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Two cases of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX)-induced immune thrombocytopenia are reported in which unusual drug-dependent platelet antibodies were demonstrated by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Whereas two distinct sulfamethoxazole-dependent antibodies of the IgG and IgM class were detectable in the serum of one patient, the serum of the other patient contained a platelet antibody exclusively reactive with N-4-acetyl-sulfamethoxazole, a metabolite of sulfamethoxazole. Urine from a healthy volunteer collected after administration of therapeutic doses of TMP-SMX proved to be an appropriate source of ex vivo metabolites for antibody testing. The results of this study stress the role of metabolite-specific antibodies in drug-dependent immune thrombocytopenia and underscore the necessity of including metabolite preparations of drugs in serologic analyses.
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Data from 468 CPT-exposed and 768 CPT-unexposed women were analyzed. CPT was associated with protection against malaria versus IPTp (hazard ratio: 0.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.20, 0.60). After adjustment for time period this effect was not statistically significant (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.28, 1.52). Among women receiving and not receiving CPT, rates of low birth weight (7.1% versus 7.6%) and preterm birth (23.5% versus 23.6%) were similar. CPT was associated with lower CD4 counts 24 weeks postpartum in women receiving (-77.6 cells/ μ L, 95% CI: -125.2, -30.1) and not receiving antiretrovirals (-33.7 cells/ μ L, 95% CI: -58.6, -8.8).
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From 1990 through 1994, we collected information on all cases of mycotic aneurysms due to non-typhi Salmonella that occurred at the Veterans General Hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. All cases of salmonella bacteremia were reviewed to find any additional cases. A total of 16 cases of salmonella mycotic aneurysms occurred. The mortality rate was 100% among the three patients treated with medical therapy alone. Nine (70%) of the 13 patients who received surgical and medical therapy survived. Ten of the 16 cases were due to Salmonella choleraesuis. Diagnosis was established by computed tomography or aortography. Gallium scans were of no diagnostic utility. A culture of blood from a patient with underlying atherosclerosis that is positive for invasive Salmonella should prompt a search for a mycotic aneurysm. Treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin and resection of the infected vessel is usually successful.
Ceftriaxone and SXT showed similar efficacy in preventing shunt infection. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage before or after VP shunt placement and aqueductal stenosis were independent risk factors for meningitis after VP shunt.
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PENTA Guidelines aim to provide practical recommendations for treating children with HIV infection in Europe. Changes to guidance since 2004 have been informed by new evidence and by expectations of better outcomes following the ongoing success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participation in PENTA trials of simplifying treatment is encouraged. The main changes are in the following sections: 'When to start ART': Treatment is recommended for all infants, and at higher CD4 cell counts and percentages in older children, in line with changes to adult guidelines. The number of age bands has been reduced to simplify and harmonize with other paediatric guidelines. Greater emphasis is placed on CD4 cell count in children over 5 years, and guidance is provided where CD4% and CD4 criteria differ. 'What to start with': A three-drug regimen of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) with either a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a boosted protease inhibitor (PI) remains the first choice combination. Lamivudine and abacavir are the NRTI backbone of choice for most children, based on long-term follow-up in the PENTA 5 trial. Stavudine is no longer recommended. Whether to start with an NNRTI or PI remains unclear, but PENPACT 1 trial results in 2009 may help to inform this. All PIs should be ritonavir boosted. Recommendations on use of resistance testing, therapeutic drug monitoring and HLA testing draw from data in adults and from European paediatric cohort studies. Recently updated US and WHO paediatric guidelines provide more detailed review of the evidence base. Differences between guidelines are highlighted and explained.
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Sexual intercourse has been established as one of the most important risk factors for both isolated and recurrent uncomplicated infections of the urinary tract. Prophylactic therapy requires only a small dose of an antimicrobial agent, which is generally given at bedtime for 6 to 12 months. An alternative method is to give an antimicrobial agent for six months post-intercourse. It is still unknown which of the two methods is most effective. A total of 123 women with suspected sexually induced recurrent cystitis (mean age 28 years, range 15 to 65) and a history of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) (the last one within the last six months) were subjected to prophylactic therapy for six months. Half of them were treated with low-dose trimethoprim-cotrimoxazole (TMP-SMX) and cefaclor given orally post-intercourse (spontaneous usage), while the other half were treated with low-dose TMP-SMX and cefaclor given at bedtime. The response to the prophylactic therapy was classified as continued cure in 106 cases (86.17%), failure in 13 cases (10.56%), and unknown in four cases (3.25%). TMP-SMX administered in continuous nightly prophylaxis showed similar efficacy and tolerability as cefaclor post-intercourse.
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BACKGROUND Aspergillus terreus is an evolving opportunistic pathogen, and patients with A. terreus often have poor outcomes due to its intrinsic resistance to several systemic antifungal agents. Here we present a unique case of intracranial abscesses of A. terreus in a patient with recurrent angiosarcoma, complicated by development of tension pneumocephalus. CASE REPORT A 67-year old gentleman with history of scalp angiosarcoma with wide excision two years prior presented to the hospital for left arm clumsiness, altered mental status, and low-grade fever. Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis bacteremia was detected, and Computed Tomography (CT) of the head showed right frontal lobe abscesses. He was started on steroids, intravenous vancomycin and cefepime, and was eventually discharged. He presented to the hospital again due to persistent and worsening symptoms. MRI showed progression of the brain lesions, and surgical biopsy and culture of lesions revealed A. terreus and gram-positive cocci. He was started on trimethroprim/sulfamethoxazole and voriconazole and symptoms improved. On post-op day four, he acutely decompensated with total loss of left arm strength; MRI demonstrated tension pneumocephalus. Conservative management was undertaken with continuous supplemental oxygen. Serial x-ray imaging over the next week demonstrated resolution of the pneumocephalus, and the patient was able to regain all proximal lower and upper extremity strength. CONCLUSIONS Never before has a case of A. terreus been associated with angiosarcoma or tension pneumocephalus in the literature. Proper identification and prompt diagnosis of species is crucial in the immunocompromised patient. Tension pneumocephalus should be included in the differential diagnosis of nontraumatic hemiparesis for emergent evaluation and management.
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The incidence of shigellae was measured in 445 children with diarrhoea in Sanandaj, Kordestan, and 715 in Tehran during a 1-year study. 18 (4%) patients in Sanandaj and 41 (5.7%) patients in Tehran were positive for various shigella species. Sh. boydii (7 strains) and Sh. sonnei (25 strains) were the commonest species in Sanandaj and Tehran respectively. Among the isolates from Sanandaj the highest resistance was to tetracycline (55.5%), whereas in Tehran it was to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (68.3%).
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The stability of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) at various concentrations in 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection was studied. Appropriate volumes of TMP-SMX formulation (80 mg TMP and 400 mg SMX/5 mL) were mixed with 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection to provide dilutions of 1:25 v/v, 1:20 v/v, 1:15 v/v, and 1:10 v/v. Aliquots were removed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 24, and 48 hours and filtered. The pH of the samples was determined, and the samples were assayed for trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Admixtures were visually inspected for precipitate before each sample was removed. The concentration of SMX in all admixtures did not change during the study period. The stability of TMP was dependent on concentration and vehicle. At a 1:25 v/v dilution, TMP was stable for 48 hours in 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. At a 1:20 v/v dilution, TMP was stable for 24 hours in 5% dextrose injection and 14 hours in 0.9% sodium chloride injection. At a 1:15 v/v dilution, TMP was stable for four hours in 5% dextrose injection and two hours in 0.9% sodium chloride injection. At a 1:10 v/v dilution, TMP was stable for one hour in 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Concentrated solutions of TMP-SMX should be prepared in 5% dextrose injection, infused within one hour of preparation, and visually inspected for precipitation before and during infusion.
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These results indicate that cotrimoxazole is as effective as chloroquine in treatment of acute symptomatic uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children resident in an endemic area of southwest Nigeria. It is an added advantage when malaria coexists with respiratory tract infections for which cotrimoxazole is the recommended drug.
Twenty-three children with Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) have been treated with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (T-S) in a 4-year period. The children are classified in two main groups according to the extent of their disease. Group A includes 16 children with single system disease and group B, seven children with multisystem disease. All patients were treated for 4 weeks to 3 months. The results of treatment are evaluated in terms of response in individual organs involved. All children with single system disease had a good response to the drug. Children with multisystem disease had a good response to some organs but a poorer outcome for the lungs and for the blood. These patients did not respond even to conventional chemotherapy.
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Pneumonia is the leading cause of infectious death amongst children globally, with the highest burden in Africa. Early identification of children at risk of treatment failure in the community and prompt referral could lower mortality. A number of clinical markers have been independently associated with oral antibiotic failure in childhood pneumonia. This study aimed to develop a prognostic model for fast-breathing pneumonia treatment failure in sub-Saharan Africa.
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301 S. pneumoniae clinical strains were isolated from patients during 1995-1996. Susceptibility to penicillin, cefotaxime, cefepime, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin were studied.