Antimicrobial activities of the crude ethanolic extracts of five plants were screened against multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans. ATCC strains of Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus bovis, Pseudimonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans were also tested. The strains that showed resistance against the maximum number of antibiotics tested were selected for an antibacterial assay. The MDR strains were sensitive to the antimicrobial activity of Acacia nilotica, Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamum zeylanicum, whereas they exhibited strong resistance to the extracts of Terminalia arjuna and Eucalyptus globulus. Community-acquired infections showed higher sensitivity than the nosocomial infections against these extracts. The most potent antimicrobial plant was A. nilotica (MIC range 9.75-313 microg/ml), whereas other crude plant extracts studied in this report were found to exhibit higher MIC values than A. nilotica against community acquired as well as nosocomial infection. This study concludes that A. nilotica, C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum can be used against multidrug resistant microbes causing nosocomial and community acquired infections.
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Casuarinin has been shown to be an antioxidant in acellular experiments. This study was designed to assess the ability of casuarinin, extracted from Terminalia arjuna, to protect cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells against H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. A comparison with trolox, a hydrosoluble vitamin E analogue was performed. MDCK cells were pretreated with casuarinin or trolox for 1 h, then exposed to H2O2. After incubation with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 1 h, casuarinin caused a decrease in intracellular peroxide production as shown by dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence in a concentration-dependent manner. After 3 h exposure to 8 mM H2O2, the percentage of intracellular glutathione (GSH)-negative cells was reduced in the casuarinin-treated group. Addition of 32mM H2O2 to MDCK cells for 3 h induced an increase in the percentage of cells containing 8-oxoguanine but the level of such cells declined in casuarinin-treated cells. These results show that casuarinin is more effective against H2O2-induced oxidative damage than trolox. The data suggest that casuarinin attenuates H2O2-induced oxidative stress, decreases DNA oxidative damage and prevents the depletion of intracellular GSH in MDCK cells.
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The present study evaluated the cardioprotective effects of Terminalia arjuna on classical and immuno-inflammatory markers in coronary artery disease (CAD) as an adjuvant therapy. One hundred sixteen patients with stable CAD were administered placebo/T. arjuna (500 mg twice a day) along with medications in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. To understand the specificity and efficacy of T. arjuna, we evaluated its effect through microarray and in silico analysis in few representative samples. Data was further validated via real-time PCR (n = 50) each at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. rIL-18 cytokine was used to induce inflammation in vitro to compare its effects with atorvastatin. T. arjuna significantly down-regulated TG, VLDL-C, and immuno-inflammatory markers in stable CAD versus placebo-treated subjects. Microarray and pathway analysis of a few samples from T. arjuna/placebo-treated groups and real-time PCR validation further confirmed our observations. Our data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of T. arjuna that may attenuate ongoing inflammation and immune imbalance in medicated CAD subjects.
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Terminalia arjuna (TA) is a medicinal plant used as a cardiotonic in ayurveda. Besides others, scientific evidence dictates its strong hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties. However, anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet aggregatory properties of TA are not known. The present study demonstrates in vitro effects of its ethanolic bark extract (TAE) on platelet function indices. Twenty patients of angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD) were included in Group I and 20 age and sex-matched controls were included in Group II. Platelet activation was monitored by determining P-selectin (CD62P) expression, intracellular free calcium (Ca(2+)) release and platelet aggregation. In vitro effect of TA on platelets function indices was determined by incubating the platelets with TAE in a time and dose-dependent manner in presence/absence of ADP. TAE was able to significantly inhibit platelet aggregation both in patient and control groups. Significant attenuation in Ca(2+) release and expression of CD62P was also observed with TAE. Our data clearly demonstrates that the bark extract of TA decreases platelet activation and may possess antithrombotic properties. The possible mechanism of action could be by desensitizing platelets to the agonist by competing with platelet receptor or by interfering with signal transduction. Thus, TA can be exploited for its therapeutic potential in CAD and related cardiovascular disorders.
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Dried pulverized bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn (TA) was administered orally to Wistar albino rats (120-150 g) in two doses [500 and 750 mg/kg in 2% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)], 6 days per week for 12 weeks. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed either for determination of baseline changes in cardiac endogenous antioxidant compounds [superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT)] or the hearts were subjected to oxidative stress associated with in vitro ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI). There was significant increase in the baseline contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (a measure of lipid peroxidation) with both doses of TA. However, only in the 500 mg/kg treated group, this was accompanied by a simultaneous increase in SOD, GSH and CAT levels, but not in the 750 mg/kg treated group, where only CAT was raised. Significant rise in myocardial TBARS and loss of SOD, CAT and GSH (suggestive of increased oxidative stress) occurred in the vehicle-treated hearts subjected to in vitro IRI. Only hearts, harvested from the 500 mg/kg rats treated rats, were significantly protected from oxidative stress, when subjected to in vitro IRI. The results suggest that crude bark of TA augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents oxidative stress associated with IRI of the heart.
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Terminalia arjuna is an important medicinal plants widely used in the preparation of Ayurvedic formulations used against several ailments. The present investigation was aimed at the fractionation of crude extracts from the bark of T. arjuna in order to isolate and purify the antimutagenic factors present. The antimutagenicity assay was performed to check the modulatory effect of these fractions against NPD, sodium azide, and 2AF, using the Ames Salmonella his+ reversion assay. Most of the phenolic fractions exhibited mutagen specificity against direct-acting mutagens, being effective in suppressing the frameshift mutagen NPD but failing to inhibit sodium azide (base pair substitution)-induced his+ revertants. ET-1 fraction triterpenoid diglycoside showed a marked effect against sodium azide but was ineffective against NPD. In the case of the indirect-acting mutagen 2AF, all the fractions were found to be quite potent in modulating its mutagenicity in both TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The results indicate that the bark of T. arjuna harbors constituents with promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that should be investigated further.
Rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia simulated to an altitude of 27,000 ft. in a decompression chamber for 12h. T. arjuna bark extract was administered at a single dose of 150 mg/kg (p.o.) to male Sprague Dawley rats (200 ± 20 g) 30 min prior to exposure. Total urine volume was measured during exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. The animals were then investigated for cerebral vascular leakage and serum concentration of sodium, potassium, renin, angiotensin-II, aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).
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The results indicated the likely involvement of peripheral mechanism for hypotension produced by the 70% alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna and lends support for the claims of its traditional usage in cardiovascular disorders.
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In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system.
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In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices.
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The antimutagenic effect of benzene, chloroform, acetone and methanol fractions from Terminalia arjuna, a well-known medicinal plant, was determined against Acid Black dye, 2-aminofluorene (2AF) and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) in TA98 Frameshift mutagen tester strain of Salmonella typhimurium. Among the different fractions, the antimutagenic effect of acetone and methanol fractions was more than that observed with other fractions. Co-incubation and pre-incubation modes of experimentation did not show much difference in the antimutagenic activity of the extracts. Moreover, these fractions inhibited the S9-dependent mutagens, 2AF and Acid Black dye more effectively than the direct-acting mutagens. Studies are under way to isolate and elucidate the nature of the antimutagenic factor in acetone and methanol fractions.