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Cardiac hemodynamics were significantly (P<0.001) improved and infarct size and cardiac enzymes were significantly (P<0.001) reduced in hearts subjected to PPC relative to hearts subjected to I/R injury. Exogenous administration of Ang II did not affect I/R injury or PPC mediated protection. Nonetheless inhibition of endogenously synthesized Ang II protected against I/R induced cardiac damage yet did not block or augment the protective effects of PPC. The administration of AT1 antagonist did not alleviate I/R induced damage. Interestingly it abrogated PPC induced cardiac protection in isolated rat hearts. Finally, PPC induced protection and blockade of locally produced Ang II involved enhanced activation of ERK1/2 and Akt components of the reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway.
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Type 2 diabetes is a chief cause of pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, nephropathy and retinopathy, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Development of renal disease can be slowed by tight glycaemic control and treatment of associated hypertension with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, as The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the UK Prospective Diabetes Study have demonstrated. Recent clinical trials have supported the use of angiotensin II receptor antagonists in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, resulting in the approval of new therapeutic indications in the US and Europe. The main goal of this review is to demonstrate how results from the Programme for Irbesartan Mortality and Morbidity Evaluation and other recent studies, based on the effects of renin-angiotensin system blockade, can be appropriate in clinical practice, thus displaying benefits of irbesartan therapy at any stage of renal disease in diabetics.
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Hearts of 4-week-old male SD or transgenic rats were isolated and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer with or without 10 microM Irb in Langendorff mode. After 15 min of stabilization, pressure-volume curves were obtained and the hearts subjected to 20 min ischemia followed by 30 min reperfusion. A second set of pressure-volume curves was obtained thereafter. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), total coronary flow (CF) and oxygen consumption (MVO2) were recorded continuously. Myocardial efficiency was derived from the slope of relations of MVO2 to pressure/volume area. After 20 min ischemia, LVEDP was significantly higher in transgenic than in SD (35.7+/-1.8 vs. 29.2+/-1.0 mmHg, P<0.05) or Irb treated transgenic hearts (24.3+/-1.6 mmHg, P<0.05). Myocardial efficiency was increased by Irb before ischemia. Ischemia increased efficiency in SD but not in transgenic rats, Irb increased efficiency in transgenic hearts post-ischemia.
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a monocarboxypeptidase which metabolizes angiotensin II (Ang II) to generate Ang-(1-7), has been shown to prevent cardiac hypertrophy and injury but the mechanism remains elusive. Irbesartan has the dual actions of angiotensin receptor blockade and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) activation. We hypothesized that irbesartan would exert its protective effects on ACE2 deficiency-mediated myocardial fibrosis and cardiac injury via the PPARγ signaling.
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Studies suggest that the Ser49Gly and Arg389Gly polymorphisms in the beta1-adrenergic receptor might be of functional importance for the cardiovascular system. Both have been associated with altered receptor activity in vitro, and with hypertension and cardiac failure in vivo.
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Angiotensin receptor antagonists are effective drugs for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension which have a side effect profile similar to placebo. Their role in the management of hypertension remains to be defined, but they are of particular use to patients who are intolerant of ACE inhibitors because of cough. It is uncertain at the present time whether the benefits of ACE inhibition in other disorders such as congestive heart failure and following myocardial infarction will be similar for angiotensin receptor blockers.
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely used in managing essential hypertension, with considerable evidence available on their short-term efficacy in lowering blood pressure (BP). However, there currently exists limited "pooled" data examining the long-term efficacy of ARB treatment in controlling BP or mitigating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the long-term effects of ARBs as a class on BP control, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, cerebrovascular events (ie, stroke), cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to March 2015. Two evaluators independently reviewed studies for eligibility. Randomized controlled hypertension trials were included if they reported on ARB efficacy in either BP control (relative to placebo for periods ≥ 6 months) or cardiovascular/cerebrovascular outcomes (relative to non-ARB antihypertensive therapies for periods ≥ 24 months). Studies were pooled with a random-effects model using weighted mean differences (WMDs) and relative risks for continuous and dichotomous outcomes, respectively. A total of 11 articles were included in the narrative synthesis, representing seven unique trials (16,864 participants). Six ARB agents were studied: candesartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, olmesartan, losartan (each represented by one trial arm), and telmisartan (represented by two arms). ARB therapy significantly reduced mean systolic BP (WMD: -4.86; 95% CI: -6.19, -3.53 mm Hg) and diastolic BP (WMD: -2.75; 95% CI: -3.65, -1.86 mm Hg] compared to placebo. The risk of stroke was reduced by 21% in the ARB group compared with alternative antihypertensives (risk ratio: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.96). ARBs did not, however, produce statistically significant reductions in the risk of myocardial infarction, heart failure hospitalization, or mortality. Our findings suggest that ARBs, as a class, are more effective than placebo therapy in long-term BP lowering in patients with essential hypertension. Long-term ARB treatment may also confer enhanced protection against stroke but not other cardiovascular outcomes relative to placebo.
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Blocking the formation of angiotensin II with converting enzyme inhibitors is an established intervention for kidney disease. The advent of antagonists of the angiotensin II receptor has increased the options for inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In adults, angiotensin II antagonists have antihypertensive and antiproteinuric effects similar to those of converting enzyme inhibitors and an adverse effect profile similar to that of placebo. In children, no information is available on angiotensin II antagonists. A total of 20 children (aged 4 to 17 years) with chronic kidney disease received the angiotensin II antagonist irbesartan given once daily. They had hypertension (n = 11), overt proteinuria (n = 3), or both (n = 6). At last follow-up, 2 to 17 months after starting irbesartan (median dosage: 3.3 mg/kg body weight daily), arterial pressure was significantly reduced: the systolic value by 16 [6-22] and the diastolic value by 11 [4-22] mmHg (median and interquartile range). In nine patients with proteinuria, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio significantly decreased by 145 [105-209] mg/mmol. The frequency of reported adverse events was similar before and with irbesartan.
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Endothelial dysfunction of the vasculature contributes to the elevated peripheral resistance and reduced myocardial perfusion in congestive heart failure (CHF). The present study systematically investigated the effect of angiotensin II (AT(1))- receptor blockade on vascular superoxide (O(2)(-)) production and endothelial dysfunction.
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After adjustment for potential covariates (blood pressure and left ventricular mass index at baseline, blood pressure change, age, sex, dose and added antihypertensive treatment), there was a marked difference between the Arg/Arg and Lys/Arg genotypes in patients treated with irbesartan; those with the Arg/Arg genotype responded on average with an almost two-fold greater regression of left ventricular mass index than patients with the Lys/Arg genotype (-30.1 g/m2 [3.6] vs -16.7 [4.5], p = 0.03).
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists may help reduce levels of circulating adhesion molecules and oxidative stress parameters in patients with persistent AF. This article summarizes the rationale and design of the CREATIVE-AF trial, which has been designed to test this hypothesis.
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This study shows that the population attending Spanish HT centers have high prevalence of microalbuminuria. The addition of irbesartan to the usual treatment in poorly controlled hypertensive patients significantly improved BP control, and reduced microalbuminuria both in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Our study confirms that similar results can be obtained in normal clinical practice as in controlled clinical trials.
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Patients (n=5059) from the Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events (CURE) randomized trial that demonstrated benefits of clopidogrel versus placebo in preventing cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndromes were genotyped for the PON1 Q192R polymorphism. Clopidogrel compared with placebo significantly reduced the first primary efficacy outcome, irrespective of PON1 Q192R genotype (P=0.07 for heterogeneity). No association was observed between the Q192R polymorphism and cardiovascular events in the overall sample (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09 per allele; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-1.24; P=0.23). However, an association was observed between the Q allele and increased cardiovascular events in the placebo group (HR, 1.23 per allele; 95% CI, 1.03-1.47; P=0.03) but not in the clopidogrel group (HR, 0.93 per allele; 95% CI, 0.76-1.13; P=0.46). In 1156 atrial fibrillation patients from the Atrial Fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial With Irbesartan for Prevention of Vascular Events, there was no evidence of interaction between PON1 genotype and clopidogrel for any outcome or for an association between genotype and cardiovascular events.