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Cozaar

Cozaar is an effective medication which helps to fight with the symptoms of high blood pressure and to reduce the risk of stroke in people with hypertension. It is used in the treatment of kidney problems in people with type 2 diabetes. Cozaar acts by preventing the hormone angiotensin II from constricting the blood vessels, which tends to raise blood pressure.

Other names for this medication:
Acetensa, Angibloc, Angilock, Angioten, Angizaar, Anreb, Anreb plus, Ara ii, Aralo x, Arapres, Aratan, Araten, Asart, Biortan, Cardizaar, Cardon, Cardoplus, Cardzaar, Cartan, Co-losar, Combizard, Cormac, Corodin, Corus, Cosart, Covance, Cozaarex, Cozzar, Czartan, Eklips, Enromic, Etan, Faxiven, Fensartan, Fortzaar, Forzaar, Giovax, Gitox, Hilos, Hizaar, Hypozar, Insaar, Klosartan, Lacine, Lakea, Lara, Larb, Larb plus, Lavestra, Lepitrin, Lifezar, Loben, Loctenk, Logika, Lohyp, Loortan, Lopernal, Loplac, Lopo, Lopress, Lorista, Los-arb, Losa, Losacar, Losachlor, Losacor, Losacor plus, Losadel, Losadrac, Losagen, Losalet, Losamet, Losan, Losan d, Losap, Losapot, Losapres, Losaprex, Losar, Losar-q, Losarb, Losardil, Losardil plus, Losargamma, Losarquilab, Losart, Losart plus, Losartanum, Losartas, Losartax, Losartec, Losartic, Losartil, Losatan, Losatrix, Losavik, Losazid, Losazide, Losium, Lospre, Lostad, Lostan, Lostankal, Lotan, Lotar, Lotim, Loxibin, Lozap, Lozar, Lozatan, Lozitan, Lyosan, Maxartan, Medzar, Mozartan, Myotan, Nefrotal, Neo lotan, Niten, Normatens, Nu-lotan, Ocsaar, Osartan, Osartan hz, Osartil, Osartil plus, Ostan, Ozarium, Portiron, Prelow, Prosan, Psycholanz, Ranlozar, Rasertan, Rasoltan, Repace, Resilo, Rosatan, Sanipresin, Sarilen, Sarlo, Sartaxal, Sartens, Sarvas, Sarvastan, Sarve, Satoren, Sedeten, Simperten, Sortal, Sortiva, Stadazar, Tacardia, Tacicul, Tanlozid, Tarnasol, Temisartan, Tensaar, Tensartan, Tensiohess, Tiasar, Tozaar, Vilbinitan, Xartan, Zaart, Zartan

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Also known as:  Losartan.

Description

Cozaar is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against the symptoms of high blood pressure and to reduce the risk of stroke in people with hypertension.

Its target is to treat kidney problems in people with type 2 diabetes.

Cozaar is also known as Losartan potassium, Cosart, Los-Po.

Cozaar acts by preventing the hormone angiotensin II from constricting the blood vessels, which tends to raise blood pressure. It is angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

Generic name of Cozaar is Losartan Potassium.

Brand name of Cozaar is Cozaar.

Dosage

Take Cozaar tablets orally with or without food.

Do not crush or chew it.

Take Cozaar once or twice a day at the same time.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cozaar suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Cozaar and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Cozaar overdosage: fainting, feeling lightheaded, rapid heartbeat.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cozaar are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Cozaar if you are allergic to Cozaar components.

Do not take Cozaar if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Cozaar can harm your baby.

Do not use Cozaar if you are taking salt substitutes or potassium supplements, other blood pressure medicine, diuretic (water pill).

It can be dangerous to use Cozaar if you suffer from or have a history of liver disease, kidney disease, heart failure.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Avoid machine driving.

Do not stop taking Cozaar suddenly.

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Blacks appear to have a more modest blood pressure (BP) response to angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) monotherapy than non-Blacks. This post-hoc analysis compared the BP-lowering efficacy of olmesartan medoxomil (OM), losartan potassium (LOS), and valsartan (VAL) in Black versus non-Black participants in a randomized, forced-titration study. Patients were randomized to OM 20, LOS 50, and VAL 80mg/day or placebo for 4 weeks and uptitrated to 40, 100, and 320mg/day doses, respectively, by study end. The primary end point was the mean change from baseline in diastolic BP (DBP) at week 8. All treatments produced significant reductions in mean DBP and systolic BP (SBP) in Blacks (n=150; P < .001). BP <140/90mm Hg was achieved in 35.0%, 15.6%, 29.7%, and 5.0% of Blacks receiving OM, LOS, VAL, and placebo, respectively, and in 41.0%, 21.1%, 28.8%, and 14.5% of non-Blacks receiving OM, LOS, VAL, and placebo, respectively, after 8 weeks. BP-lowering efficacy of the three agents was similar at 3 months. OM had the greatest early efficacy, with numerically greater mean reductions in DBP and SBP, and a higher proportion of Black and non-Black patients achieving goal BP of 140/90mm Hg at week 8.

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A total of 127 patients with untreated essential hypertension associated with LVH were enrolled to receive a 20-week treatment. The drugs included losartan potassium & hydrochlorothiazide (1 tablet/day) and metoprolol (12.5 mg - 50 mg twice daily). The sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP & DBP), M-mode and pulsed Doppler echocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter) were performed at pre- and post-treatment. The changes in various parameters such as echocardiography left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVDs), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVDd) and the thickness of interventricular septum (IVST) and posterior wall (PWT) were measured. And left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and smoothness index (SI) were also examined. The evaluated parameters of ABPM were average 24-hour, daytime and nighttime SBP & DBP. As to 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter), the parameters were standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), rate mean square of the differences of successive RR intervals (RMSSD), percentage of RR intervals differing > 50 ms (PNN50), high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF).

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Clinical trials of nephropathy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus have not examined the effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP) or pulse pressure (PP) on the time to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death.

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The Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) study has previously shown losartan to confer significant benefits to patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. The original study of 1513 patients included 96 Japanese patients; the present study is a post-hoc analysis of the effects of losartan in this Japanese subpopulation.

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We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial in 220 hypertensive patients [mean age = 59.6 ± 12.3 years, men = 154(70%)]. Patients received losartan 50 mg monotherapy for 4 weeks, followed by additional use of amlodipine 5 mg (L/A group) or hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (L/H group) for 20 weeks. The patients without achievement of BP goal after 4 weeks randomization were increased dose to 100 mg/5 mg (L/A group) and 100 mg/25 mg (L/H group) respectively. 24 hr ambulatory c-BP was measured at baseline and after 20 weeks treatment.

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CD117(+) stem cell (SC) based therapy is considered an alternative therapeutic option for terminal heart disease. However, controversies exist on the effects of CD117(+) SC implantation. In particular, the link between CD117(+) SC function and angiotensin-II-type-2 receptor (AT2R) after MI is continuously discussed. We therefore asked whether 1) AT2R stimulation influences CD117(+) SC properties in vitro and, 2) which effects can be ascribed to AT2R stimulation in vivo.

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Blood pressure was reduced to 146/79 and 148/79 in losartan-treated patients and atenolol-treated patients, respectively. The primary endpoint occurred in 103 patients assigned losartan (n = 586) and 139 assigned atenolol (n = 609). Relative risk reduction 24% (p < 0.031). Cardiovascular mortality was reduced by 37% in favour of losartan (p < 0.028), and all cause mortality by 39% (p < 0.002).

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Angiotensin II (Ang II) is one of the most potent vasoconstrictor substances, yet paradoxically, Ang II may dilate certain vascular beds via an undefined mechanism. Ang II-induced vasoconstriction is mediated by the AT(1) receptor, whereas the relative expression and functional importance of the AT(2) receptor in regulating vascular resistance and blood pressure are unknown. We now report that Ang II induces relaxation of mesenteric microvessels and that this vasodilatory response was unaffected by losartan, an AT(1) receptor antagonist, but was inhibited by PD123,319, a selective antagonist of AT(2) receptors. In addition, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies revealed high amounts of AT(2) receptor mRNA in smooth muscle from these same microvessels. Ang II-induced relaxation was inhibited by either tetraethylammonium or iberiotoxin, suggesting involvement of the large-conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channel. Subsequent whole-cell and single-channel patch-clamp studies on single myocytes demonstrated that Ang II increases the activity of BK(Ca) channels. As in our tissue studies, the effect of Ang II on BK(Ca) channels was inhibited by PD123,319, but not by losartan. In light of these consistent findings from tissue physiology, molecular studies, and cellular/molecular physiology, we conclude that Ang II relaxes microvessels via stimulation of the AT(2) receptor with subsequent opening of BK(Ca) channels, leading to membrane repolarization and vasodilation. These findings provide evidence for a novel endothelium-independent vasodilatory effect of Ang II.

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In various models, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and K+(ATP) channel openers can potentiate and mimic ischaemic preconditioning, respectively. Our aim was to determine whether these characteristics are shared by the phenomenon of warm up in angina, often regarded as a surrogate of ischaemic preconditioning.

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Out of 40 drug samples, 90% did not comply with the existing regulatory requirement on labeling and 42.5% brands did not mention about the pharmacopoeial standard. There was no uniformity in mentioning the selflife. Similarly, large variation was seen on price of same generic drugs. Laboratory analysis showed that 40% samples failed to meet the standard among domestic companies and 28% among imported brands. Altogether 32.5% samples were found to be of substandard quality. Only the result of one sample matched with both laboratories. This indicates that there was variation in the selected two laboratories.

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In the present study, we have characterized distribution and pharmacological properties of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors in human adrenals frozen immediately after removal. Autoradiographic studies indicate that Ang II receptors are present throughout the gland. Co-incubations with DUP 753, a specific antagonist of the AT1 receptor, and with PD 123319, a specific antagonist of the AT2 receptor, reveal that Ang II receptors are mainly of type 2. The AT1 receptors are detected after 16 weeks of gestation at the periphery of the gland. Competition studies and Scatchard analysis reveal a homogenous population of high affinity AT2 binding sites (Kd = 0.68 +/- 0.1 nM). Binding capacities decrease from 1080 +/- 304 fmol/mg protein at 14 weeks to 275 +/- 55 fmol/mg protein at 21 weeks. These results differ from those obtained in adult glands where autoradiographic studies reveal that the AT1 receptors are found mainly in the zona glomerulosa and AT2 receptors mainly in the medulla. These data suggest that the AT2 receptors could be involved in the morphological or functional differentiation of the human fetal adrenal gland.

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Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a new member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and it has been proposed that ACE2 is a potential therapeutic target for the control of cardiovascular disease. The effect of losartan on the ACE2 activity in atherosclerosis was studied.

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In the present study, we demonstrated that the b3-AR induction in adrenal gland by hypoxia played an important role in aberrant aldosterone production in heart failure. The b3-AR-mediated catecholamine system could regulate the utilization of cholesterol, a substrate of aldosterone, via the ERK-HSL pathway.

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Health gains and related cost savings achieved by optimizing treatment in hypertensive patients is highly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the costs and cost effectiveness of treatment with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (angiotensin II receptor blockers [ARBs]) in patients with essential hypertension and to compare within-trial with real-life dosing of ARBs.

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cozaar 100mg tablet 2017-04-22

We examined long-term changes in cognitive function and quality of life (QL) in hypertensive patients by comparing the antihypertensive effect of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and losartan. We studied 69 patients (age range, 30 to 73 years) with mild-to-moderate hypertension. All patients, in a double-blind study, were randomly allocated to either treatment with 50 mg losartan once daily or 25 mg HCTZ once daily. The sample in each treatment group was divided by age (younger than 60 years or 60 years or older). At baseline and after 26 months, a QL questionnaire appropriate for the hypertensive patients was given. Cognitive function was evaluated, at baseline and after 26 months, by psychometric tests consisting of items from the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric (SCAG). A score of less than 24 on the MMSE and more than 40 on the SCAG was predictive of cognitive impairment. The losartan group had a significant improvement in SCAG (P<.001) and MMSE (P<.001). No significant changes were observed in the HCTZ group (SCAG, P = .1; MMSE, P = .2). Sixty-five percent of the elderly had a MMSE score less than 24 and 70% had a SCAG score greater than 40, v. 35% and 48%, respectively, in younger patients. The health state index of QL improved significantly in both groups (losartan group, P<.01; HCTZ group, P<.02); the improvement in QL scores in patients using HCTZ was significant only in subjects aged 60 years and older (P<.04). These results suggest that losartan can have a positive effect not only on blood pressure but also on impaired cognitive Cytoxan Drug Classification function, reversing even minimal cognitive deficits induced by hypertension. The elderly patients in our sample had worse scores and cognitive performance was lower than in younger patients, even if in the losartan group the score improvement was the same at all ages. The same could not be said for HCTZ.

cozaar review 2015-06-27

Marfan syndrome is a systemic disorder of connective tissue with a high degree of clinical variability. Cardinal manifestations involve the ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. FBN1 pathogenic variants associate with a broad phenotypic continuum, ranging from isolated features of Marfan syndrome to neonatal presentation of severe and rapidly progressive disease in multiple organ systems. Myopia is the most common ocular feature; displacement of the lens from the center of the pupil, seen in approximately 60% of affected individuals, is a hallmark feature. People with Marfan syndrome are at increased risk for retinal detachment, glaucoma, and early cataract formation. The skeletal system involvement is characterized by bone overgrowth and joint laxity. The extremities are disproportionately long for the size of the trunk (dolichostenomelia). Overgrowth of the ribs can push the sternum in (pectus excavatum) or out (pectus carinatum). Scoliosis is common and can be mild or severe and progressive. The major sources of morbidity and early mortality in the Marfan syndrome relate to the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular manifestations include dilatation of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva, a predisposition for aortic tear and rupture, mitral valve prolapse with or without regurgitation, tricuspid valve prolapse Cytoxan Chemo Drug , and enlargement of the proximal pulmonary artery. With proper management, the life expectancy of someone with Marfan syndrome approximates that of the general population.

cozaar oral suspension 2016-11-09

The role of endothelin (ET)-1 in blood pressure homeostasis and the interaction with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was investigated in normotensive conscious dogs. ETA receptors were blocked by LU-135252 (1-30 mg/kg); trandolapril (2 mg/kg) or losartan (10 mg/kg) was used to inhibit the RAS. LU-135252 in oral doses of 3-30 mg/kg significantly reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) by approximately 10 mmHg maximally, whereas trandolapril or losartan were without any effect. MAP reduction was more pronounced when LU-135252 was combined with either losartan (-15.5 +/- 3.2 mmHg; 2 h postadministration; P < 0.05) or trandolapril (-30.9 +/- 3.6 mmHg; P < 0.05). When endogenous nitric oxide (NO) generation was blocked but NO concomitantly infused, this synergistic effect on MAP was prevented. The data show that ET-1 contributes to the maintenance of blood pressure via ETA receptors. Furthermore, ET-1 Risperdal 3mg Medication and ANG II play a prominent role in the control of blood pressure by opposing the effects of NO. The pronounced blood pressure fall after combined blockade of ETA receptors and the RAS may be mediated by an enhanced release of NO.

cozaar generic reviews 2016-08-08

Except in states of extreme volume depletion, in which ACE inhibitors may, unlike angiotensin II receptor antagonists, have an adverse effect on the glomerular filtration rate, no differences were observed between the two types of inhibitor. Like ACE inhibitors, the angiotensin II inhibitors TCV 116 and losartan cause a marked impairment in the renal adaptation to dietary sodium restriction, suggesting that blockade of the renin-angiotensin system Voltaren Injection Dosage is primarily involved in this process.

cozaar medication wikipedia 2016-02-26

Only rabbits in the rapid atrial pacing group developed sustained AF (30 min, 4of 10 rabbits). Treatment with losartan resulted in a significant reduction in left atrial fibrosis and AF duration (P<.01). real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated the drug's effects Hyzaar Ds Dosage on the expression of Collagen I, Collagen III, and TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway.

cozaar normal dose 2017-02-16

We examined basal and NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated superoxide (O2*-) production using lucigenin chemiluminescence, ferricytochrome c and dihydroethidium fluorescence in human coronary arteries from 19 Stromectol Medicine Costs CAD and 17 non-CAD patients undergoing heart transplantation. NAD(P)H oxidase subunits and xanthine oxidase expression were measured. Superoxide production was greater in coronary arteries from patients with CAD, even in vessels without overt atherosclerotic plaques, and was doubled within branching points of coronary arteries. Studies using pharmacological inhibitors and specific substrates showed that NAD(P)H oxidases (60%) and xanthine oxidase (25%) are primary sources of O2*- in CAD. Losartan significantly inhibited superoxide production in coronary arteries. NAD(P)H oxidase activity and protein levels of the NADPH oxidase subunits p22phox, p67phox, and p47phox were significantly increased in CAD, as were mRNA levels for p22phox and nox2, and no NAD(P)H oxidase subunit mRNA levels correlated with NAD(P)H oxidase activity in vessels from individual patients. Activity and protein expression of xanthine oxidase were increased in CAD, whereas xanthine dehydrogenase levels were not changed.

cozaar generic availability 2015-10-02

Patients were examined at the Ambulatory for Microcirculatory Diseases of the Clinic of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Benicar 40 Mg , Verona.

cozaar drug interactions 2015-06-10

ANG II induces O2- release in HVECs via activation of membrane-bound Shatavari Buy NADH-/NADPH-oxidase, an effect, that is mediated by both AT-1 and AT-2 receptors. This suggests that acceleration of AS and MI in ANG II-mediated hypertension may at least be due to ANG II-induced O2- generation from vascular endothelial cells. In this case, the ACE inhibitors and the ANG receptor antagonists may act as causative "antioxidants".

cozaar 150 mg 2015-09-05

The efficacy, safety and side-effects of treatment with losartan (Ocsaar) was studied for the first time in Israel in a large group of patients with mild to moderate hypertension in several community clinics. The 421 patients (51% men) aged 30-86 years (mean 58.6) received 50 mg of losartan daily, increased when necessary to 100 mg, and/or a second antihypertensive drug was given. After 4 weeks blood pressure was normalized in 344 and after 12 weeks in 363. Side-effects were minimal and treatment was effective in all age groups.

cozaar dosage forms 2015-03-02

Human mononuclear cells were exposed to angiotensin II for 15min. Intracellular calcium concentration was assessed by a Fluo 4 based kit. The supernatants were analyzed for both microparticle content, with a commercially available kit based on phosphatidylserine analysis, and microparticle-associated tissue factor, with a one-stage clotting assay.

cozaar usual dosage 2017-02-20

CHR could efficiently improve the renal function of phase 3 CKD patients and alleviate the micro-inflammation.

cozaar dosage strengths 2017-10-11

Azilsartan, an angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor blocker (ARB), was recently approved by regulatory authorities for treatment of hypertension and is the 8th ARB to join the clinical market. This article discusses the medical reasons for introducing a new AT(1) receptor blocker and reviews the experimental and clinical studies that have compared the functional properties of azilsartan to those of other ARBs. The main question addressed is: Does azilsartan have distinguishing features that should motivate choosing it over any of the other sartans for use in clinical practice? Based on studies conducted to date in hypertensive patients without serious comorbidities, azilsartan appears to be characterized by a superior ability to control 24-hour systolic blood pressure (BP) relative to other widely used ARBs including valsartan, olmesartan, and candesartan, and presumably others as well (eg, losartan). Compared to these other ARBs, azilsartan may increase the BP target control and response rate by an absolute value of 8%-10%. Greater antihypertensive effects of azilsartan might be due in part to its unusually potent and persistent ability to inhibit binding of angiotensin II to AT(1) receptors. Preclinical studies have indicated that azilsartan may also have potentially beneficial effects on cellular mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease and insulin sensitizing activity that could involve more than just blockade of AT(1) receptors and/or reduction in BP. However, the clinical relevance of these additional actions is unknown. Given that the general ability of antihypertensive drugs to protect against target organ damage is largely mediated by their ability to decrease BP, the enhanced antihypertensive effects of azilsartan should serve to justify clinical interest in this ARB relative to other molecules in the class that have a lower capacity to reduce BP.