FREE
SHIPPING!

on all orders above $300.00

FREE Pills!

via4gra pills

for free with every order

OUR DRUG PRICES are

70%

Less than in your
local pharmacy

Search by letter:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Ceftin (Cefuroxime)
+ BONUS

Rating of sales:          

 
Ceftin

Ceftin is used for treating bacterial infections (sinus, skin, lung, urinary tract, ear, and throat). It may also be used to treat Lyme disease and gonorrhea.

Other names for this medication:
Ceftum, Zocef, Cefakind, Supacef, Altacef, C-Furo, Oratil, Stafcure, Pulmocef, Zefu, Ceftin, Kefurox, Zinacef, Zinacef ADD-Vantage, Zinacef TwistVial

Similar Products:
Lorabid, Cefotan, Cefzil, Lorabid Pulvules, Mefoxin, Raniclor

30 pills
 
When you purchase you get a bonus:
Cialis Soft
Cialis Soft 20mg
or Viagra Soft
Viagra Soft 100mg

You can choose your bonus in the shopping cart before checkout.

 
   bonus pills

  $20

  $30

USD 4.16 per pill   -20% USD 155.93 USD 124.74 per 30 pills   Order now
60 pills
 
When you purchase you get a bonus:
Cialis Soft
Cialis Soft 20mg
or Viagra Soft
Viagra Soft 100mg

You can choose your bonus in the shopping cart before checkout.

 
   bonus pills

  $20

  $30

USD 3.84 per pill   -20% USD 288.23 USD 230.58 per 60 pills   Order now
90 pills
 
When you purchase you get a bonus:
Cialis Soft
Cialis Soft 20mg
or Viagra Soft
Viagra Soft 100mg

You can choose your bonus in the shopping cart before checkout.

 
   bonus pills

  free

  $15

USD 3.79 per pill   -20% USD 426.43 USD 341.14 per 90 pills   Order now
120 pills
 
When you purchase you get a bonus:
Cialis Soft
Cialis Soft 20mg
or Viagra Soft
Viagra Soft 100mg

You can choose your bonus in the shopping cart before checkout.

 
   bonus pills

  free

  free

USD 3.72 per pill   -20% USD 557.55 USD 446.04 per 120 pills   Order now
180 pills
 
When you purchase you get a bonus:
Cialis Soft
Cialis Soft 20mg
or Viagra Soft
Viagra Soft 100mg

You can choose your bonus in the shopping cart before checkout.

 
   bonus pills

  free

  free

USD 3.60 per pill   -20% USD 810.34 USD 648.27 per 180 pills   Order now

Also known as:  Cefuroxime.

Description

Ceftin is a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by interfering with the formation of the bacteria's cell wall so that the wall ruptures, resulting in the death of the bacteria.

Generic name of Ceftin is Cefuroxime.

Ceftin is also known as Cefuroxime axetil, Zinacef, Bacticef, Cefasun, Cefudura, Cefuhexal, Cefurax, Cefutil, Cetil, Froxime, Elobact, Oraxim, Zinnat.

Brand name of Ceftin is Ceftin.

Dosage

Take Ceftin by mouth with or without food.

Swallow Ceftin whole. Do not break, crush, or chew before swallowing.

Ceftin works best if it is taken at the same time each day.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Ceftin suddenly. To clear up your infection completely, take Ceftin for the full course of treatment. Keep taking it even if you feel better in a few days.

Overdose

If you overdose Ceftin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Ceftin are:

  • ceftin user reviews
  • ceftin 10 mg
  • ceftin 250mg tablets
  • ceftin dosage pediatrics
  • ceftin medication
  • ceftin antibiotic dose
  • ceftin uti dosing
  • ceftin antibiotic cost
  • ceftin dosing adults
  • ceftin brand name
  • ceftin online
  • ceftin generic
  • ceftin infant dosage
  • ceftin gonorrhea dosage
  • ceftin cost
  • ceftin normal dosage
  • ceftin pediatric dosage
  • ceftin 250mg medication
  • ceftin generic name
  • ceftin childrens dosage
  • ceftin tablets
  • ceftin oral medication
  • ceftin mg
  • ceftin dosing epocrates
  • ceftin dosing
  • ceftin dosage
  • ceftin suspension dosage
  • ceftin 750 mg
  • ceftin suspension coupon
  • ceftin 1000 mg
  • ceftin 500mg medication
  • ceftin drug
  • ceftin and alcohol
  • ceftin uti dosage
  • ceftin usual dosage
  • ceftin oral suspension
  • ceftin tabs
  • ceftin 125 mg
  • ceftin 250 mg
  • ceftin 300 mg
  • ceftin medication uses
  • ceftin missed dose
  • ceftin reviews
  • ceftin 600 mg
  • ceftin drug interactions
  • ceftin dosing weight
  • ceftin pediatric dosing
  • ceftin medicine
  • ceftin with alcohol
  • ceftin dosing dialysis
  • ceftin 500mg tab
  • ceftin overdose
  • ceftin 5 mg
  • ceftin 500 mg
  • ceftin pill
  • ceftin suspension
  • ceftin 400 mg
  • ceftin 250 dosage
  • ceftin 250mg tab
  • ceftin renal dosing
  • ceftin drug class
  • ceftin dosing pediatric
  • ceftin drug classification
  • ceftin overdose symptoms

Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Ceftin if you are allergic to Ceftin components.

Ceftin should not be used for colds, flu, other virus infections, sore throats or other minor infections, or to prevent infections.

Be careful if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful if you are diabetes patient. Ceftin may cause the results of some tests for urine glucose to be wrong.

To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control because hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Ceftin.

It can be dangerous to stop Ceftin taking suddenly.

ceftin dosing pediatric

A total of 563 isolates (330 Escherichia coli, 142 Proteus mirabilis and 91 Klebsiella spp) was studied; MIC50/MIC90 of Cefditoren was 0.25/0.5 mg/L respectively, with 97.1% of the isolates being inhibited at 1 mg/L. All 12 strains producing ESBLs or AmpC enzymes were resistant to cefditoren. Susceptibility rates (%) for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime axetil, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fosfomycin were 93.1- 94.1- 96.8-93.1-71.9 and 92.8% respectively. Cefditoren MIC was significantly higher in nalidixic/ciprofloxacin non-susceptible strains; resistance to cefditoren was not associated with resistance to mecillinam, fosfomycin nitrofurantoin and aminoglycosides. Multivariate analysis demonstrated history of urinary infection in the last two weeks or three months as risk factors for cefditoren resistance.

ceftin pediatric dosing

Cefuroxime axetil (CAE), an orally absorbed prodrug of cefuroxime, was evaluated for its efficacy and safety in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (tonsillitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis and otitis media) in general practice in the United Kingdom. A total of 385 patients aged 14 or over were enrolled in a randomized study to compare cefuroxime axetil 250 mg b.d. for 5 days with amoxycillin/clavulanate (Augmentin, AUG) 375 mg t.d.s. for 5 days. Of 175 clinically assessable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil, 136 were cured and 33 improved (97% success rate). Of 188 assessable patients given Augmentin, 155 were cured and 29 improved (98% success rate). Sixty-four patients treated with cefuroxime axetil were evaluable for bacteriological response: 47 (73%) of the causative pathogens were eradicated, as compared with 62 of 86 (72%) in patients treated with Augmentin. Thirteen out of 181 (7%) patients treated with cefuroxime axetil experienced drug-related adverse events, including 4% with diarrhoea. In the Augmentin group 24 out of 204 (12%) patients had a drug-related adverse event, including 5% with diarrhoea. In conclusion, cefuroxime axetil at a dose of 250 mg b.d. appears to be as safe and effective as Augmentin at the higher dose of 375 mg t.d.s. in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections.

ceftin dosing dialysis

A new analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of 12 pharmaceuticals using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Six nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, naproxen, sulindac, and piroxicam) and six antibiotics (tinidazole, cefuroxime axetil, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, and chloramphenicol) were extracted by ultrasound-assisted DLLME using dichloromethane (800 μL) and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v, 1200 μL) as the extraction and dispersive solvents, respectively. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of extraction and dispersive solvent, vortex and ultrasonic time, sample pH, and ionic strength, were optimized. The ultrasound-assisted process was applied to accelerate the formation of the fine cloudy solution by using a small volume of dispersive solvent, which increased the extraction efficiency and reduced the equilibrium time. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.04-20 ng mL(-1) (ciprofloxacin and sulfadiazine), 0.2-100 ng mL(-1) (ketoprofen, tinidazole, cefuroxime axetil, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, and sulindac), and 1-200 ng mL(-1) (mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, piroxicam, and chloramphenicol). The LODs and LOQs of the method were in the range of 0.006-0.091 and 0.018-0.281 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative recoveries of the target analytes were in the range from 76.77 to 99.97 % with RSDs between 1.6 and 8.8 %. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and analysis of 12 pharmaceuticals in five kinds of water samples (drinking water, running water, river water, influent and effluent wastewater) with satisfactory results. Graphical Abstract Twelve pharmaceuticals in water samples analyted by UHPLC-MS/MS using ultrasound-assisted DLLME.

ceftin pediatric dosage

Cefuroxime axetil (CA), a poorly soluble, broad spectrum cephalosporin ester prodrug, is hydrolysed by intestinal esterase prior to absorption, leading to poor and variable bioavailability. The objective was therefore to formulate a stable amorphous solid dispersion of the drug with enhanced solubility and stability against enzymatic degradation.

ceftin pill

Since the 90% CI for AUClast and Cmax ratios were within the 80-125% interval proposed by the US FDA, it was concluded that cefuroxime axetil (test formulation, 250 mg/5 mL suspension) was bioequivalent to a reference formulation under fed conditions, for both the rate and extent of absorption.

ceftin dosing

Development of resistance to available antimicrobial agents has been identified in every decade since the introduction of the sulfonamides in the 1930s. Current concerns for management of acute otitis media (AOM) are multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase producing Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. In the USA, amoxicillin remains the drug for choice for AOM. Increasing the current dose to 80 mg/kg/day in two doses provides increased concentrations of drug in serum and middle ear fluid and captures additional resistant strains of S. pneumoniae. For children who fail initial therapy with amoxicillin an expert panel convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggested amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime axetil or intramuscular ceftriaxone. To protect the therapeutic advantage of antimicrobial agents used for AOM, it is important to promote judicious use of antimicrobial agents and avoid uses if it is likely that viral infections are the likely cause of the disease, to implement programs for parent education and to increase the accuracy of diagnosis of AOM. Conjugate polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines are currently in clinical trial; early results indicate protective levels of antibody can be achieved with a three dosage schedule beginning at 2 months of age. Finally, alternative medicine remedies may be of value for some infectious diseases including AOM; garlic extract is bactericidal for the major bacterial pathogens of AOM but is heat- and acid-labile and loose activity when cooked or taken by mouth.

ceftin generic

The efficacy and tolerance of single oral doses of cefuroxime axetil (1.5 g) were compared with oral ampicillin (3 g) for treating acute gonococcal urethritis in 110 men and 30 women. Each dose was given with 1 g probenecid. Of the 62 assessable patients who received ampicillin, two failed to respond to treatment. Of 67 assessable patients who received cefuroxime axetil, one failed to respond. Pencillinase producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were isolated from five patients; one received ampicillin and failed to respond, whereas the other four received cefuroxime axetil and three were cured. A single oral dose of 1.5 g cefuroxime axetil with 1 g probenecid seemed to be an effective treatment for acute gonococcal urethritis, especially for penicillin resistant strains.

ceftin brand name

Randomized, multicenter, investigator-blinded clinical trial with clinical evaluations during treatment (8 to 12 days) and at 1 to 5 days and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-treatment.

ceftin tabs

A rapid selection of nonsusceptible NP pneumococcal isolates during antibiotic treatment for AOM is common. This phenomenon may contribute to the spread of resistant pneumococci.

ceftin gonorrhea dosage

A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trial was performed comparing 200 mg of cefditoren-pivoxil twice daily for 5 days versus standard cefuroxime-axetil treatment (250 mg twice daily for 10 days) of Anthonisen type I or II acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The modified intention-to-treat population included 541 patients. Patients were assessed during therapy, at the end of therapy (visit 3; primary evaluation time point), and at follow-up. Clinical success was obtained in 79.9% of the 264 patients included in the cefditoren-pivoxil group and in 82.7% of the 277 patients in the cefuroxime-axetil group (treatment difference, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.8, -9.7 to 3.6%). Treatment clinical effects were more clearly seen in sputum signs (decreasing volume and purulence from approximately 80% to approximately 10% of the patients). At the end of treatment, exploratory analysis of the per-pathogen bacteriological response showed 72.8% (of 103 isolates) in the cefditoren-pivoxil arm versus 67.0% (of 94 isolates) in the cefuroxime-axetil group (treatment difference; 95% CI: 5.8, -7.0 to 18.6%). Globally, the per-pathogen bacteriological response correlated well with clinical success: 83.5% of 164 baseline isolates from patients with a clinical success were eradicated or presumably eradicated, in contrast to only 3% of 33 isolates from patients with a clinical failure. Clinical success in patients infected with Haemophilus influenzae, the most frequent isolate, was 84% (of 50) and 82.5% (of 40) (treatment difference; 95% CI: 1.5, -14 to 17%) in the cefditoren-pivoxil versus the cefuroxime-axetil group. Although this study does not prove that either drug is better than a placebo, cefditoren-pivoxil and the standard 10-day cefuroxime-axetil course had similar point estimates of success in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

ceftin online

We recorded 129 reactions. The most commonly involved drugs were aminopenicillins, and the most widely reported symptoms were delayed urticaria and maculopapular exanthema. Seventeen patients had positive patch test results for cephalosporins, mostly for cephalexin (n=10), cefaclor (n=9), and cefuroxime axetil (n=5). All the patients-except 4 who experienced an exanthema after the challenge test with cephalexin-tolerated a therapeutic dose of the cephalosporin tested without any adverse effects.

ceftin 250mg tab

Cefuroxime axetil (CA) was encapsulated in pH-sensitive acrylic microspheres in order to formulate a suspension dosage form. Using this microencapsulated form it was expected to prevent leaching of the drug from the microspheres into the suspension medium and to assure the release of the drug in the first part of the intestine, thus avoiding changes to its bioavailability. For this purpose, CA was microencapsulated within several types of acrylic polymers by the solvent evaporation and the solvent extraction techniques. The acrylic polymers selected were: Eudragit E (positively charged and soluble at pH 5), Eudragit L-55 (negatively charged and soluble at pH > 5.5) and Eudragit RL (neutral, insoluble, but readily permeable). The influence of the polymer electrical charge on the stability and in vitro release of CA was investigated. Though Eudragit E microspheres presented good morphological characteristics and dissolution behaviour, the analysis of the stability of CA in the presence of Eudragit E by HPLC, indicated a negative interaction between both compounds. However, formulations made of Eudragit L-55 and RL in the ratios 100:0 and 90:10 were adequate in terms of the stability of the encapsulated CA. The dissolution studies showed a critical pH between 5.2 and 6.0, which allowed the complete release of CA in a short period. Furthermore, these polymer microspheres were shown to be efficient in masking the taste of CA.

ceftin infant dosage

Pristinamycin is an interesting alternative to beta-lactams for the first intention treatment of purulent acute sinusitis in adults. Its efficacy against penicillin-resistant pneumococci and H. influenzae is a further reason for its use in case of failure after conventional treatments.

ceftin with alcohol

Co-prescription therapy, using ranitidine bismuth citrate and one or more antibiotics, is suitable for further investigation in large-scale clinical trials in patients infected with H. pylori.

ceftin overdose

To characterize cefuroxime and cefuroxime axetil use under the influence of a parenteral-to-oral (iv-po) stepdown program.

Target Point Shipping Method Tracking Delivery Time Price
Worldwide shipping

Worldwide shipping

Registered Mail  Not trackable 14-21 business days USD 20.00 per order
EMS  Trackable, where available 5-9 business days USD 30.00 per order

Delivery time is:

Registered Mail - 14-21 business days, prices - USD 20.00, no signature is required on delivery.
EMS - 5-9 business days, prices - USD 30.00, signature is required on delivery.
Your order will be packed safe and secure and dispatched within 24 hours.

front back side

This is exactly how your parcel will look like (pictures of a real shipping item). It has a look of a regular private letter and does not disclose its contents. Size - 9.4x4.3x0.3 inches (24x11x0.7cm).

Testimonials
Best
 Show Hide 
ceftin tabs 2017-04-23

Lyme disease is a rapidly emerging infectious disease and there are still many unanswered questions with respect to appropriate laboratory tests required for Lipitor Generic Cost diagnosis of early Lyme disease, types of antimicrobials required for treatment and duration of therapy. A qualitative systematic review was used to summarise the existing data for the treatment of early Lyme disease. Eleven antibacterial therapy trials and 3 cost-effectiveness analyses met the inclusion criteria for this review. Antibacterial regimens that have been studied include phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V), amoxicillin, amoxicillin/probenecid, tetracycline, doxycycline, cefuroxime axetil, erythromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin and ceftriaxone. The data support the use of oral beta-lactam antibacterials [phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V), amoxicillin, cefuroxime axetil] and oral tetracyclines as effective first-line treatment modalities for early Lyme disease. Oral macrolides are considered second-line agents as their clinical efficacy has been less than that of the beta-lactams and tetracyclines. Courses of therapy ranging from 10 to 21 days are supported by the available evidence, although the optimal duration of therapy is unknown.

ceftin antibiotic cost 2015-06-03

One of the most used cephalosporins in clinical practice is cefuroxime axetil. Anaphylaxis due to the administration of cefuroxime is considered a rare event. We report a case of anaphylactic reaction after Cymbalta Drug Abuse the administration of cefuroxime in a child who had tolerated the drug in past exposures. Diagnostic workup is recommended for all patients with at least a moderate anaphylactic reaction (hypotension, tachycardia, bronchial hyperreactivity). This should include a detailed history of the event, previous allergies, and underlying conditions. Unfortunately, all currently available diagnostic approaches (IgE, skin-prick-test, tryptase) leave a significant percentage of non-diagnostic results and false positive or negative outcomes.

ceftin generic name 2016-02-06

Amoxicillin is recommended as the first-line agent to treat uncomplicated AOM. For clinical treatment failures after 3 days of amoxicillin, recommended antimicrobial agents include oral amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefuroxime axetil, cefprozil, cefpodoxime proxetil, and intramuscular (i.m.) ceftriaxone. I.m. ceftriaxone should be reserved for severe cases or Levitra Tab 20mg patients in whom noncompliance is expected. Tympanocentesis for identification of pathogens and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents is recommended for selection of third-line agents.

ceftin uti dosage 2015-03-09

This study shows a slight but generalised decrease in bacterial susceptibility to common oral antibiotics in the past decade in our population. Empirical initial treatment with co-trimoxazole or cephalexin is inadequate in approximately one third of UTI cases. A larger number of pathogens may be empirically treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate (24% resistance); 95% of Neurontin Overdose organisms are susceptible to cefuroxime-axetil.

ceftin 1000 mg 2016-09-28

As resistance to macrolides increases and clinical failures in children become more common with this class of antimicrobials, judicious use of antimicrobials is needed. This includes limiting antimicrobial use for viral infections and using the most Mestinon Syrup Cost effective agents when antimicrobials are clinically indicated, such as higher doses of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Application of these principles may prevent proliferation and further development of resistance.

ceftin gonorrhea dosage 2015-08-12

The objective of this investigation was to assess retrospectively the safety and the efficacy of oral ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime axetil compared to the combination of oral ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin/clavulanate, as initial outpatient treatment, in low-risk cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. We analysed retrospectively 120 episodes of febrile neutropenia, treated on an outpatient basis at 2 different oncology units; 63 episodes were treated with the oral regimen of ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin/clavulanate and 57 were treated with the combination of oral ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime. 20 treatment failures were recorded-2 of them among patients receiving ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin/clavulanate and 18 in the ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime group. Univariate analysis showed that the administration of ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime was associated with a worse outcome compared to the regimen ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin/clavulanate (OR 11, CI 2.42-49.9, p =0.002). In the multivariate model, after adjusting for the absolute number of neutrophils and the duration of neutropenia, the effect of the antibiotic regimen on the outcome disappeared, and no significant differences between the 2 regimens were noted, although Naprosyn 325 Mg the regimen of ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime was associated with a trend to a worse outcome (OR 4.74, CI 0.72-31.1, p =0.10). In conclusion, the 2 regimens appeared equally safe and effective but prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.

ceftin dosing epocrates 2015-05-31

Unbound drug plasma concentration-time curves were simulated with mean population pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefuroxime axetil, spiramycin, clindamycin, azithromycin, and metronidazole. For drugs showing time-dependent antibacterial killing, the time above MIC90 of the pathogens studied was calculated (T>MIC). For drugs with concentration-dependent bactericidal Ziac Pills activity, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC90 ratio was calculated.

ceftin medicine 2016-12-25

This study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin Zanaflex 4 Mg to cefuroxime axetil for the management of acute bacterial sinusitis or acute exacerbations of chronic sinusitis.

ceftin infant dosage 2015-04-19

The objective of this study was to compare costs, efficacy and Motilium Tablets cost efficacy of alternate oral antibacterial regimens for the ambulatory treatment of acute sinusitis. A public third-party perspective was adopted.

ceftin suspension coupon 2015-07-05

Monthly sales of packages containing antibiotics, condoms, partner referral cards, and written information on STDs were monitored by the social marketing agency. Structured interviews were conducted with a sample of traceable patients who had consulted for urethritis. Structured interviews completed by focus group discussions were conducted among healthcare providers. Interview findings were further validated by a "mystery patient" survey, using surrogate patients. Lastly, 15 key informants among the decision markers involved in the project were Cytoxan Oral Dosing interviewed in depth. Local independent consultants carried out the whole evaluation.

ceftin reviews 2016-08-20

Resolution of erythema migrans and of signs and symptoms related to early Lyme disease as well as prevention of late Lyme disease.

ceftin user reviews 2015-05-30

Antimicrobial treatment of pediatric respiratory tract infections has evolved during the past 30 years as a result of antimicrobial resistance. The focus of antimicrobial therapy in these conditions has shifted from penicillins to other agents because of the dramatic increase in antimicrobial resistance among common respiratory pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. It is important for clinicians to understand how resistance develops so that they can help prevent this phenomenon from occurring with other antimicrobials.