supervision of adjusting and titration of medication in a clinic setting or in the patient's own home. A major challenge to this role is defining the limitations and scope of practice. Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are generally a frail, elderly population, and often have significant other co-morbidities. They can be on multiple medications and are frequently prescribed sub-optimal doses of evidence-based medication. Many patients are not managed by specialists, thus creating a huge potential for improved management.
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Transient prepubertal exposure to ARB or MR-ant, but not vasodilator, confers protection against the later development of diabetic nephropathy and involves blood pressure-independent protective mechanisms.