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Baseline characteristics differed slightly between patient groups and studies. Duloxetine doses in most patients were lower than recommended. Overall, AE frequency with duloxetine was lower than in controlled studies (15.9% (95% CI 14.9, 16.9) and 9.1% (95% CI 8.2, 10.0) in the 12 and 24 week treatment groups, respectively), but exhibited a similar qualitative spectrum. In the logistic regression models, the following factors were associated with greater AE risk: investigator specialization (gynaecologist vs. urologist and primary care physician), initial duloxetine dose (80 vs. 20 mg day(-1) ) and use of any concomitant medication. Within the 24 week study, a positive screen for depressive disorder was surprisingly common, but no case of attempted suicide was reported in either study.
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Six hundred and fourteen patients were randomized. Mean changes in MADRS scores were -12.83 (±0.834), -14.30 (±0.890), -15.57 (±0.880), and -16.90 (±0.884) for placebo, vortioxetine 15 mg (P = .224), vortioxetine 20 mg (P = .023), and duloxetine 60 mg (P < .001) (P vs placebo), respectively. AEs reported by ≥5 % of vortioxetine patients included nausea, headache, diarrhea, dizziness, dry mouth, constipation, vomiting, insomnia, fatigue, and upper respiratory infection. Treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction, suicidal ideation or behavior, and discontinuation symptoms were not significantly different between vortioxetine and placebo.
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Duloxetine is indicated for patients with a variety of conditions, and some of these patients may have mild to moderate degrees of renal impairment. Renal impairment may affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug by causing changes in absorption, distribution, protein binding, renal excretion or nonrenal clearance. As duloxetine is highly bound to plasma proteins and its metabolites are renally excreted, it is prudent to evaluate the effect of renal insufficiency on exposure to duloxetine and its metabolites in the systemic circulation.
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Duloxetine hydrochloride (1) is an important antidepressant that acts as a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that has only recently been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This study describes an investigation into polymorphism of duloxetine hydrochloride, discusses the challenges of characterizing new structures, and reports a new metastable solvate (1(acetone)) where acetone is trapped in a duloxetine hydrochloride host lattice. In view of the importance of formulation processing and bioavailability characteristics of the crystalline forms of 1, a comprehensive structural study of 1(acetone) was carried out using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The rapid desolvation from 1(acetone) to the stable unsolvated form was investigated, and the structures of free and solvated forms are discussed in terms of the noncovalent intermolecular interactions.
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Though with limited power, these data provide preliminary support for the efficacy of duloxetine for GSAD, and suggest continued improvement but limited remission overall at 24 weeks for individuals remaining symptomatic at week 6. These observations warrant further controlled study.
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This was a post hoc analysis to determine whether baseline severity of depression influenced the efficacy of duloxetine in treating major depressive disorder (MDD) and to better characterise the symptom response profile for duloxetine in patients with mild, moderate or more severe depression.
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Little evidence is available relevant to the treatment of refractory neuropathic pain despite the clinical need. There is a notable lack of high-quality comparative studies. It is evident that there is a need for future, high quality trials, particularly "gold-standard" RCTs in this refractory patient population.
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There is limited evidence for efficacy of analgesics as monotherapy for neuropathic pain associated with HIV-associated polyneuropathies, in spite of demonstrated efficacy in other neuropathic pain conditions. We evaluated the tolerability and analgesic efficacy of duloxetine, methadone, and the combination of duloxetine-methadone compared with placebo.
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Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a seasonal pattern of recurrent depressive episodes that is often treated with second-generation antidepressants (SGAs), light therapy or psychotherapy.
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Treatment with SSRIs and duloxetine improved functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder. Higher SDS or 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale baseline scores predicted less probability of SDS improvement; female gender predicted better improvement in functional impairment at endpoint.
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Urine storage and micturition are controlled by a series of hard wired reflexes that are under the modulatory influence of serotonin and norepinephrine. Augmentation of the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems with duloxetine increases bladder capacity and urethral rhabdosphincter activity. The increase in sphincter activity is mediated by alpha1 adrenergic receptors and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors.