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Patients aged 18-75 years with bilateral primary axillary hyperhidrosis sufficient to interfere with daily living. 465 were screened, 320 randomised, and 307 completed the study.
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To measure the effect of botulinum toxin type A (Botox, Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA) treatment in 271 patients diagnosed with headache in accordance with International Headache Society (IHS) criteria.
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Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is a frequently used treatment modality for a variety of neuromuscular disorders. It acts by preventing acetylcholine release at the motor nerve endings, inducing muscle paralysis. Although considered safe, studies suggest that BTX-A injections create adverse effects on target and non-target muscles. We speculate that these adverse effects are reduced by direct electrical stimulation (ES) exercising of muscles. The aims were to determine the effects of ES exercise on strength, mass, and contractile material in BTX-A injected muscles, and to investigate if BTX-A injections affect non-target muscles. Seventeen New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were divided into three groups: (1) Control group received saline injections; (2) BTX-A group received monthly BTX-A (3.5 U/kg) injections into the quadriceps for six months and (3) BTX-A+ES group received monthly BTX-A injections and ES exercise three times a week for six months. Outcome measures included knee extensor torque, muscle mass, and contractile material percentage area in injected and contralateral, non-injected quadriceps. Glycogen depletion and direct muscle stimulation were used to assess possible muscle inhibition in non-injected quadriceps. ES exercise partially prevented muscle weakness, atrophy, and contractile material loss in injected muscles, and mostly prevented muscle degeneration in contralateral, non-injected muscles. Non-injected muscles of BTX-A+ES group showed higher force with direct muscle compared to nerve stimulation, and retained glycogen following the depletion protocol, suggesting that BTX-A inhibited activation in non-target muscles. We conclude that ES exercise provides some protection from degeneration to target and non-target muscles during BTX-A treatments.
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Overactive bladder is very frequent in central neurogenic patients; it is a major cause of refractory incontinence despite anticholinergic treatment. In non-neurogenic patients it results in very distressing symptoms that associate urgency with or without incontinence and frequency. Botulinum toxin A is a well known agent used previously in the treatment of striated muscle spasmodism, which blocks the release of acetylcholine from nerve endings and neuro-muscular transmission. Its recent use in urology revealed a dramatic improvement in clinical and urodynamic parameters of the overactive bladder, associated with a long lasting effect over 6 to 9 months and an excellent tolerance. In neurogenic patients, the efficacy of botulinum injection was demonstrated over a placebo control group. Toxin was injected at 20 to 30 different sites in the detrusor muscle, with cystoscopy guidance. Recent studies showed a sub-epithelial mechanism of action on neuropeptides, which could explain an inhibitory effect of both efferent and afferent arms of the micturition reflex. Further studies remain necessary regarding the respective doses of Dysport and Botox toxin, selection of patients, combination with anticholinergic treatment, effects of repeated injections.
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We evaluate the efficacy and safety of repeated intratrigonal injections of onabotulinum toxin A in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.
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Self-assessment at follow-up 5 to 6 weeks after injection on a 5-point scale (none, slight, moderate, good, or very good effect) showed that 7 of 10 patients experienced good or very good effect. A decrease in itching was shown with a visual linear analogue scale (VAS) for itching, with mean 39% on the treated side compared with an increase by 52% on the untreated side. These findings were supported by the evaluation of clinical signs. Six of 7 patients who experienced good or very good effect also had aggravating hand sweating or worsening during the summer.
Significant group differences were found in the thyroarytenoid muscle; the patients had significantly greater activity on the right side both during speech breaks and nonbreaks in comparison with the controls. Cricothyroid muscle levels were also increased on the right in the patients.
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We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of high doses of onabotulinumtoxinA (from 600 to 800 units) in 26 patients affected by upper and/or lower limb post-stroke spasticity. They were assessed before, 30 and 90 days after treatment. We observed a significant muscle tone reduction and a significant functional improvement (assessed with the Disability Assessment Scale). No adverse events were reported. In our retrospective analysis the treatment with high doses of onabotulinumtoxinA showed to be effective and safe.
The goal of this review was to consolidate the evidence concerning the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (onabotulinumtoxinA) in depression.
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In spite that headache is, by far, the most frequent reason for neurological consultation and that the diagnosis and treatment of some patients with headache is difficult, the number of headache clinics is scarce in our country. In this paper the main arguments which should allow us, as neurologists, to defend the necessity of implementing headache clinics are reviewed. To get this aim we should first overcome our internal reluctances, which still make headache as scarcely appreciated within our specialty. The facts that more than a quarter of consultations to our Neurology Services are due to headache, that there are more than 200 different headaches, some of them actually invalidating, and the new therapeutic options for chronic patients, such as OnabotulinumtoxinA or neuromodulation techniques, oblige us to introduce specialised headache attendance in our current neurological offer. Even though there are no definite data, available results indicate that headache clinics are efficient in patients with chronic headaches, not only in terms of health benefit but also from an economical point of view.
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Continent catheterizable diversions can exhibit long-term complications such as high pressures and involuntary unit contractions within the urinary reservoir, rendering them similar to neurogenic bladders. Given the similarity of these issues to neurogenic detrusor overactivity, the use of Botox injections is a logical treatment option to explore.
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Storing vials of reconstituted BTX-A for 4 weeks after administration to patients was not associated with detectable growth of bacteria or fungi.
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Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA injection is a safe and effective treatment for DM patients with refractory DO. Patients with DM should be informed of the increased risk of large PVR before initiation of treatment.
Cohort study, Level III.