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Neural activity, as measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of an emotion regulation paradigm, as well as regular assessments of symptom severity using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. For use of all data points, slope trajectories were calculated for rate of change in depression severity and for rate of change in neural engagement.
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The national pharmacy database was used to select patients using venlafaxine for at least 6 months. Switchers and nonswitchers were identified, and switch behavior was compared for a 12-month follow-up period. Change in health service use following switching was also compared between switchers and nonswitchers including use of the emergency department, hospital, and specialist outpatient services over the same period.
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Outpatients (n = 232) with major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of treatment with either "standard" (n = 119; mean dose = 148 mg/d) or "higher" (n = 113; mean dose = 309 mg/d) dosage therapies. Between weeks 8 and 12, nonresponders in the standard dose group could receive higher dose therapy.
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Desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) is one of several serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Others are venlafaxine hydrochloride, milnacipran, and duloxetine. Desvenlafaxine has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) based on a number of randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Clinical studies have investigated the efficacy of DVS in doses ranging from 50 to 400 mg/day for the treatment of MDD in adult outpatients. The effects of DVS 50 mg/day have been clearly distinguished from placebo in the reduction of MDD symptoms in such clinical trials. No additional therapeutic benefits were found at doses > 50 mg/day. The recommended dose of DVS ranges from 50 to 100 mg. Desvenlafaxine is currently the third SNRI approved by the FDA for this indication. Preliminary evidence also suggests the clinical usefulness of DVS in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause, anxiety symptoms, and painful physical symptoms. The modified pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of DVS differentiate this drug from the original product, venlafaxine. Significant points of difference, compared with venlafaxine, are once-daily dosing and the achievement of steady-state plasma concentrations within 4 to 5 days. To summarize, current evidence indicates that DVS has proven efficacy, acceptable safety and tolerability profiles, convenient dosing, and minimal impact on the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. A reduced risk for pharmacokinetic drug interactions is a potential advantage over other selective serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors. Desvenlafaxine succinate has demonstrated its efficacy for treating MDD but its variable efficacy, as shown in individual studies, limited long-term data, and its different risk-to-benefit ratio compared with earlier antidepressants, means that further investigation of this drug is necessary.
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A double-blind, randomized, parallel study in 167 hospitalized patients with major depression and melancholia was conducted to determine if rapidly escalated doses of venlafaxine produced an earlier response, compared with rapidly escalated doses of imipramine. The daily dose of venlafaxine was rapidly increased to 375 mg/day over a five-day period, was maintained at this level for 10 days, and then was reduced to 150 mg/day for the remainder of the study. The imipramine dose was rapidly increased to 200 mg/day over five days and was maintained at this level to the end of the study. The primary efficacy variables were time to response and time to sustained response on the HAM-D and MADRS. No differences in the response rates on the HAM-D or MADRS were observed between treatments. However, among patients who demonstrated a response on the HAM-D, there was a significantly faster onset of response (p = 0.036) and sustained response (p = 0.018) in the venlafaxine group. The median time to response on the HAM-D among responders was 14 days with venlafaxine and 21 days with imipramine. However, no differences between treatments were observed among responders on the MADRS (median time to response: 15 days for venlafaxine, 18 days for imipramine). Study events were reported in 69% of venlafaxine-treated patients and 76% of imipramine-treated patients. In severely depressed patients with melancholia, a faster onset of response was observed with venlafaxine on the HAM-D, but not the MADRS, and maximal tolerated doses of venlafaxine and imipramine were comparable for overall efficacy. These results confirm and extend previous observations and suggest that venlafaxine may have an early onset of action and may produce a rapid response in hospitalized patients with severe depression complicated by melancholia.
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Antidepressants have been associated with increased bone loss and fractures in older adults in observational studies, but the mechanism is unclear. We examined the effects of a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, on biomarkers of bone turnover in a prospective treatment study of late-life depression.
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In a pragmatic randomized controlled trial, patients diagnosed with a major depressive disorder according to the DSM-IV and aged 60 years or older will be recruited from psychiatric centers across the Netherlands. After CYP2D6 genotyping determined in peripheral blood obtained by finger-prick, patients will be grouped into poor, intermediate, extensive, or ultrarapid metabolizers. Patients with deviant genotype (that is poor, intermediate or ultrarapid genotype) will be randomly allocated to an intervention group in which the genotype and dosing advice is communicated to the treating physician, or to a control group in which patients receive care as usual. Additionally, an external reference group of patients with the extensive metabolizer genotype is included. Primary outcome in all groups is time needed to obtain an adequate blood level of the antidepressant drug. Secondary outcomes include adverse drug reactions measured by a shortened Antidepressant Side-Effects Checklist (ASEC), and cost-effectiveness of the screening.
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We used a retrospective chart review from 22 inpatients who underwent ECT and 22 patients treated with venlafaxine due to resistant unipolar or bipolar depression. We used bilateral ECT in a median of 8 (IQR 7-9.7) sessions and venlafaxine therapy with a median daily dosage of 225 mg (IQR 150-225 mg) for a median of 4 (IQR 4-5) weeks. The main outcome was change in a self-evaluation scale - Short Form of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-SF). The response was defined as the decreasing of the BDI-SF score by >or=50%, remission as decreasing of BDI-SF score
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Despite some limitations associated with the system of data collection in the GPRD (need to apply proxies for severity assessment and external unit costs to resource consumption), the results of this real-life study brings additional evidence of escitalopram appearing to be a cost-effective treatment for patients suffering from severe depression as diagnosed in routine practice and could be considered for first-line treatment in these patients.
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Mean M/PAUC values of 2.5 (range 2.0-3.2) and 2.7 (range 2.3-3.2) were calculated for V and ODV, respectively. The mean maximum concentrations (95% CI) of V and ODV in milk were 1161 (95% CI, 588, 1734) microg l(-1) and 796 (362, 1230) microg l(-1). Mean infant exposure was 3.2% (1.7, 4.7%) for V and 3.2% (1.9, 4.9%) for ODV (as V equivalents). V was detected in the plasma of one out of seven infants studied (5 microg l(-1)), while ODV was detected in four of the infants, at concentrations ranging from 3 to 38 microg l(-1). All of the infants in the study were healthy, as reported by their mothers and/or by clinical examination on the study day.
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A MEDLINE search was used to identify pertinent literature, including reviews.