We wished to determine whether the acute toxic effects of oxidized LDL are attenuated in aortas isolated from rats chronically treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. In aortic rings incubated with human oxidized LDL (300 microg/mL), the endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were attenuated, but not those to A23187 and to nitroprusside. This toxic effect of oxidized LDL was completely prevented in preparations coincubated with oxidized LDL and the nitric oxide (NO) precursor L-arginine (0.3 mmol/L). In aortas isolated from rats orally treated for 6 weeks with 10 mg/kg ramipril (group 1) or 1 mg/kg ramipril (group 2), this toxic effect of oxidized LDL was also markedly attenuated. In contrast, in aortas isolated from rats cotreated with ramipril (10 mg/kg) for 6 weeks and subcutaneous injections of Hoe 140 (a B2 kinin antagonist), 500 microg/kg per day for the last 2 weeks (group 3) or from rats orally treated for 6 weeks with losartan (an AT1-type angiotensin II receptor antagonist), 20 mg/kg (group 4), the inhibitory effect of oxidized LDL on acetylcholine-induced relaxations was similar to that observed in the control group (group 5). Moreover, long-term treatment with ramipril increased relaxations to acetylcholine in groups 1 and 2 and also relaxations to A23187 and aortic cGMP content in group 1, suggesting an enhanced NO availability. Thus, the protective effect of long-term ACE inhibition against the acute vascular toxicity of oxidized LDL is bradykinin dependent and seems to involve a facilitation of NO release via endothelial B2 kinin receptors.
Based on these results, it is suggested that for the ONTARGET patients, the use of telmisartan instead of ramipril increases costs by 6.3%. These findings suggest that the choice to put patients on telmisartan should be justified based on the patient?s susceptibility to specific adverse events to minimize the cost implications.
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The study was a multi-centre, non-comparative, Open-label, observational study conducted in 36 centres in five sub-Saharan African countries, namely Cameroon, Congo Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Madagascar and Nigeria. Four hundred and forty-nine men and women 18 years of age or older with hypertension not controlled by an ACE inhibitor, a diuretic or any other monotherapy or anti-hypertensive combination not containing a diuretic in a fixed dose were considered eligible for inclusion in this eight-week study. The study consisted of three visits, visit one (V1) at baseline, visit two (V2) after four weeks and visit three (V3) after eight weeks.
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Six-week-old non-diabetic db/+ mice and diabetic db/db mice received either normal drinking water or water supplemented with coenzyme Q(10) for 10 weeks. Endpoint cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and catheterisation. Ventricular tissue was collected for histology, gene expression and protein analysis.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the anti-proteinuric effect of ramipril and verapamil in patients with steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Twenty one (21) cases of steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome were randomized to receive ramipril (11) and verapamil (10) and were followed up for 12 months; monthly for the 1st 3 months and then every 3 months for the remaining study period. The degree of reduction of proteinuria, blood pressure, serum creatinine, serum albumin and side effects were noted between the two groups. The comparison within the groups over different time periods was made using paired 't' test and between the groups for specific time period by unpaired 't' test. The level of significance was taken as 5% or below.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are largely employed for treating patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD), but their efficacy may be negatively affected by concomitant administration of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), with some difference among the different compounds.
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The combination of suboptimal doses of TEL and RAM with an 8 : 1 ratio has the greatest effect on cerebral circulation and could represent well tolerated and efficient treatment of cerebral ischemia and stroke.
Life-long HRA-induced ACE inhibition protects against hypertension-induced renal damages in SHR-SP. This is associated with a doubling of the lifespan in these animals.
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to reduce the risk of coronary events in various patient groups and to prevent the development of atherosclerosis in animal models. It has been hypothesized that the clinical benefits of ACE inhibitors may, therefore, be mediated by effects on atherosclerosis.
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Spinal cord injury patients may develop proteinuria as a result of glomerulosclerosis due to urosepsis, hydronephrosis, vesicoureteric reflux, and renal calculi. Proteinuria in turn contributes to progression of kidney disease. We report one paraplegic and two tetraplegic patients, who developed recurrent urine infections, urinary calculi, and hydronephrosis. These patients required several urological procedures (nephrostomy, cystoscopy and ureteric stenting, ureteroscopy and lithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy). These patients had not received antimuscarinic drugs nor had they undergone video-urodynamics. Proteinuria was detected only at a late stage, as testing for proteinuria was not performed during follow-up visits. Urine electrophoresis showed no monoclonal bands in any; Serum glomerular basement membrane antibody screen was negative. Serum neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies screen by fluorescence was negative. All patients were prescribed Ramipril 2.5 mg daily and there was no further deterioration of renal function. Spinal cord injury patients, who did not receive antimuscarinic drugs to reduce intravesical pressure, are at high risk for developing reflux nephropathy. When such patients develop glomerulosclerosis due to recurrent urosepsis, renal calculi, or hydronephrosis, risk of proteinuria is increased further.
Long-term treatment with ramipril had a beneficial effect on atherosclerosis progression. Vitamin E had a neutral effect on atherosclerosis progression.
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1) Short-term endoscopic sclerotherapy alone resulted in significant elevation of portal vein kinetic pressure, wall stress index and flow volume (P < 0.01) and non-significant increase in the total portal circulation resistance index (P > 0.05) and significantly decreased portal vein compliance and distensibility indices (P < 0.05); 2) Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduced the maximum and average portal velocities, the portal flow volume, total portal circulation resistance index and increased portal vein compliance and distensibility indices, hence they reduced the portal vein kinetic pressure significantly in group IV (P < 0.05 for the flow volume and P < 0.01 for other indices); 3) The only side effect encountered was allergic cough (in 8.33% of patients). No effects were noticed on the pulse, systolic, diastolic or mean blood pressures or Child-Pugh Score of liver disease.