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Astelin (Azelastine)

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Astelin is a nasal spray which is used for treating allergy symptoms and symptoms of nasal passage inflammation. Astelin contains azelastine, an antihistamine. It blocks the effects of the chemical histamine in your body. Astelin prevents sneezing, itching, runny nose, and other nasal symptoms of allergies.

Other names for this medication:
Adomessen, Afluon, Afluon nasal, Alager, Allergodil, Allergospray, Amsler, Antalerg, Armin, Astepro, Asutoputin, Az ofteno, Azel, Azelastin, Azelastina, Azelastine, Azelastinum, Azelone, Azen, Azep, Azepit, Azeptin, Bifertin, Brixia, Cobatect, Corifina, Lasticom, Lastin, Oculastin, Optilast, Optivar, Otrivin azelastine, Otrivin heuschnupfen, Otrivine, Prorhinite, Raspjine, Rhinolast, Rinalin, Rino-lastin, Snizex, Sophistina, Xanaes

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Also known as:  Azelastine.


Astelin belongs to a group of medicines called antihistamines.

Astelin provides relief from bothersome nasal symptoms such as congestion, itchy/runny nose, sneezing and postnasal drip due to seasonal allergens or environmental irritants.

Astelin is steroid-free, does not contain pseudoephedrine, and relieves your symptoms by blocking the effects of histamine - the primary cause of allergy symptoms.

What makes Astelin unique is that it is a steroid-free antihistamine nasal spray that provides symptom relief whether the trigger is an allergen (grass, trees, pollen, mold, etc.), an irritant (cigarette smoke, perfume, cleaning agents, car exhaust, cold air, etc.), or both.

Astelin is also know as Azelastine, Arzep, Rhinolast, Alerdual, Allergodil, Rinalin.

Generic name of Astelin is Azelastine.


Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Astelin exactly as directed.

Astelin can be used by patients as young as 5 years of age, depending on what type of rhinitis they have been diagnosed with.

For those with seasonal allergic rhinitis, patients from 5 to 11 years of age should administer 1 spray in each nostril twice daily.

Patients 12 years of age and older with seasonal allergic rhinitis should administer 2 sprays of Astelin in each nostril twice daily.

For those with nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis, patients 12 years of age and older should administer 2 sprays of Astelin in each nostril twice daily.

Before using Astelin for the first time, remove the child-resistant screw cap and replace with the pump unit. Prime the delivery system (pump unit) with four sprays or until a fine mist appears. If 3 days or more have elapsed since your last use of the nasal spray, reprime the pump with two sprays or until a fine mist appears.


If you overdose Astelin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at a room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and sunlight. Keep in a tightly closed container. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Astelin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Astelin if you are allergic to Astelin components.

It is not known whether Astelin will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

The medicine has a antihistamine in it. Before you start any new medicine, check the label to see if it has an antihistamine (e.g., diphenhydramine) in it too. If it does or if you are not sure, check with your doctor or pharmacist.

Astelin may cause harm if it is swallowed. If you may have taken it by mouth, contact your poison control center or emergency room right away.

Astelin should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 5 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Do not drink alcohol or use medicines that may cause drowsiness (e.g., sleep aids, muscle relaxers) while you are using Astelin; it may add to their effects. Ask your pharmacist if you have questions about which medicines may cause drowsiness.

Astelin may cause drowsiness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Astelin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possibly unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Do not stop taking Astelin suddenly.

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MP29-02 (Dymista, Meda, Solna, Sweden) is the first new class of AR medication (WHO ATC R01AD58) since the introduction of intranasal corticosteroids (INS) almost 50 years ago. It is a novel intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate delivered in a single spray. Here we review all the safety information relevant to MP29-02, from the initial phase I bioavailability and disposition data, to the phase III 14-day and 52-week data and finally to phase IV safety data collected during MP29-02 use in routine clinical practice.

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The LDH titers increased after all the antiallergic agents were exposed up to 4 h, maintained its level for 12 h, and then decreased until 24 h. There was no statistical significance among the three agents. The greater titer of LDH, the more conjunctival cells became swollen or round. Azelastine and ketotifen showed greater LDH titer, edema, and cytoplasmic and nuclear degenerations of the conjunctival cells than that of olopatadine. The levels of Na(+), Cl(-), and pH were significantly lower with azelastine and ketotifen, compared with olopatadine, and all antiallergic agents contained the same concentration of benzalconium chloride.

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Statistically significant changes from baseline in TNSS were seen in both the LNS group and the ANS group. No significant differences were seen between the two groups in terms of evaluation of therapeutic effect, total effective rate, and onset of action, except for a higher symptom relief rate in the LNS group than in the ANS group within 30 min of administering the first dose. Adverse reactions were mild to moderate, with an incidence of 0.9% for LNS and 2.5% for ANS.

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One of the dose-limiting adverse effects of chemoradiotherapy is mucositis, especially oral mucositis. Prophylaxis of severe mucosal reaction would allow application of aggressive chemoradiotherapy to malignancies.

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These results confirm MP29-02's wide therapeutic spectrum and assert its consistent superiority over an intranasal corticosteroid.

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Azelastine, montelukast and their combination protected against both EAR and LAR (p<0.004, each) by 46% and 43%, 76% and 59%, and 89% and 78%, respectively. Azelastine was not as effective during EAR but equally effective to montelukast during LAR. The combination was superior to each drug alone during both EAR and LAR (p<0.05, each).

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MP29-02 represents a breakthrough in AR management for the following reasons: i) MP29-02 has been extensively studied in comparison to first-line therapies in both seasonal AR (SAR) patients and in those with chronic rhinitis (i.e., perennial allergic rhinitis [PAR] and nonallergic (vasomotor) rhinitis) in one of the largest direct head-to-head clinical trial programmes in AR, to date. ii) With MP29-02, the efficacy of an intranasal corticosteroid (INS), the first-line choice for AR has been exceeded for the first time without safety repercussions. AR patients treated with MP29-02 experience significantly greater relief from their overall nasal and ocular symptoms compared to two first-line AR therapies, irrespective of season, symptom type, or disease severity. More patients treated with MP29-02 achieve a substantial reduction (i.e., 50% reduction) in their symptoms and also complete symptom relief and achieve these clinically relevant responses days faster than an INS or antihistamine. iii) Formulation of a topical medication is critical, and MP29-02's novel formulation and/or its device contribute to its clinical efficacy.

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Therapy of experimentally induced allergic conjunctivitis with AZE was highly effective, with an onset of action seen within 3 minutes and a duration of effect of at least 8 to 10 hours.

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In this report are stated the results of an investigation on the long-term prognosis of occupational asthma, recently sending out enquêtes to 28 patients with occupational asthma of various kinds who had been treated and observed in our allergy clinic these 22 years. This study is limited to 17 cases, because 4 questionnaires were not returned, 6 were sent back unopened for the reason that present address was unknown and one patient died in an accident. Eight of the patients were able to avoid exposure to allergens by changing their occupation or work place. The prognosis for these cases were quite favourable, except in one patient with double sensitization to house dust. Of the nine patients who were obliged to continue work in which they were exposed to occupational allergens, two of them benefitted from a change of the materials they used in their work to new ones free from antigenicity. However, for the rest, allergic symptoms continued with their severity for ages in inverse proportion to the the degree of effective countermeasures taken against the allergens. Accordingly, the author would assert that effective measures to improve working conditions and protect workers must be taken as soon as possible.

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Currently, much effort is geared towards developing therapies that impact on the inflammation in respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD, assuming that this will improve disease pathology. R,R-Glycopyrrolate, a quaternary ammonium compound, is a muscarinic receptor antagonist with the potential to be used as a long-acting bronchodilator in patients with asthma and COPD. In this study we evaluated whether the combination of R,R-glycopyrrolate with known anti-inflammatory drugs results in synergistic effects. Human primary monocytes were used as an in vitro model system. M3, M4, M1 and M2 receptors were expressed in these cells in descending order. The combinatory effects of the drugs on the release of TNF-alpha after lipopolysaccharide stimulation were analyzed. R,R-Glycopyrrolate alone did not affect LPS induced TNF-alpha release. The PDE4 inhibitor rolipram dose dependently inhibited the TNF-alpha release. Maximum inhibition was around 70%. The IC(35) for rolipram was 68.9+/-15.2 nM. The simultaneous administration of 10 microM R,R-glycopyrrolate reduced the IC(35) to 1.70+/-1.18 nM. The anti-histamine azelastine inhibited TNF-alpha release dose dependently. The simultaneous administration of R,R-glycopyrrolate did not influence the action of azelastine. The corticosteroid budesonide inhibited the TNF-alpha release dose dependently with an IC(50) of 0.55+/-0.13 nM. The simultaneous administration of 10 microM R,R-glycopyrrolate reduced the IC(50) to 0.13+/-0.03 nM. Finally, R,R-glycopyrrolate was most effective in the triple combination with budesonide and rolipram in the reduction of TNF-alpha release. In conclusion, R,R-glycopyrrolate acts synergistically with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram and the steroid budesonide in inhibiting inflammatory mediators.

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Evidence of a different inhibitory effect of multiple action compounds on the pro-inflammatory mediators released from the mast cells suggests the possibility to target different phases of the allergic reaction, leading to a potential improvement in the management of allergic patients.

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This was a prospective, randomized, double-masked, contralaterally controlled, multicenter, allergen-challenge study. Itching was chosen as the primary efficacy variable since it is the only FDA-approved indication these 2 agents have in common. Subjects with a history of allergic conjunctivitis who responded to the CAC at screening visits 1 and 2 were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: olopatadine in 1 eye and azelastine in the other eye; olopatadine in 1 eye and placebo in the other eye; or azelastine in 1 eye and placebo in the other eye. At the assessment visit (visit 3), subjects received masked study medication according to the randomization scheme. After 5 minutes, subjects were bilaterally challenged with the allergen concentration that had elicited a positive conjunctival allergic response at visits 1 and 2. Immediately after challenge, subjects gave itching assessments (scale, 0 = no itching to 4 = severe itching) every 30 seconds for a total period of 20 minutes. Mean itching scores for all eyes were compared by treatment. Mean itching scores at each time point were compared between treatments using 2 sample t tests.

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Azelastine is a selective antagonist at the human histamine-1 receptor and is used clinically in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. In this study we have investigated its duration of action in vitro in an effort to characterise the receptor and tissue components involved. Chinese hamster ovary cell membrane fragments were used to determine the kinetics of azelastine at the H₁ receptor in a radioligand binding assay. Further duration of action studies were completed in tissue preparations using guinea-pig trachea and human bronchus. In radioligand binding studies, azelastine reached steady state at the H₁ receptor after approximately 41 min and exhibited a significantly slower dissociation rate constant from the receptor than the first generation antihistamine, diphenhydramine. In washout studies completed in guinea-pig and human airway in vitro tissue preparations, azelastine continued to antagonise the effects of histamine at the H₁ receptor for at least 18 h post-washout of the antagonist. This outcome was reversed following removal of the epithelium from guinea-pig isolated tracheal strips. These studies indicate there is a tissue component contributing to azelastine's duration of action, in addition to its direct H₁ receptor binding, with evidence suggesting a role for the epithelial layer.

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Azelastine was suggested as a supplementary choice of glucocorticoid for the control of moderate to severe allergic rhinitis (AR). However, the underlying mechanism has not been completely understood. In this study, primary cultured nasal epithelial cells and bronchial epithelial cells were stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-17A) and anti-inflammatory agents (azelastine and budesonide) in vitro. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) was examined using qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Moreover, the additive effects of azelastine and budesonide nasal spray on nasal ICAM-1 level and total nasal symptom scores were evaluated in six uncontrolled severe AR patients by budesonide nasal spray alone. We found azelastine significantly inhibited cytokine-induced ICAM-1 upregulation, which is reversed by MKP-1 silencing. Azelastine and budesonide additively increased MKP-1 expression and inhibited ICAM-1 expression in vitro. After treatment for two consecutive weeks, combined azelastine and budesonide nasal spray significantly decreased nasal ICAM-1 level and TNSS in six uncontrolled AR patients. Our findings suggested that azelastine is able to additively enhance the anti-inflammatory effect of budesonide by modulating MKP-1 expression, which may implicate in the treatment of uncontrolled severe AR.

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In total, 60 children who were found to have adenoid hypertrophy were included. A questionnaire on nasal symptoms, nasal endoscopy and skin prick tests was administered to all patients. All patients had complaints of chronic nasal obstruction symptoms and nasal endoscopy showed > 75% choanal obstruction, attributable to adenoid pads. The adenoid/nasopharyngeal areas were calculated. All of the patients underwent azelastine nasal spray therapy (1 spray per nostril, twice daily; 0.28 mg/dose) for 30 days. After 1 month, all children were reassessed. The efficacy of therapy, symptoms, adenoid / nasopharynx ratio, and obstruction ratio, obtained by endoscopy, were compared.

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astelin spray dosage 2015-01-21

The concept of relative activity factor (RAF) to extrapolate data obtained with recombinant cytochrome P450(CYP)s to human liver microsomes has been proposed. To evaluate the approach to predict the contribution of multiple CYPs using RAF, we investigated the effects of the differences in the expression levels of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (OR) and cytochrome b(5) (b(5)) in recombinant CYPs from baculovirus-infected insect cells and the differences in the marker activities. Because we previously clarified that azelastine, an antiallergy and antiasthmatic drug, is N-demethylated by CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in humans, the reaction was used as a model. For calculation of RAF, three lots of recombinant CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 from baculovirus-infected insect cells with different expression levels of OR and b(5 Mobic Tablets Uses ) were used. The OR/CYP ratios for recombinant CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 were 3.9-4.8, 5.1-8.7, and 8.0-11.3, respectively. The b(5)/CYP ratio for recombinant CYP3A4 was 2.1-18.7. As marker activities, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation and phenacetin O-deethylation for CYP1A2, bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation and debrisoquin 4-hydroxylation for CYP2D6, testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation for CYP3A4 were compared. Our results indicated that the differences in the expression levels of OR and b(5) coexpressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells would not be a critical factor for the quantitative prediction using RAF. In addition, we confirmed that differences in the marker activities did not significantly affect the calculation of RAF values, when the marker activities are specific for a certain CYP isoform. It was suggested that the RAF approach using recombinant CYPs from baculovirus-infected insect cells coexpressing OR (and b(5) if required) could be valuable for the prediction of the contribution of each CYP in drug metabolism.

astelin drug class 2016-01-17

The tolerability and pharmacokinetics of azelastine hydrochloride (CAS 73907-93-0, A-05610) after single and multiple dosing (4.4 mg as tablet, tau = 12 h) were investigated in 14 volunteers (6 female, 8 male) older than 65 years (70 +/- 5 years, mean +/- SD). The medication was administered as tablets in the morning of days 1 and 11, and b.i.d. on days 4 to 10 in a randomized, open-labelled, uncontrolled study. Tolerance proved to be very good. Reported number of adverse events was independent from height of plasma levels measured, which showed pronounced Avapro 40 Mg inter- and intraindividual variation. When comparing pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma levels (determined with a radioimmunoassay (RIA)) of the elderly with those of young volunteers (26 +/- 5 years), there is a difference in half lives (t1/2 elderly vs young: single dose: 38.5 +/- 15.3 h vs 25.0 +/- 5.2 h; multiple dose: 35.5 +/- 16.3 h vs 55.4 +/- 24.9 h), and also after a single dose AUC and after multiple dosing AUCss tau, tssmax, Cssmax, Cssmin (pre dose levels), and the ratios of accumulation Rmax and Rmin (calculated from Cssmax/Cmax and Cssmin/Cmin) are approximately twice as high in elderly as those in young volunteers. The RIA co-detects besides azelastine the pharmacodynamically active metabolite N-demethyl-azelastine and thus, the parameters describe the pharmacokinetic behaviour as a resultant from both compounds, i.e. the "active principle". N-Demethylated metabolites are known to have longer half-lives usually than their parent compounds and thus, accumulate in a higher degree during multiple dosing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

astelin dosage 2017-11-29

The effects of azelastine, 8-phenyltheophylline, NDGA, atropine and mepyramine on PIA-induced contraction and relaxation of isolated guinea pig tracheal chains were investigated. Atropine (1 nM) and mepyramine (1 microM) had no effect on PIA-induced relaxation whereas 8-phenyltheophylline (5 microM) caused strong inhibition of PIA-induced relaxation, indicating that the latter effect is mediated by stimulation of extracellular adenosine receptors. NDGA (0.5 microM) caused potentiation of PIA-induced relaxation. Azelastine (10 nM-1 microM) caused dose-dependent potentiation Cordarone Medication Guide of PIA-induced relaxation. In another model for investigation of extracellular adenosine receptors, namely the negative inotropic effect in the electrically driven isolated guinea pig atrium, the action of PIA was fully reversed by the addition of 8-phenyltheophylline. In contrast, the negative inotropic effect of azelastine was not reversed by 8-phenyltheophylline, indicating that azelastine does not act on extracellular adenosine receptors. The negative inotropic effect of azelastine can be reversed by addition of calcium as for verapamil. It is concluded that the calcium-antagonistic and perhaps antiallergic properties of azelastine are responsible for the potentiation of extracellular adenosine receptor mediated relaxation by azelastine. Since asthmatics show increased hyperreagibility (bronchospasm) to inhalation of adenosine, the inhibition of PIA-induced contraction by azelastine indicates that the drug may be worthwhile in the treatment bronchial hyperreactivity in asthmatic patients.

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The effect of the treatment of allergic rhinitis with azelastine on physiological indicators of aerobic performance such as VO2 max and ventilatory threshold (VT) were evaluated. The clinical efficacy of azelastine Motrin Dosage Adults was also established.

astelin overdose 2015-04-18

We investigated the mechanism of anti-allergic action of Moku-boi-to (M-711) and effects on the skin reactions induced by chemical mediators as the model of allergic dermatitis. Online Order Viagra More than 20 mg/kg BW of M-711 significantly suppressed the enhancement of capillary permeability induced by histamine, LTC4, and anti-serum in the rat skin. Anti-histaminic effect of 40 mg/kg BW of M-711 was equipotent to same as the optimal doses of azelastine and diphenhydramine, respectively. As to anti-LTC4 action, 20 mg of M-711 was compared to the optimal dose of diphenhydramine. Those data showed that M-711 has the suppressive effects on the chemical mediators such as histamine and LTC4 and reduced the skin reaction induced by antigen-antibody response.

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety of Paxil Drug Interactions MP29-02 in subjects with chronic allergic (perennial) or nonallergic (vasomotor) rhinitis.

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Inflammation of the airways contributes to the multicomponent disease known as asthma. The primary cells that infiltrate the airway in response to antigen exposure are neutrophils and eosinophils. Eosinophils have been implicated in much of the histopathology of the airway following infiltration and degranulation. We used topical antigen exposure in the trachea of sensitized beagle dogs to study the kinetics of eosinophil infiltration with a modified double balloon endotracheal tube technique. After establishment of the eosinophilia, we used inhibitors with known actions to implicate certain mediators in the cellular response. Beagle dogs were sensitized to ascaria ova by feeding them orally by gavage. After 6 wk, challenge with 2.0 micrograms/ml ascaris antigen protein via the tracheal chamber resulted in a rapid (maximal in 4 h) and repeatable influx (p less than 0.05 versus vehicle) of eosinophils that was faster and larger than that of exogenously added LTB4 or PAF exposure. After 4 to 6 separate (every 2 wk) antigen challenges in which the response varied by (SEM +/- 13 to 50%), the individual dogs were rechallenged in the presence of various inhibitors administered either topically in the perfusate or systemically. The inhibitors that were effective in blocking the eosinophil influx by a statistically significant amount were: (1) the lazaroid U-78517F orally 0.5 to 30 mg/kg-18 h (2) Medrol acetate 5 mg/kg intramuscularly-18 h, (3) H1-antihistamines topically (10(-6) M Cordarone Tablets 200mg ) Astemizole, Cetirizine, and Mepyramine, also orally 30 mg/kg, and Azelastine. Inhibitors falling to inhibit influx topically were a LTB4 receptor antagonist (U-75302) and U-80271 (Merck L-652731), a PAF antagonist.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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In this population, olopatadine was significantly more effective than azelastine in the management of Ceftin Gonorrhea Dosage itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis in the CAC model.

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The ability of azelastine to reduce symptoms and inflammation during an ongoing allergic reaction can be considered concrete and convincing Generic Floxin Otic proof of a clinically relevant anti-inflammatory activity.

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The ability of linetastine (TMK688, 1-[¿5'-(3"-methoxy-4"-ethoxycarbonyloxyphenyl)-2',4'-pentadieno yl¿ aminoethyl]-4-diphenylmethoxypiperidine, CAS 110501-66-1) to inhibit leukotriene production and to antagonize the effect of histamine was examined in comparison with the ability of azelastine, an antiallergic drug having an antihistamine activity. Linetastine and its active metabolite TMK777 (1-[¿5'-(3"-methoxy-4"-hydroxyphenyl)-2',4'-pentadienoyl¿ aminoethyl]-4-diphenylmethoxypiperidine, CAS 101619-11-8) inhibited the release of leukotrienes B4 and C4 from calcium ionophore-stimulated human leukocytes. The respective IC50 values of leukotriene B4 were 1.2 x 10(-7) mol/l and 8.6 x 10(-8) mol/l, and those of leukotriene C4 were 1.5 x 10(-7) mol/l and 7.1 x 10(-8) mol/l. Azelastine also inhibited the release of leukotriene B4 and C4, but its IC50 values were higher than 1 x 10(-5) mol/l. Linetastine at 1-10 mg/kg p.o. inhibited the increase in leukotriene B4 and C4 production in the lungs during late asthmatic responses in actively sensitized guinea-pigs. The effect of 3.2 mg/kg lasted for more than 16 b. Since repeated oral administration of linetastine, 1 mg/kg once a day for 7 successive days, showed the same inhibitory effect on the increase in respiratory resistance and the leukotriene production as single oral administration, the effect of linetastine was neither tachyphylactic nor cumulative. Azelastine at 10 mg/kg had no effect on the leukotriene production. Linetastine TMK777 and azelastine dose-dependently inhibited the histamine-induced contraction of isolated guinea-pig trachea in a noncompetitive manner, the respective pD2 values were 7.28, 7.98 and 8.07. Linetastine inhibited histamine-induced bronchoconstriction dose-dependently at 1-10 mg/kg (p.o.) in guinea-pigs, and the effect lasted for more than 24 h. Repeated oral administration of linetastine, 0.32 to 3.2 mg/kg once a day for 7 successive days inhibited the histamine-induced bronchoconstriction, the same as single oral dosing. Azelastine at 0.32 mg/kg p.o. also showed antihistamine activity. In conclusion, linetastine inhibits both the production of leukotrienes and the effect of histamine at almost the same dose and the effects were long lasting.

astelin pediatric dose 2016-11-13

Azelastine, a newly synthesized anti-allergic agent, was tested for its effects on guinea pig macrophage chemotaxis and phagocytosis. As specific macrophage chemo-attractants, we used macrophage chemotactic factors a and c; separated and highly purified from inflamed skin sites. Macrophage chemotaxis induced by skin extract or chemotactic factors was significantly suppressed by a low concentration of the agent (1 microgram/ml); the effect was dose-dependent. The inhibition of chemotaxis was reversible, because chemotactic activity was restored when the agents was removed by washing cells before chemotactic assay. Inactivation of chemotactic factors was not detected by mixing azelastine and factors a and c. Azelastine may directly interact with macrophages to decrease their chemotactic responsiveness. beta-Glucuronidase activity in the medium and macrophages after phagocytosis of polystyrene latex particles was not affected by this agent at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 micrograms/ml. The phagocytosis of latex particles or sheep red blood cells opsonized with IgG antibodies (EA) and anchoring of macrophages to substrate were not inhibited and azelastine did not damage the macrophages as determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay.

astelin generic brand 2015-02-10

The influence of peplomycin (PLM) and azelastine hydrochloride (Azeptin) on reactive oxygen (RO) and cytokine generation was examined in human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and rabbit alveolar macrophages (RAM). In addition, the influence of these drugs on DNA and collagen synthesis was investigated in human gingival and rabbit pulmonary fibroblasts. In vitro, PLM increased the FMLP- and PMA-induced chemiluminescence and superoxide (O2-) generation in human PMN and RAM in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to PLM, Azeptin dose-dependently suppressed RO generation. Such contrasting actions of PLM and Azeptin were also observed in RAM and PMN obtained from rabbits treated with PLM or Azeptin. Even when human PMN were preincubated with 10-100 micrograms/ml of PLM, the increase in RO generation was negligible in the presence of 10(-5) M Azeptin in the culture medium. No increases in RO generation were observed in RAM or PMN obtained from rabbits that had received PLM (0.1 mg/kg per day) and Azeptin (0.04 mg/kg per day) concomitantly. PLM suppressed superoxide dismutase activity in RAM and human PMN, while Azeptin did not affect this activity. In vitro, PLM up-regulated the release of interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor both from human cells and from RAM and pulmonary fibroblasts. In the generation of these cytokines, Azeptin abrogated the up-regulatory action of PLM. PLM and Azeptin also had contrasting actions in [3H]thymidine and [3H]proline incorporation in human and rabbit fibroblasts. Furthermore, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, in particular that of a 115-kDa protein in human PMN, was suppressed by Azeptin and enhanced by PLM. These results seem to indicate that up-regulated RO and collagen generation are the causative factors of PLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and that Azeptin may suppress the adverse effect.

astelin brand 2017-05-30

The histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) are an important class of medications used for the relief of common symptoms associated with hyperhistaminic conditions occurring in children and adults. This group of drugs may be subdivided into 3 classes, or generations, based upon their propensity to induce sedation and cardiotoxicity. The first generation (classical) antihistamines are highly effective in treating hyperhistaminic conditions. However, they frequently induce sedation and may adversely affect a child's learning ability. First generation antihistamine-induced sedation has been described to occur in more than 50% of patients receiving therapeutic dosages. Serious adverse events are unusual following overdoses of first generation antihistamines although life-threatening adverse events have been described. When the so-called 'second generation' antihistamines terfenadine and astemizole were introduced they were widely embraced and quickly used by clinicians of all specialities, including paediatricians, as nonsedating alternatives to the first generation compounds. These new agents were found to be equally or more effective than first generation antihistamines in relieving symptoms associated with hyperhistaminic conditions without the soporific effects of the first generation agents. Unfortunately, after approximately 10 years of widespread clinical use, disturbing reports of potentially life-threatening dysrhythmias, specifically torsades de pointes, were described. Both terfenadine and astemizole have been shown in vitro to inhibit several ion channels, and in particular the delayed outward rectifier potassium channel in the myocardium, predisposing the heart to dysrhythmias. The potential life-threatening cardiotoxicities of the second generation antihistamines led to the search for noncardiotoxic and nonsedating agents. Loratadine, fexofenadine, mizolastine, ebastine, azelastine and cetirizine are the first of the new third generation antihistamines. These drugs have been shown to be efficacious with few adverse events including no clinically relevant cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic-based drug-drug interactions or QT interval prolongation/cardiac dysrhythmias. Appropriate treatment of an antihistamine overdose depends upon which class of compound has been ingested. There is no specific antidote for antihistamine overdose and treatment is supportive particularly for ingestions of first generation compounds. Ingestion of excessive doses of terfenadine or astemizole requires immediate medical attention. Children who accidentally ingest excessive doses of a third generation compound may usually be adequately managed at home. However, patients ingesting large amounts (approximately >3 to 4 times the normal therapeutic daily dose) should receive medical attention. These patients should be monitored for 2 to 3 hours after the ingestion and patients ingesting cetirizine should be advised about the potential for sedation. The availability of newer generation antihistamine compounds has clearly added to the clinical effectiveness and patient tolerance of a widely prescribed class of drugs. These advances have also been accompanied by improved safety profiles, particularly in the case of third generation antihistamine overdose.

astelin generic name 2016-07-13

We demonstrated that both azelastine and BDP are effective treatments for nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis after 4 weeks of therapy. However, we were not able to demonstrate an antiinflammatory activity of nasally administered azelastine. Nasal therapy with azelastine and BDP did not block the increase in bronchial responsiveness to methacholine caused by seasonal allergen exposure.

astelin alcohol 2015-07-22

Sensory nerve endings within the airway epithelial cells and the solitary chemoreceptor cells, synapsing with sensory nerves, respond to airborne irritants. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels (A1 and V1 subtypes, specifically) on these nerve endings initiate local antidromic reflexes resulting in the release of neuropeptides such as substance P and calcitonin G-related peptides. These neuropeptides dilate epithelial submucosal blood vessels and may therefore increase transudation across these vessels resulting in submucosal edema, congestion, and rhinitis. Altered expression or activity of these TRP channels can therefore influence responsiveness to irritants. Besides these pathogenic mechanisms, additional mechanisms such as dysautonomia resulting in diminished sympathetic activity and comparative parasympathetic overactivity have also been suggested as a probable mechanism. Therapeutic effectiveness for this condition has been demonstrated through desensitization of TRPV1 channels with typical agonists such as capsaicin. Other agents effective in treating nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) such as azelastine have been demonstrated to exhibit TRPV1 channel activity through the modulation of Ca(2+) signaling on sensory neurons and in nasal epithelial cells. Roles of antimuscarinic agents such as tiotropium in NAR have been suggested by associations of muscarinic cholinergic receptors with TRPV1. The associations between these channels have also been suggested as mechanisms of airway hyperreactivity in asthma. The concept of the united airway disease hypothesis suggests a significant association between rhinitis and asthma. This concept is supported by the development of late-onset asthma in about 10-40 % of NAR patients who also exhibit a greater severity in their asthma. The factors and mechanisms associating NAR with nonallergic asthma are currently unknown. Nonetheless, free immunoglobulin light chains and microRNA alteration as mediators of these inflammatory conditions may play key roles in this association.