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The effects of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (dl-nebivolol, atenolol and propranolol) and of 1-nebivolol on cardiodynamics and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation were studied in the isolated working rabbit heart subjected to normothermic global ischemia, followed, in some cases, by reperfusion. The hearts were pretreated with the different drugs (0.32 mg/l) 30 min before the start of ischemia, dl-Nebivolol and propranolol provided protection for both cardiodynamic and mitochondrial functions, as did l-nebivolol, which lacks beta-adrenoceptor blocking properties, while atenolol failed to protect mechanical activity and cardiac mitochondria against the effects of ischemia and post-ischemic reperfusion. Catecholamine depletion with reserpine did not have a beneficial effect on the recovery of cardiodynamic and mitochondrial function during post-ischemic reperfusion. It is concluded that the beneficial effects of beta-blockers on the ischemic and reperfused myocardium can not be explained by a specific beta-blocking action alone.
These results demonstrate for the first time that nebivolol and carvedilol induce relaxation of renal glomerular microvasculature through ATP efflux with consequent stimulation of P2Y-purinoceptor-mediated NO release from GECs.
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We evaluated the effects of nebivolol, a third-generation highly selective [beta]-blocker with additional vasodilating activity, versus the traditional [beta]-blocker atenolol in controlling functional and morphological cardiovascular damage in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.
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Obesity can modify the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic drugs. As beta-adrenoceptor blockers (BB) are often prescribed for obese patients suffering from hypertension or coronary heart disease, this study compares the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic beta-adrenoceptor blockers in obese and control subjects.
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Coronary flow reserve (CFR) is the maximal increase in coronary blood flow (CBF) above its resting level for a given perfusion pressure when coronary vasculature is maximally dilated. Normally, hyperaemic CBF reaches values at least 2- to 3-fold greater than resting CBF. Reduction of CFR is mainly due to epicardial coronary artery stenosis or to coronary microvascular dysfunction. CFR can be determined by several techniques that measure CBF itself (e.g. positron emission tomography) or CBF velocities (Doppler methods) from which coronary flow velocity reserve is calculated. Hyperaemic coronary vasodilation can be obtained by pharmacological agents (e.g. adenosine and dipyridamole), but also by the cold pressure test. Long-term antihypertensive treatment induces significant improvement of CFR, which is parallel to the regression of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. First- and second-generation beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists (beta-blockers) have shown contradictory influences on CFR. This can be explained by the interaction of the effects on CBF at rest, generally reduced by these drugs, and after hyperaemia, when minimal coronary resistance appears to be either increased or reduced. Third-generation beta-blockers (e.g. carvedilol and nebivolol), which have vasodilating capacity, improve hyperaemic CBF. This occurs as a result of a reduction in minimal resistance, which can be attributed to alpha-adrenergic blockade and/or to a nitric oxide-mediated effect. This improvement is clearly beneficial in patients with coronary artery disease and indicates an improved coronary microvascular function. Changes of CFR due to vasodilating beta-blockers improve microvascular angina pectoris or silent ischaemia in patients without epicardial artery stenosis, and are also helpful in predicting the response or the further improvement of LV function to treatment.
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The effectiveness and safety of therapy with nebivolol and its effects on life quality (LQ) were studied in 71 patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) with an ejection fraction of 40% or more. The follow-up lasted 1 year. The mean daily dose of the drug was 3.66 +/- 0.11 mg. Echocardiography, bicycle ergometry, daily ECG monitoring, survey according to the questionnaires developed by V. P. Zaitsev, a researcher of All-Russian Cardiology Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, to the depression scale (DS), the personality scale (PS) and reactive anxiety scale (RAS) by Spilberg-Khanin were performed. The study was conducted on the day of initiation of outpatient treatment, following 3 months and 1 year. After 3 months of therapy, clinical improvement was observed in 83% of the patients and it preserved at the same level till the end of the first year: exercise tolerance and the total volume of work increased significantly (p < 0.001), 97% of the examinees returned to work. Nebivolol produced an antiarrhythmic effect in 66.7% of the patients with high Lown gradation premature beats. Therapy with the agent showed a low mortality rates (1.4%), few number of cardiovascular excesses (4.2%), and good tolerability (7.2%). By the end of the first year, cardiac remodeling improved insignificantly: end-systolic volume, end-diastolic volume, left ventricular myocardial mass decreased by 6.4, 1.4, and 7%, respectively; fraction ejection increased by 2.3% of the baseline values. The parameters of LQ improved: the RAS scores reduced by 18.4%; the number of patients with high PS scores decreased significantly (p < 0.05) due to the increase in the number of patients with its moderate level (p < 0.01) and, what is significant, erectile function did not deteriorate. Thus, nebivolol demonstrated its high effectiveness and safety during prolonged therapy of patients with prior MI, without cardiodepressive activity and favorable impact on their LQ.
Both NBV and LTG produced significantly enhanced seizure threshold (ST), decreased grip strength, inhibited lipid peroxidation, and increased brain GSH levels in acute and chronic dosages likened to control group, whereas there was no significant effect on alternation scores. The combination of NBV with LTG significantly potentiated the ST when compared to LTG.
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This study assessed the effects of Nebivolol on left ventricular (LV) function and exercise capacity in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDC).
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Nebivolol is a cardioselective beta-blocker (BB) currently used for the treatment of hypertension. It has mild vasodilating properties attributed to its interaction with the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway, a property not shared by other BBs. Carvedilol is a nonselective ss-adrenergic receptor antagonist that also blocks alpha1-adrenergic receptors and is a potent antioxidant. Anthracyclines (ANTs), daunorubicin and doxorubicin, are commonly used in the treatment of several tumours, but their cardiac toxicity prevents their use at maximum myelotoxic doses, representing an important problem. In this study, we have evaluated the role of these BBs administered in combination with ANTs (daunorubicin and doxorubicin) on a reduction in cardiac toxicity. The combination of BB and ANTs has reduced the release of GSSG and GSH; in particular, co-treatment with nebivolol to ANTs has shown a significant reduction. The total integrated creatine kinase and troponin T activities were improved by BB and ANTs co-treatment. A significant reduction of their release was observed when hearts were treated with nebivolol. Cardiac tissue activity of gluthatione reductase was not significant and similar among experimental groups. In contrast, gluthatione peroxidise, Mn-superoxide dismutase and nitrite/nitrate release were increased after co-treatment with nebivolol. Finally, three parameters have been used to evaluate the cardiac toxicity of ANTs: the left ventricular pressure developed under a constant perfusion pressure (LVDP), the rate of variation of this parameter during systole (contractility) (LV/dt)max and during diastole (relaxation) (LV(dP/dt)min. Combination with BB has shown a reduction in cardiac toxicity; in particular, nebivolol has exerted the most significant cardioprotective effect.
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To consider the pharmacoeconomic benefits of antihypertensive therapy.
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Oxidative stress was induced through the binding of oxidized (ox)-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to its specific endothelial receptor, called "lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1" (LOX-1), in bovine and human endothelial cells and in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing bovine LOX-1 (BLOX-1-CHO cells). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide (O(2)(*-)), and NO were measured in cells by flow cytometry.
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Nebivolol has a significant BP reduction effect in patients with OSA that is similar to valsartan and reduces heart rate to a greater extent which may prove beneficial in selected patients.
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Effective blood pressure reduction reduces cardiovascular risk and prevents later complications.
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Nebivolol, a chemically novel beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, acutely lowers blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats, anaesthetised normotensive dogs, and hypertensive patients. We have investigated the actions of dl-nebivolol in five conscious normotensive rabbits (sham, mean blood pressure (BP) of 82.2 +/- 4.1 mm Hg, mean +/- SEM) and four hypertensive rabbits (renal wrap hypertension) (wrap, mean BP of 117.6 +/- 1.5 mm Hg). Nebivolol (1 mg/kg i.v.) did not significantly lower the BP or heart rate in either group 30 min after injection. In the same rabbits, on another day, after autonomic blockade (mecamylamine), nebivolol (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg i.v.) right shifted the bolus i.v. isoproterenol tachycardia dose-response curves by dose ratios of 5, 18, and 90 in sham rabbits, respectively, and 5, 11, and 23 in wrap rabbits, respectively, indicating significant cardiac beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonism. In guinea pig isolated right atria pretreated with atropine (1 microM) and desipramine (DMI, 0.1 microM), norepinephrine concentration-response curves were antagonised competitively by nebivolol (3-100 nM), giving a pKb of 7.90. In separate atria without DMI pretreatment, neither nebivolol (100 nM) nor propranolol (100 nM) had any significant effect on the increase in the rate of norepinephrine efflux following electrical field stimulation (0.5-2 Hz, 3 min). These findings suggest that at concentrations of nebivolol that show substantial beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonism, there is no evidence of hypotension or bradycardia nor additional effects on cardiac norepinephrine release. Why nebivolol lowers blood pressure in some species but not in the conscious rabbit is not known.