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Avapro (Irbesartan)

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Avapro is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of hypertension, kidney disease in patients with high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes and heart failure. Avapro acts by lowering high blood pressure.

Other names for this medication:
Aprovel, Irbesartana, Irbesartanum, Irovel

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Also known as:  Irbesartan.


Avapro is a perfect remedy in struggle against hypertension, kidney disease in patients with high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes and heart failure. Target of Avapro is to lower high blood pressure.

Avapro acts by lowering high blood pressure.

Avapro is also known as Irbesartan, Approvel, Aprovel, Irovel, Karvea.

Generic name of Avapro is Irbesartan.

Brand names of Avapro are Avapro, Avalide containing Irbesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide.


Take Avapro tablets orally with or without food.

Do not crush or chew it.

Take Avapro at the same time once a day.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Avapro suddenly.


If you overdose Avapro and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Avapro are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Avapro if you are allergic to Avapro components.

Be careful with Avapro if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Try to be careful using Avapro if you take a diuretic (water pill), salt substitutes or potassium supplements, other blood pressure medicines.

It can be dangerous to use Avapro if you suffer from or have a history of congestive heart failure, high levels of potassium in your blood, liver disease, and kidney disease.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Avapro suddenly.

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Other signs and symptoms of nephrotic syndrome at baseline (serum albumin < 3.5 g/dL, serum total cholesterol > 260 mg/dL or use of a statin, and edema or use of a loop diuretic); progression of chronic kidney disease during follow-up (doubling of baseline serum creatinine level or requirement for dialysis or kidney transplantation). Logistic regression to relate index and reference tests.

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Diabetes can disrupt endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis which leads to ER stress. ER stress-induced renal apoptosis seems to be involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. The present study was designed to investigate the contribution of reduced ER stress to the beneficial effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin injections to hypertensive mRen2-transgenic rats. After 2weeks animals were treated with 0.7mg/kg/day irbesartan. Blood glucose, blood pressure and protein excretion were assessed. Expression of ER stress markers was measured by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect markers of ER stress, renal damage and infiltrating cells. Glomerulosclerosis and apoptosis were evaluated. Diabetic mRen2-transgenic rats developed renal injury with proteinuria, tubulointerstitial cell proliferation as well as glomerulosclerosis and podocyte injury. Moreover, an increase in inflammation, podocyte ER stress and apoptosis was detected. Irbesartan somewhat lowered blood pressure and reduced proteinuria, tubulointerstitial cell proliferation and glomerulosclerosis. Podocyte damage was ameliorated but markers of ER stress (calnexin, grp78) and apoptosis were not reduced by irbesartan. On the other hand, inflammatory cell infiltration in the tubulointerstitium and the glomerulus was significantly attenuated. We conclude that irbesartan reduced renal damage even in a very low dose. The beneficial effects of low dose irbesartan were paralleled by a reduction of blood pressure and inflammation but not by a reduction of ER stress and apoptosis. Thus, sustained endoplasmic reticulum stress in the kidney does not necessarily lead to increased inflammation and tubulointerstitial or glomerular injury.

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After 4-week treatment with 300 mg irbesartan + 12.5 mg hydrochorothiazide + 5 mg amlodipine, 86 patients with resistant hypertension were randomized to the add-on 25 mg spironolactone (MRB group, n = 46) or 5 mg ramipril (RASB group, n = 40) groups for 12 weeks. Treatment intensity was increased at week 4, 8 or 10 if home blood pressure (BP) was equal to or above 135/85 mmHg, by sequentially adding 20-40 mg furosemide and 5 mg amiloride (MRB group), or 10 mg ramipril and 5-10 mg bisoprolol (RASB group). Transthoracic echography was performed at baseline and week 12.

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Different additives show different influences on the polymorphic form of IBS. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were effective in stabilizing amorphous particles instead of converting amorphous drug into crystalline particles, while poloxamer407 (F127) and tween80 (T80) could convert the amorphous drug into crystalline particles. T80 was also effective in controlling the particle size than that of F127. After HPH, crystalline particles with an average of 0.8 μm were obtained. The freeze-dried micron-sized crystalline particles exhibited significantly enhanced in vitro dissolution rate when compared to the raw drug. SEM, FT-IR, XRD, DSC and dissolution rate studies indicated that the micron-sized particles were stable during 6 months storage.

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Irbesartan (10 µM) almost doubled ganglion cell survival after four days. Angiotensin II (2 µM) reduced cell survival by 40%. Sholl analysis suggested that irbesartan improved ganglion cell dendritic arborisation compared to control and angiotensin II reduced it. Angiotensin-treated explants showed an intense DHE fluorescence not seen in irbesartan-treated explants. Analysis of protein and mRNA expression determined that the angiotensin II receptor At1R was implicated in modulation of the NADPH-dependent pathway of superoxide generation.

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In 3,595 patients included in the I-PRESERVE (Irbesartan in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction) trial, change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and development of WRF after initiation of irbesartan or placebo were examined. We examined the association between WRF and the first occurrence of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization (primary outcome in this analysis) and the interaction with randomized treatment.

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Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have become established as a major class of antihypertensive on the basis of their powerful effects on blood pressure (BP), excellent tolerability and pleiotropic end-organ-protective effects. However, individual ARBs vary in antihypertensive efficacy, which may be important to clinical outcome. Several strategies are available to ensure that BP reductions with ARBs are at least as great as that which can be achieved with other antihypertensive classes. Firstly, several newer ARBs, including irbesartan, candesartan, telmisartan and olmesartan, have been reported to provide equivalent antihypertensive efficacy to amlodipine and greater efficacy than either losartan, valsartan or both. Secondly, increases in dose may improve the antihypertensive efficacy of agents such as valsartan, although clinical studies are necessary to provide characterisation of new, higher-dose monotherapies. Thirdly, fixed dose combinations with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) increase the antihypertensive effect of all ARBs. It is likely that differences in efficacy between newer and older ARBs will in some cases be sustained in combination therapy, such that the most potent ARBs and HCTZ will provide another tier of control. The future use of ARBs is likely to involve a growing emphasis on compound-specific data, with regard to the antihypertensive efficacy and pleiotropic protective actions of agents.

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Persistent reduction of microalbuminuria after withdrawal of all antihypertensive treatment suggests that high-dose irbesartan treatment confers long-term renoprotective effects.

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The 24-hour albumin excretion, renal mass index and volume of the glomerulus in the 3 irbesartan groups were significantly decreased as compare with those in the model group; the reductions in 50 and 200 mg/kg irbesartan groups were significant greater than those in 25 mg/kg irbesartan group.

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Twenty-four subjects were included in this single-dose, open-label, randomized two-way crossover study following an overnight fasting. A two-week wash-out period was applied. Blood samples were drawn up to 48 h following drug administrations. Irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method with TurboIonSpray mode. Pharmacokinetic parameters AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), Cmax and t were determined and used for bioequivalence evaluation after log-transformation, whereas t max ratios were evaluated non-parametrically.

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In low-renin conditions, combined renin-angiotensin system blockade enables the demonstration of a persistent renin-dependency of the blood pressure. Through its more efficient blockade of the renin-angiotensin system, demonstrated by the increase in renin and prorenin, combined renin-angiotensin system blockade is more effective than doubling the usual dose of an AT1 receptor antagonist. This may offer an alternative strategy for treating patients with a range of renin concentrations, and may potentially increase the cardio- and nephrotective benefits through a more complete blockade of the renin-angiotensin system.

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A post hoc pooled analysis of 2 multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled force-titration studies assessed the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of 7 to 8 weeks' once-daily fixed-dose irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 300/25 mg in 796 stage 1 or 2 hypertensive patients according to age (65 years or older or younger than 65) (n=121 or 675) and presence or absence of obesity (n=378 or 414), type 2 diabetes (n=99 or 697), and high World Health Organization-defined cardiovascular risk (n=593 or 202). Systolic/diastolic blood pressure reductions (27-31/16-22 mm Hg) were similar regardless of age, obesity, and type 2 diabetes status and were greater in high- vs low-risk patients. Dizziness (2.0%-3.7%), hypotension (0%-0.7%), and syncope (0%) were rare and not centered in any subgroup. There was no hypotension in the elderly or in type 2 diabetics. Irbesartan/HCTZ provided consistent blood pressure lowering and tolerability regardless of age, obesity, and type 2 diabetes and greater efficacy in patients with high cardiovascular risk.

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Hypertension becomes increasingly prevalent after menopause. Postmenopausal women are more responsive to salt than premenopausal women, and they have been reported to develop marked renal vasoconstriction on a high-sodium diet.

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Two patients, aged 79 and 88 years, with a history of hypertension, were treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, which had been discontinued because of an eczematiform rash. In spite of substitution with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, the patients had developed the same eruption. The outcome was favourable after discontinuation of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist. The pharmacologic study suggested the possibility of a cross-sensitivity reaction between these two drugs.

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Angiotensin II (Ang II) enhances sympathetic neurotransmission via AT(1)-receptors located on sympathetic nerve terminals. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of Ang II-mediated facilitation in the pithed rat by irbesartan resulted in a U-shaped dose response curve, which was not observed when PD 123319, at a concentration that selectively blocks the AT(2)-receptor, was co-administered. Hence, the irbesartan-mediated upstroke might be explained by the involvement of the AT(2)-receptor after AT(1) blockade with high-dose irbesartan. In the present study, we further investigated the possible role of the AT(2)-receptor in Ang II-mediated facilitation in vitro. We studied the effect of the AT(2)-receptor antagonist PD 123319 (10 nM) on Ang II-enhanced sympathetic outflow evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the rat isolated inferior vena cava. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the AT(1)-receptor blocker irbesartan (0.1 nM 1 M) on the sequelae of Ang II-enhanced, EFS-evoked sympathetic nerve traffic in the presence or absence of PD 123319 (10 nM). PD 123319 did not influence Ang II-enhanced sympathetic outflow. Irbesartan dose-dependently attenuate Ang II-augmented transmitter release (pIC50 7.99+0.03), whereas no U-shaped concentration-response relationship for irbesartan was observed. Co-administration of PD 123319 with irbesartan proved unable to influence Ang II-mediated facilitation differently compared with irbesartan alone. The experimental observations indicate that the AT(2)-receptor is not involved in Ang II-mediated enhancement of sympathetic nerve traffic in the present in vitro study.

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avapro tablets 2017-06-06

Despite the introduction of new antihypertensive agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium channel antagonists, the blood pressure of fewer than 30% of hypertensive patients is controlled with current therapies; compliance and continuation with medication are poor. The renin-angiotensin system is important in the pathophysiology of hypertension, end-organ damage and congestive cardiac failure. Irbesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist that provides dose-dependent, specific, insurmountable blockade of the AT1 receptor both in vivo and in vitro. It is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, has a bioavailability of 60-80% with no food effect, does not require metabolism to a bioactive compound, and is excreted by both biliary and renal routes so that dosage adjustments are unnecessary in patients with renal or hepatic disease. Irbesartan produces dose-dependent blood pressure reductions, with 24 h activity confirmed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Irbesartan is effective in the elderly and non-elderly, men and women and in cases of mild and severe hypertension. The recommended starting dosage is 150 mg once daily (o.d.), which can be increased to 300 mg. Its antihypertensive effect is accentuated by diuretic co-administration. In controlled clinical trials, irbesartan was at least as effective as atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine and enalapril. In a double-blind study, irbesartan 300 mg was more effective than losartan 100 Precose Online mg, and in a dose-titration study, irbesartan 150-300 mg produced significantly greater blood pressure reductions than losartan 50-100 mg. In pooled data from nine placebo-controlled studies, adverse event and discontinuation rates for irbesartan were similar to those for placebo, and there was no relationship between dose and adverse effects. Preliminary clinical data suggest positive haemodynamic effects in heart failure and renoprotective effects in diabetic nephropathy.

avapro vs generic 2016-09-20

Irbesartan is an effective and well-tolerated antihypertensive for elderly patients with mild to moderate hypertension. This study establishes that irbesartan Finasteride Generic Propecia has better tolerability than enalapril with respect to cough and suggests that irbesartan is as effective at lowering blood pressure but better tolerated than an ACE inhibitor in hypertensive patients > or = 65 years of age.

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Irbesartan, a new angiotensin II receptor Zebeta Dose antagonist, has been shown to provide significant blood pressure reductions compared with placebo and equal or better reductions compared with major antihypertensive agents of other classes. These effects have been demonstrated in an extensive clinical trials program, comprising 1691 irbesartan-treated patients and 539 placebo-treated patients. Active-drug-controlled trials with beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium antagonists and diuretics have further confirmed the excellent results with irbesartan. Moreover, irbesartan demonstrates a clear dose-related therapeutic response with no dose-related effects on adverse event rates.

avapro max dosage 2017-06-13

Fifty-four patients were randomly divided into irbesartan and olmesartan groups. Blood pressure (BP) was significantly decreased in all patients at 12 weeks. In particular, BP in patients who initially received irbesartan showed significant reductions. The equality of variance of BP in the irbesartan group Evecare 30 Tablets was significantly smaller than that in the olmesartan group at 12 weeks. Blood concentrations of adiponectin were significantly increased in the irbesartan group at 12 weeks. Log [pentraxin-3] in the irbesartan group were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the ability of irbesartan to reduce BP is comparable to that of olmesartan with equivalent safety.

avapro 75 mg 2017-12-27

This is the first study supporting the comparable antihypertensive and metabolic response to fixed-dose Shallaki Online combinations of sulphydril-containing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (zofenopril) or angiotensin receptor blockers (Irbesartan) with a diuretic in patients with advanced metabolic syndrome and nonresponders to monotherapy. The results of this study can further improve the clinical management of high cardiovascular risk patients with hypertension and metabolic syndrome, because these two drug combinations increase the number of available combinations, which may significantly improve patients' adherence in this special clinical condition that is frequently found in everyday practice.

avapro 600 mg 2017-04-09

In this randomized perspective clinical Prevacid Off Brand trial, different doses of irbesartan (150 mg/d and 300 mg/d) were given to two groups of patients in a cross-over design. Blood pressure (BP), creatinine clearance (Ccr) and 24-hour proteinuria were examined. Urinary excretion of cytokines was determined by human inflammatory cytokine antibody array. A two-fold change in spot intensity was considered significant.

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Enhanced oxidative stress has Celebrex 75 Mg been observed in hypertension, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified.

avapro and alcohol 2015-05-29

Both mechanical and humoral triggers have been put forward to explain the hypertrophic response of the challenged cardiomyocyte. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cyclic equibiaxial stretch is a direct stimulus for isolated adult rabbit cardiomyocytes to develop hypertrophy and to explore the potential involvement of the autocrine/paracrine factors ANG II, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1), and IGF-I in this process. Isolated cardiomyocytes were exposed to 10% cyclic equibiaxial stretch (1 Hz) for up to 48 h or treated with ANG II (100 nM), TGF-beta(1) (5 ng/ml), IGF-I (100 ng/ml), ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor blockers, or conditioned Cymbalta Overdose Children medium of stretched fibroblasts. Cyclic stretch significantly increased cell surface area (+3.1%), protein synthesis (+21%), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) mRNA expression (6-fold) in cardiomyocytes. TGF-beta(1) expression increased (+42%) transiently at 4 h, whereas cardiomyocyte IGF-I expression was not detectable under all experimental conditions. The AT(1) receptor blockers candesartan and irbesartan (100 nM) did not prevent the stretch-induced hypertrophic response. Direct exposure to ANG II, TGF-beta(1), or IGF-I did not enhance cardiomyocyte BNP expression. In cardiac fibroblasts, stretch elicited a significant approximately twofold increase in TGF-beta(1) and IGF-I expression. Conditioned medium of stretched fibroblasts increased BNP expression in cardiomyocytes ( approximately 2-fold, P = 0.07). This study clearly indicates that cyclic stretch is a strong, direct trigger to induce hypertrophy in fully differentiated rabbit cardiomyocytes. The present findings do not support the notion that stretch-mediated hypertrophy of adult rabbit cardiomyocytes involves autocrine/paracrine actions of ANG II, TGF-beta(1), or IGF-I.

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The present article reviews 3 head-to-head trials directly comparing the antihypertensive efficacy of olmesartan with that of 4 other AIIRAs, at recommended maintenance doses, already in clinical use for the treatment of hypertension.

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Pharmacology of irbesartan and losartan, their blood-pressure-lowering efficacy, their tolerability/safety, end-organ protective effects and economic evaluation.

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This study demonstrated that patient compliance to irbesartan was significantly superior to other study treatments. Irbesartan is therefore a suitable first-line therapy for essential hypertension in everyday clinical practice.

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Angiotensin II antagonists (AIIAs) were introduced to treat hypertension about 10 years ago. During this period they were evaluated not only in terms of efficacy and safety but also in several large studies with clinical outcomes. They are efficacious in all clinical forms of hypertension and are effective also in all ethnic groups. Cardiovascular and renal protection in proteinuric diabetic nephropathy beyond blood pressure reduction was proved in major clinical studies: Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE), Reduction of Endpoint in Non-Insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus with the AII Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) and Irbesartan Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (IDNT). Their blood pressure independent protective effect is also mentioned by the blockade of AT1 receptor. As a class AIIs have a tolerability profile similar to placebo.

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Patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria have an elevated risk of developing diabetic nephropathy or cardiovascular complications. The effectiveness of AT1 blockers, in particular irbesartan, in these patients has been confirmed in controlled clinical studies. AIM, METHOD: An observational study involving 500 general practitioners and 9057 patients was carried out to establish which therapeutic aims can be achieved under realistic day-to-day conditions. Inclusion criteria were type 2 diabetes, hypertension > 140/90 mmHg and current treatment with irbesartan or irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HTCZ). The observational study covered a period of 6 months.

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Two studies comparing the cost-effectiveness of irbesartan to similar blood pressure control with standard antihypertensive medications (excluding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and other angiotensin receptor blockers) in treatment of patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and microalbuminuria have been published to date; one in a United States setting, the other in a Spanish setting. Both studies were based on a Markov-based Monte Carlo simulation model, with the effects of irbesartan or standard blood pressure control taken from the Irbesartan Reduction of Microalbuminuria-2 (IRMA-2) and the Irbesartan in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (IDNT) clinical trials. In both Spanish and U.S. settings, irbesartan was projected to delay the onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), reduce the cumulative incidence of ESRD, increase life expectancy, and reduce overall direct medical costs. Irbesartan treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and microalbuminuria may lead to major improvements in long-term patient outcomes, with substantial cost savings as an added bonus to third party payers.

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Endarterectomy samples removed from patients with recent (within 6 weeks) or no previous focal neurological symptoms were assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western analysis, and explant culture. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, and OPN were measured by mean optical density (MOD), densitometry of protein bands, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of supernatants from explant culture, and compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.