The present study demonstrates the antibacterial activity of selected brown and green marine algae collected from Saudi Arabia Red Sea and Arabian Gulf. The methanolic and acetone extracts were tested against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and Candida albicans in an attempt to be used as an alternative to commonly used antibiotics. Both brown seaweed species Sargassum latifolium B and Sargassum platycarpum A methanolic extracts were found to be active against gram positive than gram negative; however, S. latifolium acetone extract gave the highest inhibitory activity against Salmonella sp. On the other hand, Cladophorasocialis organic extract demonstrated higher antibacterial activity than the fresh extract but both C. socialis extracts revealed decreased activity compared to Sargassum extracts. Cladophora methanolic extract showed an obvious effect on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The present work shows a comparable therapeutic potency of the tested seaweed members Sargassum and Cladophora extracts in treating human microbial pathogens to synthetic chemical antibiotics. A remarkable higher antioxidant DPPH free radical scavenging effect was recorded with Sargassum sp. compared to Cladophora sp. FTIR Infrared Spectrometer analysis together with the high performance liquid chromatography provided a detailed description of the possible functional constituents and the major chemical components present in marine macroalgae particularly in brown seaweeds to be mainly of phenolic nature to which the potent antimicrobial activity is being attributed.
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To determine the anti-inflammatory activity of gatifloxacin in ophthalmic use.
Chinfloxacin was tested against a total of 1,739 clinical isolates representing 23 species using the agar dilution method. Studies of bactericidal activity, including minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) and time-kill curve determinations, were conducted according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
MXF cannot achieve sufficient penetration into the aqueous and vitreous of eyes infected with C. albicans.
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The resurgence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and HIV associated tuberculosis (TB) are of serious global concern. To contain this situation, new anti-tuberculosis drugs and reduced treatment regimens are imperative. Recently, a nitroimidazole, PA-824, has been shown to be active against both replicating and non-replicating bacteria. It is activated by the enzyme Deazaflavin-dependent nitroreductase (Ddn) present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which catalyzes the reduction of PA-824, resulting in the release of lethal reactive nitrogen species (RNS) within the bacteria. In this context, PA-824 was analyzed for its activity against latent tuberculosis under anaerobic conditions and compared with rifampicin (RIF) and pyrazinamide (PZA). Recent mutagenesis studies have identified A76E mutation which affects the above mentioned catalysis and leads to PA-824 resistance. Hence, novel analogues which could cope up with their binding to mutant Ddn receptor were also identified through this study.
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The causative organism isolated was similar to that documented in other reports. Endophthalmitis must be treated with vitrectomy and intra-vitreal injections of antibiotics after a proper vitreous tap.
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CNS was more susceptible to gatifloxacin (MIC(90) = 2 microg/mL) than levofloxacin (MIC(90) = 8 microg/mL) or moxifloxacin (MIC(90) = 4 microg/mL). MSSA was more susceptible to moxifloxacin (MIC(90) = 1 microg/mL) than gatifloxacin (MIC(90) = 4 microg/mL) or levofloxacin (MIC(90) = 4 microg/mL). MRSA were resistant to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. In the presence of BAK, however, the MIC(90) of gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin against CNS, MSSA, and MRSA was < or =0.008 microg/mL. Gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin had similar MPCs against MRSA (> or =4 microg/mL). In the presence of BAK, the MPC of gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin against MRSA ranged from < or =0.004 microg/mL to 0.125 microg/mL.
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The recent expansion of the H30 subclone of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and its CTX-M-15-associated H30Rx subset remains unexplained. Although ST131 H30 typically exhibits fluoroquinolone resistance, so do multiple other E. coli lineages that have not expanded similarly. To determine whether H30 isolates have more intense fluoroquinolone resistance than other fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates and to identify possible mechanisms, we determined the MICs for four fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and norfloxacin) among 89 well-characterized, genetically diverse fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates (48 non-H30 and 41 H30 [23 H30Rx and 18 H30 non-Rx]). We compared the MICs with the H30 and H30Rx status, the presence/number of nonsynonymous mutations in gyrA, parC, and parE, the presence of aac(6')-1b-cr (an aminoglycoside/fluoroquinolone agent-modifying enzyme), and the efflux pump activity (measured as organic solvent tolerance [OST]). Among 1,518 recent E. coli clinical isolates, ST131 H30 predominated clonally, both overall and among the fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. Among the 89 study isolates, compared with non-H30 isolates, H30 isolates exhibited categorically higher MICs for all four fluoroquinolone agents, higher absolute ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin MICs, more nonsynonymous mutations in gyrA, parC, and parE (specifically gyrA D87N, parC E84V, and parE I529L), and a numerically higher prevalence of (H30Rx-associated) aac(6')-1b-cr but lower OST scores. All putative resistance mechanisms were significantly associated with the MICs [for aac(6')-1b-cr: ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin only]. parC D87N corresponded with ST131 H30 and parE I529L with ST131 generally. Thus, more intense fluoroquinolone resistance may provide ST131 H30, especially H30Rx [if aac(6')-1b-cr positive], with subtle fitness advantages over other fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains. This urges both parsimonious fluoroquinolone use and a search for other fitness-enhancing traits within ST131 H30.
The in vitro activity of ceftaroline was compared with those of ceftriaxone, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, tigecycline, and vancomycin against 514 clinical anaerobic isolates using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standard methodology. Ceftaroline demonstrated good to excellent activity against Gram-positive anaerobic pathogens and limited activity against Gram-negative pathogens, particularly Bacteroides fragilis group isolates.
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In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treated, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards.
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Intraperitoneal administration of antibiotics is recommended as a first treatment for managing peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. However, the efficacy of oral administration of quinolones has not been well studied.
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A literature search was conducted to identify studies of the pharmacokinetics and disposition of drugs in patients undergoing CVVHDF via a Prismaflex dialyzer (sold under 3 brand names: Gambro, Hospal, and Prima) equipped with polyacrylonitrile (AN69) filter membranes. From each study, the mean total clearance of each study medication during CVVHDF was extracted and compared with clearance of the drug in patients not undergoing CVVHDF, to produce dosage guidelines for patients undergoing CVVHDF.
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Coadministration of moxifloxacin with ranitidine showed lack of interaction for area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity (AUCinfinity) [35.5 versus 34.3 mg/L x h with versus without ranitidine; relative bioavailability 103%, 90% confidence interval (CI) 97.7 to 109.3%] and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) [2.98 versus 2.76 mg/L with versus without ranitidine; ratio 107.9%, 90% CI 90.5 to 128.6%]. When moxifloxacin was given simultaneously with Maalox 70, AUCinfinity ( 14.7 mg/L x h) and Cmax (1.00 mg/L) were reduced by approximately 60%. When the antacid was given 4 hours before or 2 hours after the fluoroquinolone, AUCinfinity values (28.0 and 26.7 versus 34.3 mg/L x h) were moderately reduced (by <27%), terminal elimination half-life values declined by approximately 24% (9.4 and 9.3 versus 12.3 hours) compared with moxifloxacin alone and Cmax values were almost unchanged (2.55 and 2.38 versus 2.57 mg/L). The mean bioavailabilities corrected for the elimination rate constants (lambdaz) were 101% (antacid given 4 hours before moxifloxacin) and 98% (antacid given 2 hours after moxifloxacin), indicating that Maalox 70 may interfere with the gastrointestinal recirculation of moxifloxacin.