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Of the 140 women with laparoscopically confirmed acute salpingitis, 61 (44%) women had mild, 38 (27%) had moderate, and 41 (29%) had severe disease (ie, pyosalpinx, tuboovarian abscesses, or both). Fifty-three (38%) were HIV-1-infected. Severe disease was more common in HIV-1-infected in comparison with HIV-1-uninfected women (20 [38%] compared with 21 [24%], P = .02). Defined as time of hospital discharge or 75% or more reduction in baseline clinical severity score, HIV-1-infected women with severe (6 days [4-16] compared with 5 days [3-9], P = .09) but not those with either mild (4 days [2-6] compared with 4 days [2-6] P = .4) or moderate salpingitis (4 days [3-7] compared with 4 days [3-6] P = .32) tended to take longer to meet criteria for clinical improvement. The need for intravenous clindamycin or additional surgery was not different in HIV-1-infected and uninfected cases (15 [28%] compared with 18 [21%], P = .3).
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Most community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections affect skin or soft tissues, while invasive and life-threatening illnesses including osteomyelitis are less common. CA-MRSA infections occur especially in the pediatric age group, while the occurrence of CA-MRSA osteomyelitis in adults is uncommonly reported.
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Asexual parasites were rapidly cleared in children treated with fosmidomycin-clindamycin (median time, 18 h) and fosmidomycin alone (25 h) but slowly in children treated with clindamycin alone (71 h; P=.004). However, only treatment with fosmidomycin-clindamycin or clindamycin alone led to the radical elimination of asexual parasites as measured by day 14 and 28 cure rates of 100%. Asexual parasites reappeared by day 28 in 7 children who received fosmidomycin (day 14 cure rate, 92% [11/12; day 28 cure rate, 42% [5/12]). All regimens were well tolerated, and no serious adverse events occurred.
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Thousand and six hundred ninety two fecal samples from children of few weeks old up to over ten years were tested for the presence of Clostridium difficile. Most of them were treated with antibiotics and showed diarrhea symptoms. Hundred and twenty three strains of C-difficile were submitted to serological typing and their sensitivity to 10 selected antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents was determined. Among 109 strains of C. difficile tested for enterotoxin production by latex test 82 strains (75.2%) were positive. Almost half (48%) of the isolated strains belonged to serotype C. Most of the strains were resistant to cefoxitin (88%) and clindamycin (76%). Over 90% of strains were sensitive to vancomycin and azlocillin and 86% to chloramphenicol and metronidazole. In the majority of patients with positive C. difficile cultures diarrhea was present, however, it was difficult to find a direct link between these symptoms and antibiotic therapy.
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The development of surgical site infections (SSIs) can put the viability of free tissue transfer reconstructions at risk, often resulting in considerable postoperative morbidity and prolonged hospitalization. Current antibiotic prophylactic guidelines suggest a first- or second-generation cephalosporin with metronidazole for clean-contaminated cases and recommend clindamycin as an alternative choice in penicillin-allergic patients. This study was designed to examine the rates of postoperative infection associated with prophylactic antibiotic regimens, including patients receiving clindamycin as an alternative due to penicillin allergy.
Patients applied clindamycin phosphate/tretinoin gel or a nonmedicated vehicle each evening and a sun protection factor 30 sunscreen daily. Changes in skin erythema and hyperpigmentation were measured using a chromameter and photographic images. Efficacy was assessed using the Evaluators Global Acne Severity Scale, lesion counts, Post-inflammatory Hyperpigmentation Severity Scales and Patient's Global Assessment Scale. Safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse event reports and a Safety Assessment Scale.
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Intravitreal injections of clindamycin and dexamethasone are well tolerated and may offer an additional strategy to treat TRC in patients who are unable to afford or tolerate systemic therapy, or whose disease progresses despite systemic therapy.
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The return of multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and the appearance of methicillin-resistant strains resistant as well to rifampin and fusidic acid increase the need for new agents to treat infections caused by such strains. Ofloxacin susceptibility of 109 selected methicillin-resistant staphylococci (with MIC90 of 1,000 mg/l for methicillin, 1.3% being resistant to gentamicin with MICs ranging from 25 to 100 mg/l, chloramphenicol MICs ranging from 25 to 100 mg/l and resistant to beta-lactam-antibiotics and clindamycin), was determined by an agar dilution method. MICs of ofloxacin for methicillin-resistant staphylococci ranged from 0.09 to 0.78 mg/l, with an MIC90 of 0.39 mg/l. The in vitro results suggest a possible clinical role for ofloxacin in infections caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci. However, further investigations are needed.
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Eikenella corrodens is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that exists as part of the normal oral flora. Its role as a pathogen in human infection has been disputed, but recently its pathogenic potential has been increasingly recognized. A review of the literature reveals the emergence of this organism as a pathogen in human infection. Specific microbiologic characteristics of this organism make it difficult to isolate and evaluate for antibiotic sensitivities. Infections produced by this bacteria are characteristically indolent in nature and are usually associated with oral contamination. Appropriate antibiotic therapy utilizes ampicillin or penicillin. Tetracycline is the drug of choice in the penicillin-allergic patient. Clindamycin resistance is a universal feature. A greater awareness of the pathogenic potential of E corrodens is essential for appropriate recognition and treatment.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of clindamycin and erythromycin resistance among group B Streptococcus (GBS)-positive isolates cultured from pregnant women in an upstate New York community hospital. All GBS-positive perinatal rectovaginal cultures obtained from January 2010 through October 2011 were tested for resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin. Among the 688 GBS-positive cultures, clindamycin resistance was found in 38.4% and erythromycin resistance was found in 50.7%. Rates of GBS resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin are much higher than reported in earlier U.S. studies, suggesting both increasing resistance and regional variation in resistance. These findings lend strong support to the CDC and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommendations that clindamycin use for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis be restricted to penicillin-allergic women at high risk of anaphylaxis and that GBS isolates be tested for antibiotic resistance prior to the use of clindamycin in these women.
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The oral treatment was interrupted in 4 cases because of adverse events. Mean trough and peak serum concentrations of clindamycin in the clindamycin-rifampicin arm were lower than in the clindamycin-levofloxacin arm during the time of oral antibiotic regimen (0.79 ± 0.3 μg/ml vs 4.7 ± 1.2 μg/ml, p < 0.001, and 3.48 ± 1.1 μg/ml vs 10.2 ± 1.8 μg/ml, p < 0.001, respectively). A consistent decrease in clindamycin serum concentration was observed at each time-point of follow-up. At a mean of 23 ± 7.8 months (range, 12-47 months), 24 patients were available for clinical evaluation. No difference could be detected in the cure rates between the groups.
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This in-vitro study was designed to compare the activity of levofloxacin with that of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, penicillin, amoxycillin, loracarbef, cefaclor, cefpodoxime, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, clindamycin and vancomycin against a collection of 202 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (56% susceptible to penicillin, 34% intermediate, 10% resistant). The isolates (60% nasopharyngeal, 40% middle ear) were obtained from otherwise healthy children at child care centres in urban and rural Nebraska, and at a paediatric clinic in rural Kentucky. MICs were determined by NCCLS agar dilution methodology using an inoculum of 10(4) cfu/spot. Using NCCLS breakpoints, the percentage of penicillin-intermediate and -resistant strains susceptible to the evaluable agents were, respectively, as follows: levofloxacin (99%, 100%), ofloxacin (87%, 100%), erythromycin (52%, 65%), ceftriaxone (93%, 25%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (7%, 0%), clindamycin (93%, 100%) and vancomycin (100%, 100%). Without NCCLS interpretive criteria, no conclusions could be made concerning the susceptibility of penicillin-intermediate and -resistant strains to the other study drugs. All beta-lactam antibiotics, erythromycin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole were less active against penicillin-resistant strains, indicating that these may be suboptimal agents for empirical therapy for suspected S. pneumoniae infections in these patient populations. However, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, clindamycin and vancomycin were equally active against penicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains. These data suggest that the efficacy of levofloxacin should be examined in both adult and paediatric S. pneumoniae infections involving body sites where levofloxacin concentrations > 2 mg/L can be achieved safely.