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This review demonstrates the overall benefits of continuation- and maintenance-phase treatment of major depression with second-generation antidepressants and emphasizes the need for additional studies of comparative differences among drugs.
To test the ability of a 5HT2a/c (trazodone) antagonist, to improve depression and motor function in Parkinson' disease (PD).
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This paper reviews the use of sleep-promoting medications in nursing home residents with reference to risks versus benefits. Up to two-thirds of elderly people living in institutions experience sleep disturbance. The aetiology of sleep disturbance includes poor sleep hygiene, medical and psychiatric disorders, sleep apnoea, periodic limb movements and restless leg syndrome. One key factor in the development of sleep disturbance in the nursing home is the environment, particularly with respect to high levels of night-time noise and light, low levels of daytime light, and care routines that do not promote sleep. Clinical assessment should include a comprehensive medical, psychiatric and sleep history including a review of prescribed medications. Nonpharmacological interventions for insomnia are underutilised in many clinical settings despite evidence that they are often highly effective. International studies suggest that 50-80% of nursing home residents have at least one prescription for psychotropic medication. Utilisation rates vary dramatically from country to country and from institution to institution. The most commonly prescribed medications for sleep are benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics (Z-drugs). The vast majority of studies of these medications are short-term, i.e. < or =2 weeks, although some longer extension trials have recently been carried out. Clinicians are advised to avoid long-acting benzodiazepines and to use hypnotics for as brief a period as possible, in most cases not exceeding 2-3 weeks of treatment. Patients receiving benzodiazepines are at increased risk of daytime sedation, falls, and cognitive and psychomotor impairment. Zaleplon, zolpidem, zopiclone and eszopiclone may have some advantages over the benzodiazepines, particularly with respect to the development of tolerance and dependence. Ramelteon, a novel agent with high selectivity for melatonin receptors, has recently been approved in the US. Use of the antidepressant trazodone for sleep in nondepressed patients is somewhat controversial. Atypical antipsychotics should not be used to treat insomnia unless there is also evidence of severe behavioural symptoms or psychosis.
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The authors review four "second generation" antidepressants (maprotiline, amoxapine, trazodone, and nomifensine) in terms of action on biogenic amines and receptors, antidepressive efficacy, and adverse effects. Doxepin is used as a comparative agent and is similar to the prototypical tricyclic agents in all the above categories. Maprotiline is a selective noradrenergic agent, but shares a similar adverse effect profile with doxepin and may be associated with a high frequency of seizures in overdose. Amoxapine is a mixed action antidepressant with significant neuroleptic activity in vivo. Its adverse effect profile is highlighted by symptoms related to its neuroleptic activity, and seizures and acute renal failure in overdose. Trazodone is a selective serotonergic agent with low anticholinergic activity, and minimal morbidity/mortality in overdose. Reports of priapism, leading to impotence in some men, however, is of concern. Nomifensine is a potent noradrenergic and dopaminergic agent with low anticholinergic activity, and minimum cardiotoxicity and low morbidity/mortality in overdose. Its most important adverse effects include overstimulation and infrequent, usually reversible, immunologic hypersensitivity reactions. Trazodone and nomifensine have favorable profiles for use in the elderly. Trazodone may be more favorable in the anxious/agitated patient due to its sedative effects, whereas nomifensine may be more beneficial in the retarded, apathetic patient.
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Men who received a placebo had a 39% improvement in sexual function, while the rates of improvement in the treated groups were higher, but not significantly so. The success rates of testosterone and trazodone treatment and hypnotic suggestions were 60%, 67% and 80%, respectively.
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A simple and specific method is presented for the capillary gas chromatographic determination of trazodone in postmortem blood and tissues. The drug and trimethobenzamide, which was used as an internal standard, were extracted with 1% isopropanol in n-butyl chloride. Chromatography was accomplished with a short (4-m) methyl silicone capillary column and hydrogen carrier gas. This combination of extraction solvent and chromatographic conditions was demonstrated to be both accurate and precise. Since trazodone is a relatively new drug, additional thin layer and packed column gas chromatographic data is presented to augment the incorporation of trazodone into routine analytical protocols.
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32,328 noninstitutionalized community-dwelling U.S. adults.
A fast and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using a BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate/acetonitrile was developed and validated according to international guidelines for the simultaneous analysis of 24 ADs in hair. Methanol/acetonitrile/ammonium formate buffer 1 mmol/L (25:25:50, vol/vol/vol) was used to extract the drugs from the hair matrix before a solid-phase extraction using cation exchange cartridges was applied. Hair samples (n = 18) obtained from a US workplace drug testing center were analyzed to demonstrate the method applicability.
In this paper, we present the results of a prospective semi-naturalistic study of the addition of trazodone for insomnia to a 4 week, 300mg/day venlafaxine treatment in 50 depressed inpatients. The Montgomery and Asberg depression rating scale was used as a rating instrument. The study is designated as semi-naturalistic due to the fact that, although the venlafaxine treatment regimen was strictly defined, the timing of the trazodone introduction and the dosage were determined by the clinicians. The indication was based on the persistency of insomnia despite the use of authorized sedative co-medication (zopiclone as a hypnotic, clorazepate as an anxiolytic). Among the 42 patients who completed the study, 27 did not receive trazodone (G1) while 15 did (G2). Although the two groups were not clinically different at study entry, G2 patients showed less improvement than G1 patients during venlafaxine treatment alone, both in terms of insomnia (MADRS item 4) and inner tension (MADRS item 3). After trazodone introduction, insomnia improved and the median (interquartile range) of this item in G1 and G2 patients showed no statistically significant difference on Day 28 (G1: 0 (0-1); G2: 0 (0-2)). However, inner tension did not improve and the median (interquartile range) was higher on Day 28 in G2 patients (G1: 1 (0-2); G2: 2 (1-4); P < 0.05). Thus, trazodone is probably used for patients who develop not only insomnia, but also inner tension/anxiety during venlafaxine treatment. However, it alleviates only the first symptom, not the second.
A total of 51 patients with at least 3 months of complete erectile dysfunction were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive 50 mg. trazodone or placebo at bedtime. Evaluation consisted of a history, physical examination and laboratory studies, including hormonal evaluation, nocturnal penile tumescence evaluation, penile Doppler ultrasound and the Index of Sexual Satisfaction. Patients were followed at monthly intervals with an in clinic interview. After a 3-month treatment interval patients were reevaluated with index scores and crossed over after a 3-week washout period. Study end points included patient diary evaluations and index scores at the beginning of the study interval and the end of the first treatment period.
The literature was assessed for applicability to clinical practice and usefulness to the general clinician. Recommendations were made from the primary literature in conjunction with trends in clinical practice. Pharmacotherapy is a primary mainstay of treatment for aggressive patients. In individuals for whom behavioral intervention alone is unsuccessful, drug therapy should be initiated along with continued nonpharmacologic intervention. Short-acting benzodiazepines and high-potency antipsychotic agents are effective in treating acute aggression on a short-term or as needed basis. Agents such as lithium, beta adrenergic blockers, carbamazepine, valproic acid, buspirone, trazodone, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and clozapine may be useful in the chronic management of aggressive behavior. Every attempt should be made to streamline drug therapy in patients with chronic aggression and comorbid psychiatric disorders.
There were 151 patients who were judged to be in a depressive state, and the other 2115 patients were categorized into the non-depressive state group. Intervention of intravenous anesthesia, tracheostomy, artificial respiration, and gastrostomy had a significant positive correlation with depressive state. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that tracheostomy (odds ratio [OR] 2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-4.38) and artificial respiration (OR 2.28; 95% CI, 1.32-3.93) were significantly associated with depressive state, and men had a 36% reduction in the risk of depressive state compared with women (OR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.94), whereas age, wound-treatment, all of the orthopedic procedures, intravenous anesthesia, and gastrostomy were not associated with depressive state.
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Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple anomaly syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide and individuals have been described with normal development and only minor malformations.
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The problem of addiction to psychoactive substances (SPA) is an important aspect of modem psychiatric treatment. This is due to the increasing number of addicts, and reducing their increasing age. It is estimated that in the United States in 2006, people aged over 12 years of meeting criteria for dependence on SPA was 20-25 million. Other statistics report that in the same age group over the last year contact with these substances were 8-10 percent of the U.S. population. Therefore, it becomes an important issue the appropriate therapeutic treatment of addicts. The result of the search of drugs that help people to alcoholism treatment program, were studies involving trazodone. Counted among the SARI (serotonin reuptake inhibitor and antagonist), shows antagonism to serotonergic receptors (5-HT2 receptors), while an inhibitor of serotonin reuptake. Its performance was analyzed in individuals dependent on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opiates, as well as mixed addictions. Also raised the problem of influence of trazodone on the experience of pain, which maybe helpful in relieving withdrawal symptoms. The data show a positive effect of trazodone in individuals addicted to the SPA, although the mechanism by which trazodone works in the body is very complex and not yet fully understood. Its advantage is the relatively small panel of side effects. Although many of the analyzed studies were not placebo-controlled, the results are so promising that you can recommend on the basis of trazodone therapy in individuals addicted to the SPA.