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In this study we determined whether caspase-3 is required in mouse cortical neurons for sodium azide-mediated apoptosis. Primary cortical neuronal cultures were treated with a cell permeable caspase-3 inhibitor, DEVD (1 nM-100 fM), prior to sodium azide-induced hypoxia. Treatment with the caspase-3 inhibitor resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in apoptosis, suggesting that sodium azide-induced apoptosis is mediated through a caspase-3 dependent pathway. Levels of cytochrome-c release and caspase-3 cleavage were assayed by Western analysis. Cytochrome-c release and caspase-3 cleavage were observed at 5 h (85.3+/-5.8%) and 8 h (53.4+/-14.9%), respectively. We have previously reported that angiotensin II, acting through the AT(2) receptor subtype, protects cultured mouse cortical neurons from sodium azide-induced apoptosis. We also examined whether the protective effect of angiotensin II is mediated through modulation of caspase-3. Pre-treatment of cells with angiotensin II and the AT(1) receptor antagonist, losartan, reduced levels of sodium azide-induced caspase-3 cleavage by 95.0+/-4.0%. Cells pre-treated with the AT(2) receptor antagonist, PD123319 showed a smaller reduction of caspase-3 cleavage (53.8+/-3.4%). Our findings indicate that sodium azide-induced apoptosis is caspase-3 dependent and that angiotensin II protects cortical neurons from chemical-induced apoptosis by reducing caspase-3 cleavage.
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Resistance training is accompanied by cardiac hypertrophy, but the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in this response is elusive. We evaluated this question in 36 male Wistar rats divided into six groups: control (n=6); trained (n=6); control+losartan (10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), n=6); trained+losartan (n=6); control+high-salt diet (1%, n=6); and trained+high-salt diet (1%, n=6). High salt was used to inhibit the systemic RAS and losartan to block the AT1 receptor. The exercise protocol consisted of: 4x12 bouts, 5x/wk during 8 wk, with 65-75% of one repetition maximum. Left ventricle weight-to-body weight ratio increased only in trained and trained+high-salt diet groups (8.5% and 10.6%, P<0.05) compared with control. Also, none of the pathological cardiac hypertrophy markers, atrial natriuretic peptide, and alphaMHC (alpha-myosin heavy chain)-to-betaMHC ratio, were changed. ACE activity was analyzed by fluorometric assay (systemic and cardiac) and plasma renin activity (PRA) by RIA and remained unchanged upon resistance training, whereas PRA decreased significantly with the high-salt diet. Interestingly, using Western blot analysis and RT-PRC, no changes were observed in cardiac AT2 receptor levels, whereas the AT1 receptor gene (56%, P<0.05) and protein (31%, P<0.05) expressions were upregulated in the trained group. Also, cardiac ANG II concentration evaluated by ELISA remained unchanged (23.27+/-2.4 vs. 22.01+/-0.8 pg/mg, P>0.05). Administration of a subhypotensive dose of losartan prevented left ventricle hypertrophy in response to the resistance training. Altogether, we provide evidence that resistance training-induced cardiac hypertrophy is accompanied by induction of AT1 receptor expression with no changes in cardiac ANG II, which suggests a local activation of the RAS consistent with the hypertrophic response.
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Prospective cohort substudy of the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) randomized clinical trial, conducted from 1995 to 2001. A total of 941 prospectively identified patients aged 55 to 80 years with essential hypertension and electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy had LV mass measured by echocardiography at enrollment in the LIFE trial and thereafter were followed up annually for a mean (SD) of 4.8 (1.0) years for CV events.
Angiotensin II acts at the cellular level through specific angiotensin II subtype I, AT-1 receptors. Losartan is the first of a new class of antihypertensive agents that specifically block angiotensin II at AT-1 receptors. By acting on complementary and different pharmacologic mechanisms, the concomitant use of low doses of hydrochlorothiazide with losartan may offer an additive antihypertensive activity with fewer adverse experiences.
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Additional inclusion of losartan in the standard therapy of NASH has a positive therapeutic effect on the process of fibrogenesis in the liver, so it is advisable to appoint losartan in a daily dose of 50 mg for 1 year to these patients.
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Previous research showed that disruption of the Cys(18)-Cys(274) bond in the angiotensin II (AngII) AT₁ receptor mutant (C18S), expressed in CHO cells, causes an increase in the basal activity and attenuation of the maximum response to AngII. In addition, this mutant was mostly intracellularly distributed. Our aim was to investigate whether the intracellular presence of the mutant was due to a constitutive internalization or to a defective maturation of the receptor. The first hypothesis was assessed by pretreating the cells with losartan or [Sar¹Leu⁸]-AngII, specific AT₁ receptor antagonists, a maneuver to revert the receptor internalization. The second hypothesis was tested using calnexin, an endoplasmic reticulum marker. We found that treatment with AT₁ receptor antagonists causes an increase in the binding ability of the mutant to AngII. Furthermore, whereas the maximum effect is increased, it reduces the enhanced basal levels of IP₃. The hypothesis for a lack of maturation of the mutant receptor was ruled out because calnexin was poorly colocalized with the intracellular C18S receptor. Our results suggest that the mutation of the AT₁ receptor leads to a conformational structure similar to that of the active mode of the AT₁ receptor, favoring its internalization in the absence of the agonist.
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Combination treatment safely retards progression of non-diabetic renal disease compared with monotherapy. However, since some patients reached the combined primary endpoint on combined treatment, further strategies for complete management of progressive non-diabetic renal disease need to be researched.
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The pressure-loaded right ventricle (RV) adversely affects left ventricular (LV) function. We recently found that these ventricular-ventricular interactions lead to LV myocardial fibrosis through transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling. We investigated the mechanisms mediating biventricular fibrosis in RV afterload and their potential modification by angiotensin receptor blockade. An adjustable pulmonary artery band (PAB) was placed in rabbits. In sham-operated control rabbits, the band was left uninflated (n = 6). In the RV afterload group, the PAB was sequentially inflated to generate systemic RV pressure at 28 days (n = 8). In a third group, the PAB was inflated to systemic levels, and the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan was added (n = 6). Five weeks after surgery, the animals were killed for assessments of biventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, apoptosis, and the components of their signaling pathways. PAB animals developed biventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptosis, versus sham rabbits, in which these conditions were decreased with losartan. RV and LV TGF-β1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) (CCN2), endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelin receptor B, and matrix metalloproteinase 2/9 mRNA levels were increased in PAB animals versus sham animals, and decreased with losartan. Given the marked biventricular CTGF up-regulation in PAB and down-regulation with losartan, we investigated CTGF signaling. RV and LV Smad 2/3/4 protein levels and LV RhoA mRNA levels were increased with PAB and reduced with losartan. In conclusion, isolated RV afterload induces biventricular fibrosis and apoptosis, which are reduced by angiotensin receptor blockade. Adverse ventricular-ventricular interactions induced by isolated RV afterload appear to be mediated through TGF-β1-CTGF and ET-1 pathways.
The purpose of this study was to determine if the nonpeptide angiotensin II-1 receptor antagonist DuP 753 after, acute or chronic administration in vivo or after in vitro exposure, altered indices of dopaminergic function in rat striatum. In vivo studies examined the effect of acute and chronic 21-day administration of DuP 753 (10 mg/kg, s.c.) on levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolite, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). To determine if chronic treatment with DuP 753 was able to inhibit the pressor response to angiotensin II, a single i.v. dose of angiotensin II (0.1 microgram/kg) was administered 18 hours after the last dose of DuP 753. Acute DuP 753 resulted in significantly decreased (14%) levels of DA. Chronic DuP 753 resulted in increased (1.64 fold) levels of DOPAC, although DA levels were not altered. The single i.v. administration of angiotensin II resulted in increased (88%) DOPAC levels regardless of chronic DuP 753. The in vitro effect of DuP 753 (0.1 nM-1.0 microM) on basal and field stimulation-evoked release of DA and DOPAC was determined in superfused striatal slices from drug naive rats. DA was not detected in these experiments. DuP 753 did not alter basal outflow of DOPAC. At low concentrations (1.0-10 nM), DuP 753 decreased (53%) stimulation-evoked DOPAC overflow; however, at concentrations greater than 10 nM, the inhibitory effect was diminished. Nomifensine (10 microM; a DA uptake inhibitor) was included in the superfusion buffer in order to measure the effect of DuP 753 on the concentration of DA in superfusate. DuP 753 had no effect on basal DA and DOPAC outflow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Angiotensin II (Ang II) is one of the most important vasoconstrictive hormones but is also known to act as a neuromodulator and a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In a previous study, we have shown that Ang II, via AT1 receptors, induced depolarization by inhibition of M-type K(+) channels and SK channels in submandibular ganglion (SMG) neurons. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ang II on calcium channel current (I(Ca)) in acutely dissociated SMG neurons by the patch-clamp technique using the whole-cell configuration. Ang II inhibited total I(Ca) by 32.1+/-2.7%. The half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of Ang II for inhibiting I(Ca) was 0.8 microM. In the presence of 1 microM losartan, which is a selective antagonist of AT1 receptors, the effect of Ang II was attenuated (7.6+/-1.5%). Application of a strong depolarizing voltage prepulse did not affect the Ang II-induced inhibition of I(Ca) (32.8+/-2.8%). Intracellular dialysis of GDP-beta-S attenuated the inhibition of I(Ca) (6.8+/-2.1%). The mean percentage inhibitions of L-, N- and P/Q-type VDCCs by Ang II were 29.1+/-1.7, 16.3+/-6.0 and 1.2+/-0.8%, respectively, of the total I(Ca).
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Treatment of hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy with losartan-based therapy is associated with lower incidence of diabetes mellitus and greater regression of hypertrophy than atenolol-based therapy. However, whether in-treatment resolution or continued absence of electrocardiographic hypertrophy is independently associated with decreased incidence of diabetes is unclear. Electrocardiographic hypertrophy was evaluated over time in 7998 hypertensive patients without diabetes at baseline in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study who were treated with losartan- or atenolol-based regimens and followed with serial electrocardiograms and blood pressure determinations. Electrocardiographic hypertrophy was defined using gender-adjusted Cornell voltage-duration product criteria >2440 mm.ms. During mean follow-up of 4.6+/-1.2 years, diabetes developed in 562 patients (7.0%). In a Cox model adjusting for treatment assignment, in-treatment resolution or continued absence of Cornell product hypertrophy was associated with a 38% lower risk of new diabetes (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.78). After adjusting for the association of new diabetes with prior antihypertensive treatment, baseline glucose, and Framingham risk score, baseline and in-treatment systolic and diastolic pressure, HDL, uric acid, and body mass index, and the decreased incidence associated with losartan-based therapy, in-treatment continued absence, or resolution of Cornell product hypertrophy remained associated with a 26% lower risk of new diabetes (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.93). Thus, compared with presence of hypertrophy by Cornell product criteria during antihypertensive treatment, resolution or continued absence of Cornell product hypertrophy is associated with a lower incidence of diabetes, even after adjusting for the impact of treatment with losartan and other risk factors for diabetes.