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Fifty-four healthy dogs were screened in Portugal for the presence of nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage. Sixteen MRSA isolates (one/sample) were recovered from nasal samples of dogs, and they were typed by molecular methods (S. aureus protein A [spa]-, multilocus sequence typing-, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec-typing). MRSA isolates were investigated for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents by disk-diffusion test. The presence of resistance genes and of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (lukF-lukS) was analyzed by PCR. Four different spa-types were identified among our MRSA isolates (t032, t432, t747, and t4726), with t032 as the most frequently detected. The sequence-type ST22 was identified in four tested MRSA isolates with different spa-types. All 16 isolates presented the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV. Most of MRSA isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin (94%-100%), and no resistance was identified to chloramphenicol, mupirocin, and trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole. The ermC and tetM resistance genes were detected in all MRSA isolates. The amino acid changes Ser84Leu in GyrA protein and Ser80Phe in GrlA protein were the most prevalent ones in our MRSA isolates. None of the MRSA strains carried the lukF-lukS genes. The results presented in this study indicate that healthy dogs may be a reservoir of MRSA that could be transmitted to humans by direct contact.
The small, stable RNA molecule encoded by ssrA, known as tmRNA or 10Sa RNA, is required for the growth of certain hybrid lambdaimmP22 phages in Escherichia coli. tmRNA has been shown to tag partially synthesized proteins for degradation in vivo by attaching a short peptide sequence, encoded by tmRNA, to the carboxyl termini of these proteins. This tag sequence contains, at its C terminus, an amino acid sequence that is recognized by cellular proteases and leads to degradation of tagged proteins. A model describing this function of tmRNA, the trans-translation model (K. C. Keiler, P. R. Waller, and R. T. Sauer, Science 271:990-993, 1996), proposes that tmRNA acts first as a tRNA and then as a mRNA, resulting in release of the original mRNA template from the ribosome and translocation of the nascent peptide to tmRNA. Previous work from this laboratory suggested that tmRNA may also interact specifically with DNA-binding proteins, modulating their activity. However, more recent results indicate that interactions between tmRNA and DNA-binding proteins are likely nonspecific. In light of this new information, we examine the effects on lambdaimmP22 growth of mutations eliminating activities postulated to be important for two different steps in the trans-translation model, alanine charging of tmRNA and degradation of tagged proteins. This mutational analysis suggests that, while charging of tmRNA with alanine is essential for lambdaimmP22 growth in E. coli, degradation of proteins tagged by tmRNA is required only to achieve optimal levels of phage growth. Based on these results, we propose that trans-translation may have two roles, the primary role being the release of stalled ribosomes from their mRNA template and the secondary role being the tagging of truncated proteins for degradation.
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Commnunity acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus species are common causes of skin and soft tissue infections. Foot ulcer of former leprosy patients can be invaded by a multi-microbial infection. Cervicitis is usually caused by certain sexually transmitted agents. Here we report a series of cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from two patients presenting with foot ulcer and cervicitis respectively, both in an outpatient or community setting (community onset) in rural North Western Ethiopia. The strains were resistant to all commonly available drugs such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline but sensitive to clindamycin. This is the first report of CA-MRSA in the study area.
The aims of this study were to investigate the development of bacterial resistance to eugenol, thymol, trichlorocarbanalide (TCC), didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDDMAC) and C10-16-alkyldimethyl, N-oxides (ADMAO) and subsequent effects on antibiotic susceptibility. An agar minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method was used to assess the activity of the biocides against standard bacterial strains and laboratory mutants. A range of techniques including disk diffusion and gradient plate experiments were used to attempt to develop bacterial 'resistance' or tolerance to the biocides. The mutants produced were examined for cross-resistance to the other biocides and to antibiotics via disk diffusion and gradient plate MIC methods. Outer membrane proteins of the mutants were extracted and examined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Escherichia coli triclosan-resistant mutants were not cross-resistant to eugenol, thymol, TCC, DDDMAC and ADMAO. Mutants with elevated MICs to DDDMAC (E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), thymol (E. coli) and eugenol (E. coli) were isolated, but all remained sensitive to higher concentrations of the agents. Bacteria with elevated MICs to TCC and ADMAO were not obtained. Some low-level cross-resistance between DDDMAC, eugenol and thymol was observed with the E. coli gradient plate mutants, as well as reduced susceptibility to antibiotics, most notably chloramphenicol. The lack of cross-resistance of the triclosan mutants suggested that the mode of action of triclosan is not shared with the other biocides studied. SDS-PAGE results indicated that the DDDMAC P. aeruginosa mutant had a reduced amount (or absence) of one outer membrane protein in comparison with the standard strain. In conclusion, under laboratory conditions, bacterial exposure to thymol, eugenol and DDDMAC can lead to reduced susceptibility between selected biocidal agents and antibiotics, more specifically, chloramphenicol. However, further studies are required to determine if this is of clinical significance.
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There is potential exposure to sulphonamide, chloramphenicol, and β-agonists from pork. Risk communication needs to focus on banned chemicals, while informing the public about the minimal risks associated with heavy metals.
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Integrons are strongly associated with multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. Little is known about the natural history of integron-associated resistance in hospitals during nonoutbreak periods. The prevalence of integrons and the incidence of cross-transmission and horizontal gene transfer in Enterobacteriaceae with reduced susceptibility to cephalosporins (ERSC) were determined for 2 intensive care units (ICUs).
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The gut is an important source of inflammatory cytokines, but there is scant information on the mechanisms of cytokine action in gut epithelium. We hypothesized that in human Caco-2 cells, IL-6 acts directly through stimulation of Stat phosphorylation and that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes Stat activation indirectly because of its ability to cause the autocrine secretion and action of interleukin (IL)-6. Stat1, Stat5a, and Stat5b, but not Stat3, were detected in Caco-2 cells. DNA-binding activity corresponding to activated Stat5 was stimulated in a biphasic manner by IL-6, with a transient early phase, followed by sustained activation between 8 and 48 h. LPS also stimulated Stat5-like binding, but there was no early phase of activation. Functional tests of Stat5 activation showed that IL-6 stimulated Stat5-dependent reporter gene transcription but had no effect on Stat1-dependent transcription. LPS did not stimulate Stat-dependent transcription, nor did it alter the transcriptional response to IL-6. Tyrosine phosphorylation of both Stat5a and Stat5b was induced by IL-6. We infer from these data that IL-6 acts on intestinal epithelia through a Stat5-mediated transcriptional mechanism, whereas LPS does not induce gene expression through autocrine activation of enterocyte Stat signaling. These data provide a basis for testing the in vivo regulation of gut signaling and the interaction of gut reticuloendothelial cells with epithelial signal transduction.
Ninety-six clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were examined with the agar dilution method for susceptibility to 19 antimicrobial drugs. Doxycycline, cotrimoxazole, timentin, ofloxacin, fosfomycin, and piperacillin + tazobactam, in that order, inhibited the majority of strains. All isolates were resistant to nitrofurantoin. Concurrent disk susceptibility (Bauer-Kirby method) testing, using currently valid NCCLS interpretative criteria for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uncovered a significant incidence of very major (category I), major (category II), and minor (categories III and IV) discrepancies for aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, and piperacillin + tazobactam and ticarcillin + clavulanic acid. Therefore, new interpretative criteria indicative of intermediate (I) susceptibility of S. maltophilia to these various antibiotics were proposed. In addition, new intermediate susceptibility criteria were proposed for the two beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. It was recommended to exclude ciprofloxacin from test batteries against this microorganism due to the wide scatter of minimal inhibitory concentration values and diameters of inhibition zones; the same was true for polymyxin B. It is hoped that the proposed modified, species-specific criteria will improve the clinical utility of laboratory-generated disk antibiograms with respect to the inherently multiple antibiotic-resistant, opportunistic pathogen S. maltophilia.
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During reperfusion, the heart undergoes damage characterised by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be generated by mitochondrial protein synthesis or the activity of cardiac cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs). Chloramphenicol inhibits both mitochondrial protein synthesis and the activity of CYPs, and in the perfused rat model of ischaemia/reperfusion, it decreased the release of creatine kinase and infarct size. This cardioprotective effect of chloramphenicol was not associated with mitochondrial protein synthesis, implicating the inhibition of CYPs in the cardioprotection. The ROS superoxide was generated by the heart in ischaemia/reperfusion, and this generation was inhibited by chloramphenicol. Inhibitors of CYP2C9 with no effect on mitochondrial protein synthesis, such as cimetidine and sulfaphenazole, are also cardioprotective in the perfused rat heart. Inhibition of CYP2C9 is a promising approach for the treatment of myocardial infarction, and should be further developed.
The aim of the current study was to determine the virulence factors, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat samples. A total of 422 chicken meat samples were collected from 5 townships of Iran. Specimens were immediately transferred to the laboratory in a cooler with an ice pack. Samples were cultured, and the positive culture samples were analyzed by PCR assays. Finally, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. According to the results, out of 422 samples, 146 (34.59%) were confirmed to be E. coli positive and among E. coli-positive samples, 51 (34.93%) and 31 (21.23%) were from attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) subgroups, respectively. All of the EHEC-positive samples had all stx1, eaeA, and ehly virulence genes, whereas only 5 (9.80%) of AEEC subgroup had all stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes. As the data revealed, O157 was the most prevalent and O111 was the least prevalent strains in the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) population. Among STEC strains, sulI and blaSHV had the highest and lowest incidence rate, respectively. There was a high resistance to tetracycline (76.82%), followed by chloramphenicol (73.17%) and nitrofurantoin (63.41%), but there was low resistance to cephalotine (7.31%) antibiotics in isolated strains. Results shows that the PCR technique has a high performance for detection of serogroups, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance genes in STEC strains. This study is the first prevalence report of detection of virulence genes, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from chicken meat samples in Iran. Based on the results, chicken meat is one of the main sources of STEC strains and its virulence factors in Iran, so an accurate meat inspection would reduce disease outbreaks.