cefixime tablets usage
Treatment of gonorrhoea is threatened by antimicrobial resistance, and decreased susceptibility and resistance to recommended therapies is emerging in Europe. Current associations between resistance and molecular type remain poorly understood. Gonococcal isolates (n=1,066) collected for the 2009 and 2010 European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme were typed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). A total of 406 sequence types (STs) were identified, 125 of which occurred in ≥two isolates. Seven major genogroups of closely related STs (varying by ≤1% at just one of the two target loci) were defined. Genogroup 1407 (G1407), observed in 20/21 countries and predominant in 13/21 countries, accounted for 23% of all isolates and was associated with decreased susceptibility to cefixime and resistance to ciprofloxacin and raised minimum inhibitory concentrations for ceftriaxone and azithromycin. Genogroup 225 (G225), associated with ciprofloxacin resistance, was observed in 10% of isolates from 19/21 countries. None of the other genogroups were associated with antimicrobial resistance. The predominance of a multidrug-resistant clone (G1407) in Europe is worrying given the recent reports of recommended third generation cephalosporins failing to treat infections with this clone. Identifying associations between ST and antimicrobial resistance aids the understanding of the dissemination of resistant clones within a population and could facilitate development of targeted intervention strategies.
cefixime 200mg capsule
The objective of this work was the phylogenetic characterization of local clinical isolates of uropathogenic E. coli with respect to drug resistance. A total of 59 uropathogenic E. coli responsible for community acquired urinary tract infections were included in this study. A triplex PCR was employed to segregate each isolate into four different phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D). Drug resistance was evaluated by disc diffusion method. The drugs used were ampicillin, aztreonam, cefixime, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, cephradine among β-lactam group; amikacin, gentamicin, and streptomycin among aminoglycosides; nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin from quinolones; trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole, and tetracycline. Among 59 uropathogenic E. coli isolates majority belonged to phylogenetic group B2 (50%) where as 19% each belonged to groups A and B1, and 12% to group D. All the isolates were multiple drug resistant (MDR). Most effective drugs against Group A, B1, and B2 were gentamicin, amikacin and cefixime; ceftriaxone and quinolones; and ceftriaxone and amikacin, respectively. Group D isolates were found to be highly resistant to all drugs. Our results have shown emergence of MDR isolates among uropathogenic E. coli with dominance of phylogenetic group B2. However, it was found that group D isolates were though less frequent, more drug resistant as compared with group B2. Groups A and B1 were relatively uncommon. Amikacin, ceftriaxone and gentamicin were the most effective drugs in general.
cefixime renal dose
In group A, 95% (39/41) of the patients receiving cefixime responded favorably, whereas in group B, 30% (14/45) responded to chloramphenicol. The 31 patients not cured in group B were then successfully treated with cefixime. Overall, cefixime was well tolerated. Subsequent antibiogram data showed an overall multidrug-resistance rate of 78% (66/85).
cefixime research brand
Community-acquired infections, such as AOM, LRTI and UTI, caused by susceptible pathogens, can be treated with cefixime, as a good choice for a successful clinical response.
cefixime tablets indications
The proposed method is simple, rapid, accurate, precise, and appropriate for pharmacokinetic and therapeutic drug monitoring in the clinical laboratories.
A panel of 52 clinical isolates and 10 control strains of N. gonorrhoeae were selected to represent a range of susceptibilities to cefixime. Susceptibility testing was performed using the methodology used for the Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme (GRASP). The isolates were typed by N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST).
cefixime tablets 200mg
The activity of BAY v 3522 was tested against over 500 clinical bacterial isolates and compared with the activities of ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefaclor, cefixime, cefuroxime, cephalexin, and/or ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and metronidazole. BAY v 3522 activity against staphylococci and streptococci equaled or exceeded those of the other agents. BAY v 3522 exhibited no significant advantage over cefaclor, cefuroxime, or cephalexin against gram-negative bacilli.
Among primary outcomes (clinical failure, microbiological failure, and relapse), compared with chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones were not statistically significantly different for clinical failure (594 participants) or microbiological failure (378 participants), but they reduced clinical relapse (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.50; 467 participants, 6 trials). We detected no statistically significant difference versus co-trimoxazole (82 participants, 2 trials) or azithromycin (152 participants, 2 trials). Fluoroquinolones reduced clinical failure compared with ceftriaxone (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.45; 120 participants, 3 trials), but not microbiological failure or relapse. Versus cefixime, fluoroquinolones reduced clinical failure (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.24; 238 participants; 2 trials) and relapse (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.91; 218 participants, 2 trials).
cefixime pediatric dosing
Six hundred and ninety-nine strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were examined by the agar dilution method according to the M7-A5 guidelines established by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) determine to their beta-lactamase production and susceptibility to penicillin G, cefixime, ceftriaxone, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin. The frequency of isolation of penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae decreased gradually, from 7.3% of the test isolates (55 isolates) in 1995 to about 1% in 1998 and 1999. In contrast, while beta-lactamase-nonproducing N. gonorrhoeae exhibiting chromosomally mediated penicillin G resistance were not isolated from clinical specimens in 1995, the incidence of isolation of such resistant strains increased markedly, to 8.2% of 159 isolates, in 1997 and 14.9% of 242 isolates in 1999. The incidence of the isolation of tetracycline-resistant strains also increased between 1996 (none detected) and 1998-1999 (each 7%-8%), and a tendency towards an increase in the frequency of isolates of ciprofloxacin-resistant strains was also observed between 1995 (9.8%) and from 1997 to 1999 (more than 20%). There were no isolates resistant to any two antibiotics among penicillin G, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin until 1997, but, in subsequent surveys in recent years, multidrug-resistant isolates (resistant to penicillin G, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin) were detected in 1999.
cefixime renal dosing
Cefixime is an important cephalosporin antibiotic that easily decomposes and releases different related substances in preparation and storage steps. The objective of the current study was to develop a simple, precise, and accurate isocratic liquid chromatography (LC) method for the determination of cefixime in the presence of its related substances generated from thermal stress in the bulk drug. The chromatographic conditions were comprised of a reversed-phase C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase composed of water: acetonitrile (85:15 v/v, with 0.5% formic acid) and ultraviolet detection (UV). Some thermal degradation products were identified using a proposed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Five peaks (A, B, C, D, and E impurities based on British Pharmacopoeia) were known and a few unknown peaks appeared in the thermal stress solution of cefixime. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot of the LC-UV method showed a good linear relationship in the concentration range 0.9-1000.0 μg mL(-1). The recovery of the optimized method was between 94.6 and 98.4% and the inter- and intra-day relative standard deviations were less than 3.3%. The obtained results shown in the LC-UV proposed method can be conveniently used in a quality control laboratory for routine analysis of cefixime for the assay and related substances, as well as for the evaluation of stability samples of bulk drugs.
cefixime dosage mims
Sensitivity to nineteen antibiotics used in the clinical practice was determined in strains of Escherichia coli isolated from intrahospital and extrahospital bacteriurias.
cefixime capsules dissolution
Testing for 'total' Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms and Escherichia coli as marker organisms in foods and detection of specific pathogens of the family Enterobacteriaceae, including pathogenic E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia spp. is widely applied in many food control laboratories. This review describes some recent developments in culture media for these organisms. Methods for enumeration of E. coli include the standard MPN technique, a membrane-filter method and the use of media containing chromogenic and fluorogenic indicators for beta-D-glucuronidase (GUD) activity. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157 strains usually do not ferment sorbitol and are GUD-negative. These characteristics are used in selective media for these organisms, such as cefixime tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar. For the detection of salmonellae, motility enrichment in Modified Semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) medium shows equal or better results than the use of standard Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth. Addition of nitrofurantoin to diagnostic semisolid salmonella agar and to xylose lysine desoxycholate agar favours the isolation of S. enteritidis. Recently developed salmonella media use different selective and diagnostic properties, such as acid formation from propylene glycol, glucuronate fermentation, fermentation of glycerol and addition of Tergitol 4 as selective agent. The isolation of Shigella spp. from foods is rather difficult and further evaluation of suggested isolation systems and the development of more effective methods for the isolation of this pathogen are needed. Yersinia enterocolitica includes both pathogenic and nonpathogenic biotypes and serogroups. As no single procedure will recover all pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica, the use of two isolation procedures in parallel is recommended.