cozaar generic name
Blacks appear to have a more modest blood pressure (BP) response to angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) monotherapy than non-Blacks. This post-hoc analysis compared the BP-lowering efficacy of olmesartan medoxomil (OM), losartan potassium (LOS), and valsartan (VAL) in Black versus non-Black participants in a randomized, forced-titration study. Patients were randomized to OM 20, LOS 50, and VAL 80mg/day or placebo for 4 weeks and uptitrated to 40, 100, and 320mg/day doses, respectively, by study end. The primary end point was the mean change from baseline in diastolic BP (DBP) at week 8. All treatments produced significant reductions in mean DBP and systolic BP (SBP) in Blacks (n=150; P < .001). BP <140/90mm Hg was achieved in 35.0%, 15.6%, 29.7%, and 5.0% of Blacks receiving OM, LOS, VAL, and placebo, respectively, and in 41.0%, 21.1%, 28.8%, and 14.5% of non-Blacks receiving OM, LOS, VAL, and placebo, respectively, after 8 weeks. BP-lowering efficacy of the three agents was similar at 3 months. OM had the greatest early efficacy, with numerically greater mean reductions in DBP and SBP, and a higher proportion of Black and non-Black patients achieving goal BP of 140/90mm Hg at week 8.
cozaar 20 mg
A total of 127 patients with untreated essential hypertension associated with LVH were enrolled to receive a 20-week treatment. The drugs included losartan potassium & hydrochlorothiazide (1 tablet/day) and metoprolol (12.5 mg - 50 mg twice daily). The sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP & DBP), M-mode and pulsed Doppler echocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter) were performed at pre- and post-treatment. The changes in various parameters such as echocardiography left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVDs), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVDd) and the thickness of interventricular septum (IVST) and posterior wall (PWT) were measured. And left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and smoothness index (SI) were also examined. The evaluated parameters of ABPM were average 24-hour, daytime and nighttime SBP & DBP. As to 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter), the parameters were standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), rate mean square of the differences of successive RR intervals (RMSSD), percentage of RR intervals differing > 50 ms (PNN50), high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF).
cozaar generic price
Clinical trials of nephropathy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus have not examined the effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP) or pulse pressure (PP) on the time to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death.
cozaar generic picture
The Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) study has previously shown losartan to confer significant benefits to patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. The original study of 1513 patients included 96 Japanese patients; the present study is a post-hoc analysis of the effects of losartan in this Japanese subpopulation.
cozaar drug interactions
We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial in 220 hypertensive patients [mean age = 59.6 ± 12.3 years, men = 154(70%)]. Patients received losartan 50 mg monotherapy for 4 weeks, followed by additional use of amlodipine 5 mg (L/A group) or hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (L/H group) for 20 weeks. The patients without achievement of BP goal after 4 weeks randomization were increased dose to 100 mg/5 mg (L/A group) and 100 mg/25 mg (L/H group) respectively. 24 hr ambulatory c-BP was measured at baseline and after 20 weeks treatment.
CD117(+) stem cell (SC) based therapy is considered an alternative therapeutic option for terminal heart disease. However, controversies exist on the effects of CD117(+) SC implantation. In particular, the link between CD117(+) SC function and angiotensin-II-type-2 receptor (AT2R) after MI is continuously discussed. We therefore asked whether 1) AT2R stimulation influences CD117(+) SC properties in vitro and, 2) which effects can be ascribed to AT2R stimulation in vivo.
cozaar tabs 100mg
Blood pressure was reduced to 146/79 and 148/79 in losartan-treated patients and atenolol-treated patients, respectively. The primary endpoint occurred in 103 patients assigned losartan (n = 586) and 139 assigned atenolol (n = 609). Relative risk reduction 24% (p < 0.031). Cardiovascular mortality was reduced by 37% in favour of losartan (p < 0.028), and all cause mortality by 39% (p < 0.002).
cozaar 40 mg
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is one of the most potent vasoconstrictor substances, yet paradoxically, Ang II may dilate certain vascular beds via an undefined mechanism. Ang II-induced vasoconstriction is mediated by the AT(1) receptor, whereas the relative expression and functional importance of the AT(2) receptor in regulating vascular resistance and blood pressure are unknown. We now report that Ang II induces relaxation of mesenteric microvessels and that this vasodilatory response was unaffected by losartan, an AT(1) receptor antagonist, but was inhibited by PD123,319, a selective antagonist of AT(2) receptors. In addition, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies revealed high amounts of AT(2) receptor mRNA in smooth muscle from these same microvessels. Ang II-induced relaxation was inhibited by either tetraethylammonium or iberiotoxin, suggesting involvement of the large-conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channel. Subsequent whole-cell and single-channel patch-clamp studies on single myocytes demonstrated that Ang II increases the activity of BK(Ca) channels. As in our tissue studies, the effect of Ang II on BK(Ca) channels was inhibited by PD123,319, but not by losartan. In light of these consistent findings from tissue physiology, molecular studies, and cellular/molecular physiology, we conclude that Ang II relaxes microvessels via stimulation of the AT(2) receptor with subsequent opening of BK(Ca) channels, leading to membrane repolarization and vasodilation. These findings provide evidence for a novel endothelium-independent vasodilatory effect of Ang II.
In various models, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and K+(ATP) channel openers can potentiate and mimic ischaemic preconditioning, respectively. Our aim was to determine whether these characteristics are shared by the phenomenon of warm up in angina, often regarded as a surrogate of ischaemic preconditioning.
cozaar tabs 50mg
Out of 40 drug samples, 90% did not comply with the existing regulatory requirement on labeling and 42.5% brands did not mention about the pharmacopoeial standard. There was no uniformity in mentioning the selflife. Similarly, large variation was seen on price of same generic drugs. Laboratory analysis showed that 40% samples failed to meet the standard among domestic companies and 28% among imported brands. Altogether 32.5% samples were found to be of substandard quality. Only the result of one sample matched with both laboratories. This indicates that there was variation in the selected two laboratories.
cozaar name brand
In the present study, we have characterized distribution and pharmacological properties of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors in human adrenals frozen immediately after removal. Autoradiographic studies indicate that Ang II receptors are present throughout the gland. Co-incubations with DUP 753, a specific antagonist of the AT1 receptor, and with PD 123319, a specific antagonist of the AT2 receptor, reveal that Ang II receptors are mainly of type 2. The AT1 receptors are detected after 16 weeks of gestation at the periphery of the gland. Competition studies and Scatchard analysis reveal a homogenous population of high affinity AT2 binding sites (Kd = 0.68 +/- 0.1 nM). Binding capacities decrease from 1080 +/- 304 fmol/mg protein at 14 weeks to 275 +/- 55 fmol/mg protein at 21 weeks. These results differ from those obtained in adult glands where autoradiographic studies reveal that the AT1 receptors are found mainly in the zona glomerulosa and AT2 receptors mainly in the medulla. These data suggest that the AT2 receptors could be involved in the morphological or functional differentiation of the human fetal adrenal gland.
cozaar generic availability
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a new member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and it has been proposed that ACE2 is a potential therapeutic target for the control of cardiovascular disease. The effect of losartan on the ACE2 activity in atherosclerosis was studied.
losartan cozaar reviews
In the present study, we demonstrated that the b3-AR induction in adrenal gland by hypoxia played an important role in aberrant aldosterone production in heart failure. The b3-AR-mediated catecholamine system could regulate the utilization of cholesterol, a substrate of aldosterone, via the ERK-HSL pathway.
cozaar double dose
Health gains and related cost savings achieved by optimizing treatment in hypertensive patients is highly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the costs and cost effectiveness of treatment with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (angiotensin II receptor blockers [ARBs]) in patients with essential hypertension and to compare within-trial with real-life dosing of ARBs.