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A 24-year-old male-to-female transsexual with hypersecretion of gonadotropins was studied with regard to his recovery from sex steroid hormone treatment before his sex change operation and the effects of castration, clomiphene tests and estrogens on the hypersecretion of gonadotropins. Computer-assisted tomography and X-ray results indicated that the possibility that the hypersecretion of gonadotropins was not associated with a pituitary adenoma could not be ruled out. After a period of recovery from previous sex steroid hormone therapy, inappropriately high FSH and LH levels in the presence of normal male levels of testosterone and estradiol were found. The latter normal levels failed to suppress both the FSH and LH levels. From the clomiphene challenge tests carried out before and after the sex reassignment operation, the estradiol infusion studies and treatment with ethinyl estradiol after the sex reassignment operation, it appears that the hypersecretion of gonadotropins was responsive to the negative feedback effect of estrogens. However, the sensitivity, especially that of FSH, was very attenuated. Even after 23 weeks of ethinyl estradiol treatment FSH remained well above the upper limit for normal men. The results showed that before his sex change operation the hypersecretion of gonadotropins in the patient was probably under autonomous control. Testicular factors at normal male concentrations appear to have a minimal negative feedback effect on the hypersecretion of gonadotropins. However, hypersecretion of gonadotropins can be suppressed by prolonged exposure to estrogens.
In vitro fertilization as an aid in diagnosis and treatment of the sterile couple has been used at the university clinic of gynecology and obstetrics in Rostock since the beginning of 1983. 17 women were treated in the first series of in vitro-fertilization and embryo transfer in September and October 1983. After treatment with clomiphene and HCG in 16 women one or more oocytes were harvested. In 14 women one or more oocytes were fertilized. Embryo transfer was performed in five cases. No pregnancy resulted. The causes of the low cleavage rate and possibilities for improvement of the results are discussed.
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Elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels during the early follicular phase or in response to the clomiphene citrate challenge test indicate diminished ovarian reserve and poor reproductive potential. We performed a retrospective analysis of 413 infertile women, 23 to 40 years of age, who underwent 523 cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF) to identify the critical FSH values that would predict a poor likelihood of success in our military IVF program. Each woman underwent a clomiphene citrate challenge test within 1 year of each IVF cycle. The overall live birth and implantation rates were 43% and 24%, respectively. The critical values for day 3 and day 10 FSH levels were 14.1 and 16.9 mIU/mL, respectively, with a 0% live birth rate and a 5% implantation rate above these levels. There were no differences in the live birth/implantation rates when stratified for FSH levels below the critical values. Medical centers offering IVF should determine their critical FSH values, to help identify patients unlikely to benefit from IVF and to ensure appropriate allocation of resources and realistic expectations for infertile couples.
Hypogonadism is a growing concern in an aging male population. Historically treated using exogenous testosterone, concerns about possible adverse effects of testosterone have led physicians to seek alternative treatment approaches.
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Our purpose was to assess factors that are associated with an increased rate of spontaneous abortion in pregnancies initiated by in vitro fertilization. Pregnancies were diagnosed by measurement of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) 15 days after embryo transfer. Of the 64 women who conceived, 47 delivered term infants, one patient delivered a stillborn at 22 weeks, 14 aborted in the first trimester, and two had pregnancies that implanted in the tube. Abortion rates were similar for women treated with human menopausal gonadotropin (24%; 12 of 54) and those who received clomiphene citrate (12.5%; one of eight). Two patients conceived after treatment with a combination of clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin, neither of whom aborted. In 54 patients treated with human menopausal gonadotropin, there were no significant differences in mean maternal age, number of years of infertility before the pregnancy, history of previous pregnancies, amount of human menopausal gonadotropin used to induce ovulation, serum estradiol levels on the day of hCG administration, mean number of follicles, and the mean number of transferred embryos between the group who delivered and the group who aborted. We conclude that none of these factors are associated with increased tendency for fetal loss in our in vitro fertilization program. Beta-hCG levels on day 15 after embryo transfer were significantly lower in the group who aborted than in the group who delivered, and may be predictive of implantation failure.
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Our study showed that letrozole and clomiphene citrate have comparable impact on uterine blood flow and pregnancy rate in women with unexplained infertility.
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Clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation.
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NAC as an adjuvant to CC for induction of ovulation improves ovulation and pregnancy rates in PCOS patients with beneficial impacts on endometrial thickness.
To compare the efficacy of clomiphene citrate (CC) plus tamoxifen with that of laparoscopic ovarian drilling in clomiphene-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
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In contrast to the conclusions of a meta-analysis by Griffith and Grimes the author believes that performing a postcoital test is a very valuable tool in investigating infertility as long as it is performed at the appropriate time as determined by serum estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and ultrasound. Clomiphene citrate therapy is the most common etiology for abnormal postcoital tests in the modern era.
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The mean age, parity, and duration of infertility in both groups were similar. The total number of follicles was statistically significantly greater in the clomiphene citrate group (6.8 +/- 0.3 versus 4.4 +/- 0.4). Endometrial thickness at the time of hCG administration was statistically significantly greater in the CC group (9.2 +/- 0.7 mm versus 8.1 +/- 0.2 mm). The duration to reach a dominant follicle was statistically significantly longer in the letrozole group (12.1 +/- 1.3 versus 8.8 +/- 2.9 days). Ovulation occurred in 365 out of 540 cycles (67.5%) in letrozole group and 371 out of 523 cycles (70.9%) without a statistically significant difference. Levels of serum estradiol and progesterone were statistically significantly higher in the clomiphene citrate group. The pregnancy rate per cycle was 15.1% in the letrozole group and 17.9% in the clomiphene citrate group without statistically difference between the groups.
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The administration of tamoxifen, 20 mg/day for 10 days, to normal males produced a moderate increase in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, and estradiol levels, comparable to the effect of 150 mg of clomiphene citrate (Clomid). However, whereas Clomid produced a decrease in the LH response to LH-releasing hormone (LHRH), no such effect was seen after the administration of tamoxifen. In fact, prolonged treatment (6 weeks) with tamoxifen significantly increased the LH response to LHRL. Treatment of patients with "idiopathic" oligospermia for 6 to 9 months resulted in a significant increase in gonadotropin, testosterone, and estradiol levels. A significant increase in sperm density was observed only in subjects with oligospermia below 20 X 10(6)/ml and normal basal FSH levels. When basal FSH levels were increased or oligospermia was moderate (greater than 20 X 10(6)/ml); no effect on sperm density was seen. As sperm density increased, FSH levels decreased, suggesting an inhibin effect. Sperm motility was not improved by tamoxifen treatment. In five boys with delayed puberty, tamoxifen treatment appeared to activate the pituitary-gonadal axis and pubertal development.