We determined the value of hippocampus (Hp) and basal forebrain (BF) volumes for predicting cognitive decline and treatment response in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 4 trial at 28 academic centers (France) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) receiving Donepezil 10 mg daily or placebo over 12 months, and 6 months open label follow-up. Outcome measures were the rates of global and domain specific cognitive decline as non-primary efficacy endpoint. The intention-to-treat (ITT) sample analyzed comprised 215 cases. Baseline Hp volume was a significant predictor of rates of change in global cognitive function in linear mixed effects models. This effect was independent of treatment. BF volume was not associated with rates of global or domain specific cognitive decline. Rates of delayed free recall decline were higher in MCI cases treated with donepezil compared to placebo. Only Hp, but not BF volume was a useful predictor of cognitive decline in suspected prodromal AD patients. Both Hp and BF volumes were poor predictors of treatment response, questioning previous approaches on predicting treatment response without placebo control.
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ICA could improve the abilities of space exploration and positioning navigation of SAMP10, shorten the latency in SMG-2 water maze, enhance their jumping ability in response to the passive test, and increase levels of ACh, ChAT, MCBC in the cerebral cortex of SAMP10. But its active effect on AChE in SAMP10 cortex was not obvious.
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This was a 52-week, multicenter, open-label extension study. Up to 8 weeks after the completion of the preceding randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT), patients started treatment with 3 mg of donepezil daily for 2 weeks, followed by 5 mg daily for the remaining 50 weeks. Cognitive function, behavioral and psychiatric symptoms, cognitive fluctuations, and caregiver burden were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Cognitive Fluctuation Inventory, and the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, respectively. Safety parameters were monitored throughout.
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To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine for tonifying the kidney, and resolving phlegm and blood stasis in the treatment of aMCI.
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From a public health viewpoint, recognition of VCI before the development of dementia and correction of vascular burden on the brain may lead to a global decrease of incident dementia.
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95 patients assigned donepezil and 99 patients assigned placebo completed the study. Patients treated with donepezil improved more in SIB scores and declined less in ADCS-ADL-severe scores at 6 months after initiation of treatment compared with baseline than did controls (least squares [LS] mean difference, 5.7, 95% CI 1.5-9.8; p=0.008, and 1.7, 0.2-3.2; p=0.03, respectively). The incidence of adverse events was comparable between groups (donepezil 82% [n=105] vs placebo 76% [n=91]), with most being transient and mild or moderate in severity. More patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events in the donepezil group (n=20) than in the placebo group (n=8).
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To examine the effects of donepezil compared with placebo on the preservation of function in patients with AD over a 1-year period.
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It is generally recognized that more sensitive instruments for the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are needed. The integrated Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (iADRS) combines scores from 2 widely accepted measures, the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) and the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study - instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-iADL). Disease progression and treatment differences as measured by the iADRS were analyzed using data from solanezumab EXPEDITION, EXPEDITION2, and EXPEDITION-EXT Studies; semagacestat IDENTITY Study; and donepezil ADCS - mild cognitive impairment (ADCS-MCI) Study. Psychometric properties of the iADRS were established through principal component analysis (PCA) and estimation of contributions of subscores and individual item scores to the iADRS total score. The iADRS performed better than most composites and scales in detecting disease progression and comparably or better than individual scales in detecting treatment differences. PCA demonstrated the iADRS can be divided into two principal components primarily representing cognitive items and instrumental ADLs. Dynamic ranges of the subscales were similar across all studies, reflecting approximately equal contributions from both subscales to the iADRS total score. In item analyses, every item contributed to the total score, with varying strength of contributions by item and across data sets. The iADRS demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and was effective in capturing disease progression from MCI through moderate AD and treatment effects across the early disease spectrum. These findings suggest the iADRS can be used in studies of mixed populations, ensuring sensitivity to treatment effects as subjects progress during studies of putative disease-modifying agents.
Patients assigned to continue donepezil, as compared with those assigned to discontinue donepezil, had a score on the SMMSE that was higher by an average of 1.9 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 2.5) and a score on the BADLS that was lower (indicating less impairment) by 3.0 points (95% CI, 1.8 to 4.3) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Patients assigned to receive memantine, as compared with those assigned to receive memantine placebo, had a score on the SMMSE that was an average of 1.2 points higher (95% CI, 0.6 to 1.8; P<0.001) and a score on the BADLS that was 1.5 points lower (95% CI, 0.3 to 2.8; P=0.02). The efficacy of donepezil and of memantine did not differ significantly in the presence or absence of the other. There were no significant benefits of the combination of donepezil and memantine over donepezil alone.
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Clinical reports indicate that cardiotoxicity due to donepezil can occur after coadministration with cilostazol. We speculated that the concentration of donepezil in heart tissue might be increased as a result of interaction with cilostazol at efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2), which are expressed in many tissues including the heart, and our study tested this hypothesis. First, donepezil was confirmed to be a substrate of both BCRP and P-glycoprotein in transporter-transfected cells in vitro. Cilostazol inhibited BCRP and P-glycoprotein with half-inhibitory concentrations of 130 nM and 12.7 μM, respectively. Considering the clinically achievable unbound plasma concentration of cilostazol (about 200 nM), it is plausible that BCRP-mediated transport of donepezil would be affected by cilostazol in vivo. Indeed, in an in vivo rat study, we found that coadministration of cilostazol significantly increased the concentrations of donepezil in the heart and brain, where BCRP functions as a part of the blood-tissue barrier, whereas the plasma concentration of donepezil was unaffected. In addition, in vitro accumulation of donepezil in heart tissue slices of rats was significantly increased in the presence of cilostazol. These results indicate that donepezil-cilostazol interaction at BCRP may be clinically relevant in heart and brain tissues. In other words, the tissue distribution of drugs can be influenced by drug-drug interaction (DDI) at efflux transporters in certain tissues (local DDI) without any apparent change in plasma concentration (systemic DDI).
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Sixteen patients (mean age: 74.8+/-7.9 years) with mild to moderate AD (MMSE score >13, mean: 20.7+/-4.6) underwent qEEG and SPECT examinations at the time of diagnosis (t0) and after approximately 1 year of donepezil therapy (t1). The brain SPECT (99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime) was performed by means of a high-resolution SPECT camera; the qEEG was recorded from 19 scalp electrodes by average reference and digitized at 512 Hz. The mean frequency (MF) value of the mean power spectrum (fast Fourier transform) from 4 brain regions (one frontal and one temporal-parietal in each hemisphere) was chosen for statistical analysis. Changes in MMSE score and qEEG-MF values between t0 and t1 were assessed by analysis of variance. SPECT differences between t0 and t1, as well as the relationships between SPECT and qEEG changes, were assessed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99; height threshold: P=0.001 at cluster level).
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Caffeine is an alkaloid with a stimulant effect in the body. It can interfere in transmissions based on acetylcholine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine and glutamate. Clinical studies indicate that it can be involved in the slowing of Alzheimer disease pathology and some other effects. The effects are not well understood. In the present work, we focused on the question whether caffeine can inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and/or, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), the two enzymes participating in cholinergic neurotransmission. A standard Ellman test with human AChE and BChE was done for altering concentrations of caffeine. The test was supported by an in silico examination as well. Donepezil and tacrine were used as standards. In compliance with Dixon's plot, caffeine was proved to be a non-competitive inhibitor of AChE and BChE. However, inhibition of BChE was quite weak, as the inhibition constant, Ki, was 13.9 ± 7.4 mol/L. Inhibition of AChE was more relevant, as Ki was found to be 175 ± 9 µmol/L. The predicted free energy of binding was -6.7 kcal/mol. The proposed binding orientation of caffeine can interact with Trp86, and it can be stabilize by Tyr337 in comparison to the smaller Ala328 in the case of human BChE; thus, it can explain the lower binding affinity of caffeine for BChE with reference to AChE. The biological relevance of the findings is discussed.
The objective was to identify separate cognitive domains in the standard assessment tools (MMSE, ADAS-Cog) and analyze the process of decline within domains during three years in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with donepezil treatment.
Reference to MCIDs is important for the full interpretation of the results of dementia trials and those conducting such trials should be open about the way in which they have determined and chosen their values for the MCIDs.