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Chloromycetin (Chloramphenicol)

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Generic Chloromycetin is used to treat serious infections in different parts of the body. Sometimes it is given with other antibiotics. Generic Chloromycetin should not be used for colds, flu, other virus infections, sore throats or other minor infections, or to prevent infections.

Other names for this medication:
Chloracol, Chloromycetin Sodium Succinate, Chloramphenicol Systemic

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Also known as:  Chloramphenicol.


Generic Chloromycetin is an antibiotic. It works by killing or slowing the growth of sensitive bacteria.

Generic name of Generic Chloromycetin is Chloramphenicol.

Chloromycetin is also known as Chloramphenicol, Chlornitromycin, Fenicol, Phenicol, Nevimycin, Vernacetin, Veticol.

Brand name of Generic Chloromycetin is Chloromycetin.


Take Chloromycetin by mouth with food.

If you have trouble swallowing the tablet whole, it may be crushed or chewed with a little water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Chloromycetin suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Chloromycetin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


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Try to be careful with Generic Chloromycetin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Chloromycetin can harm your baby.

Generic Chloromycetin should not be used for colds, flu, other virus infections, sore throats or other minor infections, or to prevent infections.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Chloromycetin taking suddenly.

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Fifty-four healthy dogs were screened in Portugal for the presence of nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage. Sixteen MRSA isolates (one/sample) were recovered from nasal samples of dogs, and they were typed by molecular methods (S. aureus protein A [spa]-, multilocus sequence typing-, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec-typing). MRSA isolates were investigated for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents by disk-diffusion test. The presence of resistance genes and of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (lukF-lukS) was analyzed by PCR. Four different spa-types were identified among our MRSA isolates (t032, t432, t747, and t4726), with t032 as the most frequently detected. The sequence-type ST22 was identified in four tested MRSA isolates with different spa-types. All 16 isolates presented the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV. Most of MRSA isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin (94%-100%), and no resistance was identified to chloramphenicol, mupirocin, and trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole. The ermC and tetM resistance genes were detected in all MRSA isolates. The amino acid changes Ser84Leu in GyrA protein and Ser80Phe in GrlA protein were the most prevalent ones in our MRSA isolates. None of the MRSA strains carried the lukF-lukS genes. The results presented in this study indicate that healthy dogs may be a reservoir of MRSA that could be transmitted to humans by direct contact.

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The small, stable RNA molecule encoded by ssrA, known as tmRNA or 10Sa RNA, is required for the growth of certain hybrid lambdaimmP22 phages in Escherichia coli. tmRNA has been shown to tag partially synthesized proteins for degradation in vivo by attaching a short peptide sequence, encoded by tmRNA, to the carboxyl termini of these proteins. This tag sequence contains, at its C terminus, an amino acid sequence that is recognized by cellular proteases and leads to degradation of tagged proteins. A model describing this function of tmRNA, the trans-translation model (K. C. Keiler, P. R. Waller, and R. T. Sauer, Science 271:990-993, 1996), proposes that tmRNA acts first as a tRNA and then as a mRNA, resulting in release of the original mRNA template from the ribosome and translocation of the nascent peptide to tmRNA. Previous work from this laboratory suggested that tmRNA may also interact specifically with DNA-binding proteins, modulating their activity. However, more recent results indicate that interactions between tmRNA and DNA-binding proteins are likely nonspecific. In light of this new information, we examine the effects on lambdaimmP22 growth of mutations eliminating activities postulated to be important for two different steps in the trans-translation model, alanine charging of tmRNA and degradation of tagged proteins. This mutational analysis suggests that, while charging of tmRNA with alanine is essential for lambdaimmP22 growth in E. coli, degradation of proteins tagged by tmRNA is required only to achieve optimal levels of phage growth. Based on these results, we propose that trans-translation may have two roles, the primary role being the release of stalled ribosomes from their mRNA template and the secondary role being the tagging of truncated proteins for degradation.

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Commnunity acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus species are common causes of skin and soft tissue infections. Foot ulcer of former leprosy patients can be invaded by a multi-microbial infection. Cervicitis is usually caused by certain sexually transmitted agents. Here we report a series of cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from two patients presenting with foot ulcer and cervicitis respectively, both in an outpatient or community setting (community onset) in rural North Western Ethiopia. The strains were resistant to all commonly available drugs such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline but sensitive to clindamycin. This is the first report of CA-MRSA in the study area.

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The aims of this study were to investigate the development of bacterial resistance to eugenol, thymol, trichlorocarbanalide (TCC), didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDDMAC) and C10-16-alkyldimethyl, N-oxides (ADMAO) and subsequent effects on antibiotic susceptibility. An agar minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method was used to assess the activity of the biocides against standard bacterial strains and laboratory mutants. A range of techniques including disk diffusion and gradient plate experiments were used to attempt to develop bacterial 'resistance' or tolerance to the biocides. The mutants produced were examined for cross-resistance to the other biocides and to antibiotics via disk diffusion and gradient plate MIC methods. Outer membrane proteins of the mutants were extracted and examined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Escherichia coli triclosan-resistant mutants were not cross-resistant to eugenol, thymol, TCC, DDDMAC and ADMAO. Mutants with elevated MICs to DDDMAC (E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), thymol (E. coli) and eugenol (E. coli) were isolated, but all remained sensitive to higher concentrations of the agents. Bacteria with elevated MICs to TCC and ADMAO were not obtained. Some low-level cross-resistance between DDDMAC, eugenol and thymol was observed with the E. coli gradient plate mutants, as well as reduced susceptibility to antibiotics, most notably chloramphenicol. The lack of cross-resistance of the triclosan mutants suggested that the mode of action of triclosan is not shared with the other biocides studied. SDS-PAGE results indicated that the DDDMAC P. aeruginosa mutant had a reduced amount (or absence) of one outer membrane protein in comparison with the standard strain. In conclusion, under laboratory conditions, bacterial exposure to thymol, eugenol and DDDMAC can lead to reduced susceptibility between selected biocidal agents and antibiotics, more specifically, chloramphenicol. However, further studies are required to determine if this is of clinical significance.

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There is potential exposure to sulphonamide, chloramphenicol, and β-agonists from pork. Risk communication needs to focus on banned chemicals, while informing the public about the minimal risks associated with heavy metals.

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Integrons are strongly associated with multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. Little is known about the natural history of integron-associated resistance in hospitals during nonoutbreak periods. The prevalence of integrons and the incidence of cross-transmission and horizontal gene transfer in Enterobacteriaceae with reduced susceptibility to cephalosporins (ERSC) were determined for 2 intensive care units (ICUs).

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The gut is an important source of inflammatory cytokines, but there is scant information on the mechanisms of cytokine action in gut epithelium. We hypothesized that in human Caco-2 cells, IL-6 acts directly through stimulation of Stat phosphorylation and that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes Stat activation indirectly because of its ability to cause the autocrine secretion and action of interleukin (IL)-6. Stat1, Stat5a, and Stat5b, but not Stat3, were detected in Caco-2 cells. DNA-binding activity corresponding to activated Stat5 was stimulated in a biphasic manner by IL-6, with a transient early phase, followed by sustained activation between 8 and 48 h. LPS also stimulated Stat5-like binding, but there was no early phase of activation. Functional tests of Stat5 activation showed that IL-6 stimulated Stat5-dependent reporter gene transcription but had no effect on Stat1-dependent transcription. LPS did not stimulate Stat-dependent transcription, nor did it alter the transcriptional response to IL-6. Tyrosine phosphorylation of both Stat5a and Stat5b was induced by IL-6. We infer from these data that IL-6 acts on intestinal epithelia through a Stat5-mediated transcriptional mechanism, whereas LPS does not induce gene expression through autocrine activation of enterocyte Stat signaling. These data provide a basis for testing the in vivo regulation of gut signaling and the interaction of gut reticuloendothelial cells with epithelial signal transduction.

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Ninety-six clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were examined with the agar dilution method for susceptibility to 19 antimicrobial drugs. Doxycycline, cotrimoxazole, timentin, ofloxacin, fosfomycin, and piperacillin + tazobactam, in that order, inhibited the majority of strains. All isolates were resistant to nitrofurantoin. Concurrent disk susceptibility (Bauer-Kirby method) testing, using currently valid NCCLS interpretative criteria for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uncovered a significant incidence of very major (category I), major (category II), and minor (categories III and IV) discrepancies for aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, and piperacillin + tazobactam and ticarcillin + clavulanic acid. Therefore, new interpretative criteria indicative of intermediate (I) susceptibility of S. maltophilia to these various antibiotics were proposed. In addition, new intermediate susceptibility criteria were proposed for the two beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. It was recommended to exclude ciprofloxacin from test batteries against this microorganism due to the wide scatter of minimal inhibitory concentration values and diameters of inhibition zones; the same was true for polymyxin B. It is hoped that the proposed modified, species-specific criteria will improve the clinical utility of laboratory-generated disk antibiograms with respect to the inherently multiple antibiotic-resistant, opportunistic pathogen S. maltophilia.

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During reperfusion, the heart undergoes damage characterised by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be generated by mitochondrial protein synthesis or the activity of cardiac cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs). Chloramphenicol inhibits both mitochondrial protein synthesis and the activity of CYPs, and in the perfused rat model of ischaemia/reperfusion, it decreased the release of creatine kinase and infarct size. This cardioprotective effect of chloramphenicol was not associated with mitochondrial protein synthesis, implicating the inhibition of CYPs in the cardioprotection. The ROS superoxide was generated by the heart in ischaemia/reperfusion, and this generation was inhibited by chloramphenicol. Inhibitors of CYP2C9 with no effect on mitochondrial protein synthesis, such as cimetidine and sulfaphenazole, are also cardioprotective in the perfused rat heart. Inhibition of CYP2C9 is a promising approach for the treatment of myocardial infarction, and should be further developed.

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The aim of the current study was to determine the virulence factors, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat samples. A total of 422 chicken meat samples were collected from 5 townships of Iran. Specimens were immediately transferred to the laboratory in a cooler with an ice pack. Samples were cultured, and the positive culture samples were analyzed by PCR assays. Finally, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. According to the results, out of 422 samples, 146 (34.59%) were confirmed to be E. coli positive and among E. coli-positive samples, 51 (34.93%) and 31 (21.23%) were from attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) subgroups, respectively. All of the EHEC-positive samples had all stx1, eaeA, and ehly virulence genes, whereas only 5 (9.80%) of AEEC subgroup had all stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes. As the data revealed, O157 was the most prevalent and O111 was the least prevalent strains in the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) population. Among STEC strains, sulI and blaSHV had the highest and lowest incidence rate, respectively. There was a high resistance to tetracycline (76.82%), followed by chloramphenicol (73.17%) and nitrofurantoin (63.41%), but there was low resistance to cephalotine (7.31%) antibiotics in isolated strains. Results shows that the PCR technique has a high performance for detection of serogroups, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance genes in STEC strains. This study is the first prevalence report of detection of virulence genes, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from chicken meat samples in Iran. Based on the results, chicken meat is one of the main sources of STEC strains and its virulence factors in Iran, so an accurate meat inspection would reduce disease outbreaks.

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chloromycetin dosage 2017-02-21

Disinfectants are chemical agents used to eradicate, deactivate or kill microorganisms. Chemical disinfectants especially chlorine compound are extensively used for water sanitization. Among these calcium hypochlorite and chloramines are commonly used now a day. Large number of chemical compounds, drugs and endogenous substances are metabolized by hepatic enzymes known as cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Many chemicals are capable of enzyme induction. Enzyme induction may change the metabolism of other drugs and endogenous substances which may alter the plasma concentration of these chemicals. To evaluate the enzyme inducing ability of calcium hypochlorite and chloramine, sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital was noted in mice. Normal saline was taken as Crestor 10 Pill negative control. Rifampicin, chloramphenicol and grapefruit juice were taken as positive control group. On completion of dosing after 4 weeks, alteration in sleep induction and recovery times was noted and compared. Histological evaluation of liver was observed. A significant decrease in sleeping time was observed in calcium hypochlorite and chloramine treated groups. Both calcium hypochlorite and chloramine caused a significant change in liver enzymes and in the values of complete blood count. In histological evaluation both caused fat deposition in the hepatocytes. It was concluded from the study that both calcium hypochlorite and chloramine were hepatic microsomal enzyme inducer.

chloromycetin brand name 2015-08-10

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolates from broilers in live bird markets (LBMs). A total of 209 Campylobacter spp. isolates (84 Campylobacter jejuni; 125 Zocor Simvastatin Reviews Campylobacter coli) were recovered from 364 broiler cecum samples collected from five LBMs in Shanghai, China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 13 antimicrobials were determined using agar dilution method. More than 96% of the Campylobacter spp. isolates were resistant to quinolones and tetracyclines. A high prevalence of macrolide resistance (erythromycin, 84.0%; azithromycin, 80.8%) was observed in C. coli, but not in C. jejuni (erythromycin, 6.0%; azithromycin, 2.4%). C. coli also showed significantly higher resistance than C. jejuni to clindamycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin. In contrast, C. coli isolates had lower resistance to florfenicol than the C. jejuni isolates. The majority of the C. jejuni (88.1%) and C. coli (97.6%) isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR) to three or more classes of antimicrobials. All of the 208 ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter spp. isolates were positive for the C257T mutation of the gyrA gene. In addition, the tet(O) gene was identified in all of the 202 doxycycline-resistant Campylobacter spp. isolates. Furthermore, 75.7% and 20.4% of the 103 azithromycin-resistant Campylobacter spp. isolates were positive for the A2075G mutation of the 23S rRNA gene and the presence of the erm(B) gene, respectively. Moreover, the cat gene was found in 14.3% (8/56) and 76.8% (73/95) of the chloramphenicol-resistant C. jejuni and C. coli isolates, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter spp. isolates originating from LBMs. The high prevalence of MDR Campylobacter spp. isolates in LBMs highlights the need to implement efficient intervention measures to control not only Campylobacter contamination in LBMs but also dissemination of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter spp. in poultry production.

chloromycetin drug interactions 2015-03-09

To isolate keratinophilic fungi in sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Sari city, Mazandaran province, Islamic Republic of Iran, samples were taken from 7 plants with different sewage treatment technologies. From 35 sludge samples cultured on Sabouraud's agar with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol, 326 fungal colonies belonging to 7 species were isolated. Geotrichum (59.5%), Cladosporium (13.8%), Alternaria (11.3%) and Penicillium (10.7%) species were the most prevalent. No growth Cymbalta Normal Dose of keratinophilic fungi was observed on this medium. However, using the hair-baiting technique, Microsporum gypseum, Chrysosporium spp. and Geotrichum spp. were isolated.

chloromycetin capsules 500mg 2015-05-21

Specific type I receptors for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are present in gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. By transient transfection of mouse gonadotrope-derived alphaT3-1 cells, which are direct targets for PACAP and express gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R), a marker of the gonadotrope lineage, we provide the first evidence that PACAP stimulates rat GnRH-R gene promoter activity. The EC(50) of this stimulation is compatible with a mediation via activation of the cyclic AMP-dependent signaling pathway and, consistently, co-transfection of an expression vector expressing the protein kinase A inhibitor causes reduction in PACAP as well as cholera toxin-stimulated promoter activity. Deletion and mutational analyses indicate that PACAP activation necessitates a bipartite response element that consists of a first region (-272/-237) termed PACAP response element (PARE) I that includes a steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1)-binding site and a second region (-136/-101) referred to as PARE II that contains an imperfect cyclic AMP response element. Gel shift experiments indicate the specific binding of the SF-1 and a potential SF-1-interacting factor to PARE I while a protein immunologically related to the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein interacts with PARE II. These findings suggest that PACAP might regulate the GnRH-R gene at the transcriptional level, providing novel insights into the regulation of pituitary-specific genes by hypothalamic Strattera Reviews hypophysiotropic signals.

chloromycetin 500 mg 2016-05-14

This study investigated the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis, its putative virulence factors and antimicrobial susceptibility in individuals with and without dental diseases. A total of 159 oral rinse specimens were collected from patients (n = 109) suffering from dental diseases and healthy controls (n = 50 Propecia Medication ).

chloromycetin medication 2015-05-15

A 58-year-old woman presented with a two-week history of progressive quadriplegia. Gadolinium enhanced MRI showed diffuse edema of the cervical and thoracic spine with ring-enhancing lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures both grew L. monocytogenes. Spinal cord biopsy of the lesion revealed inflammation with necrosis and also grew listeria. Intravenous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (8 mg/kg in four divided doses) was administered for six weeks with resultant Imodium Dosage High arrest of neurological symptoms and stabilization of the clinical course. Although the patient was quadraparetic she was able to be discharged to a rehabilitation facility.

chloromycetin tab 250 2017-08-19

The first and rate-controlling step of the haem biosynthetic pathway in mammals and fungi is catalysed by the mitochondrial-matrix enzyme 5-aminolaevulinate synthase (ALAS). The purpose of this work was to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in the cAMP regulation of rat housekeeping ALAS gene expression. Thus we have examined the ALAS promoter for putative transcription-factor-binding sites that may regulate transcription in a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-induced context. Applying both transient transfection assays with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene driven by progressive ALAS promoter deletions in HepG2, and electrophoresis mobility-shift Prograf And Alcohol assays we have identified two putative cAMP-response elements (CREs) at positions -38 and -142. Functional analysis showed that both CRE-like sites were necessary for complete PKA induction, but only one for basal expression. Co-transfection with a CRE-binding protein (CREB) expression vector increased PKA-mediated induction of ALAS promoter transcriptional activity. However, in the absence of co-transfected PKA, CREB worked as a specific repressor for ALAS promoter activity. A CREB mutant deficient in a PKA phosphorylation site was unable to induce expression of the ALAS gene but could inhibit non-stimulated promoter activity. Furthermore, a DNA-binding mutant of CREB did not interfere with ALAS promoter basal activity. Site-directed-mutagenesis studies showed that only the nearest element to the transcription start site was able to inhibit the activity of the promoter. Therefore, we conclude that CREB, through its binding to CRE-like sites, mediates the effect of cAMP on ALAS gene expression. Moreover, we propose that CREB could also act as a repressor of ALAS transcription, but is able to reverse its role after PKA activation. Dephosphorylated CREB would interfere in a spatial-disposition-dependent manner with the transcriptional machinery driving inhibition of gene expression.

chloromycetin otic dosage 2016-04-02

Resistance to 16 antimicrobial agents was monitored in 109,125 Salmonella cultures isolated from animals, their environment and feedstuffs between 1988 and 1999. The sensitivity of the 6512 isolates of Salmonella enterica enterica serotype Dublin to all the antimicrobial agents tested varied from 98.2 per cent in 1997 to 99.7 per cent in 1990 and 1996. In contrast, among 28,053 isolates of Salmonella enterica enterica serotype Typhimurium, there was a marked decrease in their sensitivity to all the antimicrobial agents tested, from 57.4 per cent in 1992 to 7.6 per cent in 1995, owing to the widespread occurrence in farm animals of S Typhimurium isolates of the definitive type DT104, resistant to ampicillin, sulphonamides, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and tetracyclines, although the percentage of sensitive isolates increased to 18.4 per cent in 1999, when the incidence of DT104 had decreased. Some isolates of DT104 also showed an increase in resistance to potentiated sulphonamides (2.4 per cent in 1989 to 19.2 per cent in 1999) and nalidixic acid (0 per cent in 1992, 3.8 per cent in 1995 to a peak of 16.9 per cent in 1998). In 1996, 5.1 per cent of 1086 isolates of S Typhimurium from cattle and 35.9 per cent of 192 isolates of S Typhimurium from poultry showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Of the other 74,528 Salmonella isolates, the percentage of strains sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested decreased slightly from 88.2 per cent in 1988 to 70.6 per cent in 1996 and then increased slightly to 73.7 per cent in 1999. The commonest of these other Salmonella serotypes was Salmonella Enteritidis (20,982), which remained predominantly susceptible (ranging from 81.4 to 97.4 per cent) during the study period. Few isolates were resistant to commonly used veterinary antimicrobials, for example Omnicef Missed Dose , furazolidone, the use of which was banned in 1990, and the aminoglycoside, apramycin.

capsule chloromycetin 500mg 2015-01-10

The quinoxaline olaquindox has been used extensively as a growth promoter for pigs. Recently, we isolated a plasmid (pOLA52) conferring Himalaya Menosan Reviews resistance to olaquindox from swine manure. On this plasmid, the oqxA and oqxB genes encode an RND-family multidrug efflux pump, OqxAB. It facilitates resistance to olaquindox as well as resistance to other antimicrobials like chloramphenicol. In this study, 10 of the 556 (1.8%) previously isolated Escherichia coli strains were shown to have an MIC >or= 64 microg/ml olaquindox. In nine of the ten strains, the oqxA gene was detected. Sequencing of an internal fragment of oqxA from the oqxA-positive strains showed no variation, indicating highly conserved oqxA genes. All of the oqxA-positive strains contain plasmids with replicons similar to that of pOLA52. It was verified by Southern hybridization that the oqxAB operon was situated on plasmids in most, if not all, resistant strains. Furthermore, horizontal transfer of olaquindox resistance from three olaquindox-resistant isolates was achieved using an olaquindox-sensitive E. coli as recipient.

chloromycetin buy 2016-07-04

Interleukin-2 (IL-2), as an important cytokine in immune response, has been demonstrated to have therapeutic activity in several cancer models. In our previous study, we showed that the pBV22210 vector containing a chloramphenicol resistance gene and the cryptic plasmid, pMB1, from the Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) strain could stably replicate and did not significantly affect the biological characteristics of B. longum. In this study, B. longum was transfected by electroporation with pBV22210 containing IL-2 (B. longum-pBV22210-IL-2), its growth curve was determined, and its inhibitory effect on tumor xenografts in mice was examined. The results showed that B. longum-pBV22210-IL-2 reduced the tumor size and prolonged the survival time of H22 tumor-bearing mice. In addition, when cyclophosphamide (CTX), B. longum-pBV22210-endostatin, or B. longum-pBV22210-TRAIL was combined with B. longum-pBV22210-IL-2, the antitumor effect was significantly enhanced. The survival times of the mice in the combination groups of B. longum-pBV22210-endostatin or B. longum-pBV22210-TRAIL were longer than those of the mice in the B. longum-pBV22210-IL-2 alone group. However, when CTX was added, the survival times of the mice showed no statistically significant difference compared with those of the mice in the dextrose-saline solution group. These results suggest that B. longum-pBV22210-IL-2 has potent antitumor effects that could be enhanced when combined with chemotherapeutic drugs or other antitumor genes.

chloromycetin antibiotic capsule 2017-01-16

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) represents the prevalent cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Italy with the majority of isolates exhibiting multidrug resistance. A resistant pattern that includes ampicillin (A), streptomycin (S), sulfonamide (Su), and tetracycline (T) (ASSuT) but lacks resistance to chloramphenicol (C) has recently emerged in Italy among strains of STM and of its monophasic variant, S. enterica subspecies enterica serovar S. 4,[5],12:i:-. With the aim to evaluate their clonal relationships, 553 strains of STM and S. 4,[5],12:i:- with the ASSuT and ACSSuT resistance patterns isolated in Italy from human infections between 2003 and 2006 were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) according to the PulseNet-Europe protocol and nomenclature. Among both the STM and S. 4,[5],12:i:- ASSuT strains, the predominant PFGE profile was STYMXB.0079 (53.2-73.0% of strains, respectively), while the STM ACSSuT strains belonged to the STYMXB.0061 (37.2% of strains) and STYMXB.0067 (29.9% of strains). Bionumerics cluster analysis of the nonunique PFGE profiles showed that more than 90% of ASSuT and ACSSuT-resistant strains were included in two distinct clusters with a genetic homology of 73% each other, suggesting that the ASSuT-resistant strains belong to a same clonal lineage different from that of the ACSSuT strains. Phage typing showed that 23% of the ASSuT STM strains were not typeable and 22.3% were U302. The same phage types were observed among the ASSuT strains of S. 4,[5],12:i:-. A different figure was observed for the ACSSuT strains: the STM isolates mostly belonged to DT104 (70.2%), while none of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- strains belonged to this phage type. This study indicates that the tetra-resistant ASSuT strains of STM and S. 4,[5],12:i:-, increasingly isolated in Italy, belong to a same clonal lineage and that the S. 4,[5],12:i:- strains circulating in our country mainly derive from this STM clonal lineage.

chloromycetin capsule uses 2015-05-01

Surface breakthrough and renewed epithelial ingrowth is a possible complication of Nd:YAG laser treatment of epithelial ingrowth.