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Data was collected from a single wave postal survey of all practicing orthopaedic surgeons in New Zealand. Literature review was performed using web-based online search engines and library resources.
A randomized, prospective, single-blinded trial. One hundred sixty-four patients requiring complex septorhinoplasty surgery were recruited sequentially from the waiting lists of the 2 senior authors. Power was calculated at 80% at the 5% significance level. Patients randomized to the prophylactic arm of the study received three 1200-mg intravenous doses of amoxicillin-clavulanate, given at induction of anesthesia and at 6 and 12 hours postoperatively. Patients in the postoperative antibiotic arm received a 7-day course of 375 mg of amoxicillin-clavulanate 3 times a day. Patients allergic to penicillin were given erythromycin. Clinical and microbiological evidence of infection on the 10th postoperative day was categorized as either minor (vestibulitis) or major (nasal or septal cellulitis, septal abscess, secondary hemorrhage, or donor-site infection) infections.
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Although the 7-day PPI-containing triple anti-H. pylori therapy is not inferior to the 14-day therapy, neither treatment duration provides acceptable eradication rate reaching 90% in per-protocol analysis. New combination regimen with higher efficacy should be developed as a first-line eradication therapy for H. pylori in Korea.
Antibiotic treatment is not recommended for acute bronchitis in immunocompetent patients in industrialised countries. Whether these recommendations are relevant to the developing world and to immunocompromised patients is unknown.
Subjects with an endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis, positive urease test, and a histological diagnosis of chronic gastritis were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: AOC7 (1000 mg amoxicillin, 20 mg omeprazole, and 500 mg clarithromycin twice daily for 7 days), FOT4 (200 mg furazolidone, 20 mg omeprazole, and 500 mg tetracycline twice daily for 4 days) and FOT7 (the same treatment as the FOT4 group but for 7 days). Sensitivity to these antibiotics was determined in all isolates recovered from culture. The efficacy of eradication was assessed 8 weeks after the end-of-treatment by the 14C-urea breath test.
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The 3-week regimen significantly improved the eradication rate as compared with the 1-week regime. Increasing the duration of therapy significantly improved the chances of eradication of H. pylori in duodenal ulcer disease.
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Antibiotic resistance driven by antibiotic use remains a major public health and professional concern. Our aim was to know the local prevalence of uropathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile in acute pyelonephritis.
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Brunei has a similar prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria to other South-East Asian countries.
Coumarin anticoagulants are prone to drug-drug interactions. For example, antibiotic drugs may enhance the anticoagulant effect of coumarins. However, whether such interactions are associated with an increased risk of bleeding, and if so, how frequently this occurs remains unknown.
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This observational study used merged administrative data from VHA and a predominant regional PHIP to select veterans < 65 years of age, residing in two Midwestern US states, and simultaneously enrolled in both VHA and the PHIP during fiscal years (FY) 2001-2010. Primary outcome measures included counts of prescriptions dispensed from VHA and non-VHA pharmacies, and frequencies of medications dispensed by non-VHA pharmacies based on PHIP claims.
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The treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the most common posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, is not well defined. Herein we have reported a case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with rapid, persistent, and complete remission after conversion of the immunosuppression from cyclosporine (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL). A 42-year-old woman underwent renal transplantation in 1992 with no major abnormalities until 2006 when a gastroscopy performed to investigate dyspeptic symptoms showed a mixed MALT gastric lymphoma (with low- and high-grade components) associated with the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Two therapeutic interventions in a 1-week interval were performed: treatment of the H. pylori infection (omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for 14 days) and modification of the immunosuppression by substitution of CsA and azathioprine (AZA) with SRL. Control endoscopy performed 1 month later showed persistence of H. pylori infection and absence of the gastric tumor. New endoscopies performed at 2 and 7 months after therapy confirmed the absence of neoplasia and H. pylori eradication. Currently, the patient has no complaints, displaying a creatinine value of 1.8 mg/dL and a hemoglobin of 9.4 mg/dL using SRL and ibersatan. SRL has been studied extensively as an anticancer drug, acting as a mammalian target for rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. Accumulating data support the role of mTOR in lymphomagenesis. In conclusion, our case of gastric MALT lymphoma in a renal transplant patient displayed a complete remission after alteration of the immunosuppressive scheme with the introduction of SRL.
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Septic-embolic diseases are life threatening; survival critically depends on rapid diagnosis. Clinically, cutaneous manifestations like Janeway lesions are infrequently occurring but highly characteristic. In contrast, histological features are not clearly defined. We report the case of a 59-year-old male patient in deteriorating general condition and fever of unknown origin with lesions suggestive for Janeway lesions. Histology showed dilated blood vessels and extravasated erythrocytes throughout the dermis. Only serial sections revealed single, deep dermal vessels occluded by fibrin thrombi. Computed tomography scan identified multiple pulmonary round masses. Blood cultures showed growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The knowledge of the described subtle histological features and a clinical-pathological correlation is essential for the diagnosis of certain cases of septic-embolic conditions.
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged to be one of the most important pathogens both in health care and in community-onset infections. Daptomycin (DAP) is a cyclic anionic lipopeptide recommended for treatment of skin infections, bacteremia, and right-sided endocarditis caused by MRSA. Resistance to DAP (DAP(r)) has been reported in MRSA and is mostly accompanied by a parallel decrease in oxacillin resistance, a process known as the "seesaw effect." Our study provides evidence that the seesaw effect applies to other β-lactams and carbapenems of clinical use, including nafcillin (NAF), cefotaxime (CTX), amoxicillin-clavulanic (AMC), and imipenem (IMP), in heterogeneous DAP(r) MRSA strains but not in MRSA strains expressing homogeneous β-lactam resistance. The antibacterial efficacy of DAP in combination with β-lactams was evaluated in isogenic DAP-susceptible (DAP(s))/Dap(r) MRSA strains originally obtained from patients that failed DAP monotherapy. Both in vitro (MIC, synergy-kill curve) and in vivo (wax worm model) approaches were used. In these models, DAP and a β-lactam proved to be highly synergistic against both heterogeneous and homogeneous clinical DAP(r) MRSA strains. Mechanistically, β-lactams induced a reduction in the cell net positive surface charge, reverting the increased repulsion provoked by DAP alone, an effect that may favor the binding of DAP to the cell surface. The ease of in vitro mutant selection was observed when DAP(s) MRSA strains were exposed to DAP. Importantly, the combination of DAP and a β-lactam prevented the selection of DAP(r) variants. In summary, our data show that the DAP-β-lactam combination may significantly enhance both the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of anti-MRSA therapeutic options against DAP(r) MRSA infections and represent an option in preventing DAP(r) selection in persistent or refractory MRSA infections.