At this time, all dentists and physicians should be very familiar with the 1997 ADA/AAOS antibiotic prophylaxis recommendations for joint prosthesis patients who are undergoing dental treatment. The guidelines identify physical conditions that place joint replacement patients at the highest risk for joint sepsis. They also stratify dental procedures into higher-risk and lower-risk categories. Combining these two groupings clarifies the dentist's strategy for antibiotic prophylaxis protocols, which are greatly simplified over previous practices. Of notable importance is the elimination of posttreatment antibiotic dosing, the reduction of the loading dose of antibiotic, and the identification of a large group of joint replacement patients who do not require antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental treatment. Every dentist must use clinical judgment, knowledge of the patient, and consultation with the attending physician to determine the appropriate treatment plan.
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This conservative protocol seems to provide successful treatment in the vast majority of patients.
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A new therapy consisting of sequentially administered drugs for 14 days yielded unacceptably low eradication rates. This scheme was not efficient for H. pylori eradication in our region. Further investigations are needed to determine the effectiveness of this scheme in other regions of Turkey.
Although safe, a triple-therapy protocol with high-dose PPI, amoxicillin, and doxycycline is useless for multidrug-resistant H. pylori eradication.
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This study is the first to evaluate the effect of total family unit H. pylori eradication on pediatric re-infection rates and reports the longest period of re-infection follow-up in children. In childhood, re-infection with H. pylori is not significantly reduced by family unit H. pylori eradication.
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All 17 aspirates contained a mix of microorganisms. A total of 127 strains of bacteria were isolated. Of 127 strains, 80 strains were anaerobes and 47 strains were aerobes. The mean number of strains per sample was 7.5 (range, 3 to 13). The average number of viable bacteria was 6.37 x 10(7) (range, 10(4) to 10(8)) colony-forming units/mL. Strict anaerobes and microaerophiles were the dominant bacteria in 82% (14 of 17) of the cases. The genera of bacteria most frequently encountered were Prevotella and Streptococcus. Prevotella and Peptostreptococcus were frequently found to dominate the mixture. The combination of Prevotella and Streptococcus was found in 53% (9 of 17). The previously reported uncultured Prevotella clone PUS9.180 was frequently identified. The percentage of bacteria susceptible/intermediate for each antibiotic in this study was penicillin V, 81% (95 of 118); metronidazole, 88% (51 of 58); amoxicillin, 85% (100 of 118); amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, 100% (118 of 118); and clindamycin, 89% (105 of 118).
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The biosynthesis of cephalosporins involving a thiozolidine ring expansion is catalyzed by deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS). In this study, three DAOCS isozymes were cloned and expressed as active enzymes together with Streptomyces jumonjinensis DAOCS that was newly isolated and partially characterized. The enzymes showed excellent substrate conversion for penicillin G, phenethicillin, ampicillin and carbenicillin, but they were less effective in the ring expansion of penicillin V, amoxicillin and metampicillin. Streptomyces clavuligerus DAOCS was the most active among the recombinant enzymes. The results also showed that truncation of 20 amino acids at the C-terminus of the Acremonium chrysogenum deacetoxy/deacetylcephalosporin C synthase polypeptide did not affect penicillin ring expansion.
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To evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on clinical outcome of esophagitis and on chronic gastritis and its activity.
The Maastricht, Asia-Pacific consensus guidelines strongly recommend eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients who have a history of gastric cancer. This open-label, single-center, randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the appropriate timing of eradication for patients undergoing gastrectomy.
To assess the change in susceptibility of urinary pathogens to oral antibiotics during the past decade in children with community acquired UTI.
There was no common denominator among these six DRESS patients in terms of either drug class or reactivation of a particular type of herpes virus, which raises the possibility of a single unidentified environmental agent. DRESS does not appear fully explainable in terms of a cellular response to drug antigens but seems rather to result from complex interactions between the drug-induced immune response, viral reactivation and antiviral immune response. Several investigators have reported sequential reactivation of herpes viruses in DRESS. A viral epidemic could thus cause a "DRESS epidemic" in patients on medication.