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As part of a program aimed at the development of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative 27 was discovered by high throughput screening. Successive replacements of the p-F substituent of 27 by an aminoethoxy side chain and of the 1-H of the tetrahydroisoquinoline core by a 1-Me group provided analogues 19 and 20. These compounds showed potencies in a cell-based reporter gene assay (ERE assay) varying between 0.6 and 20 nM and displayed antagonist behaviors in the MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line with IC(50)s in the range of 2-36 nM. The effect of N-phenyl substituents on the activity and pharmacokinetic properties of tetrahydroisoquinoline analogues was explored. As a result of this investigation, two potent derivatives bearing a p-F N-aryl group, 19c and 20c, were discovered as candidates suitable for further profiling. To gain insight into the ligand-receptor interaction, the X-ray crystallographic structure of the 1-H tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative (R)-18a in complex with ERalpha-ligand binding domain (LBD)(301)(-)(553)/C-->S triple mutant was solved to 2.28 A. An overlay of this X-ray crystal structure with that reported for the complex of ERalpha-LBD(301)(-)(553)/carboxymethylated C and raloxifene (5) shows that both compounds bind to the same cleft of the receptor and display comparable binding modes, with differences being observed in the conformation of their "D-ring" phenyl groups.
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USMCs expressed calponin and ERα. Treatment of USMCs with estrogen, raloxifene or levormeloxifene resulted in decreased expression of RhoA, Rock-I, Rock-II, and p-MLC in a dosage-dependent manner.
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To compare the effects of two selective estrogen receptor modulators, tamoxifen and raloxifene, on global and domain-specific cognitive function.
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The results of this work extend the investigation of selective estrogen receptor modulators as potential candidates for leishmaniasis treatment. The antileishmanial activity of raloxifene was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Raloxifene produces functional disorder on the plasma membrane of L. amazonensis promastigotes and leads to functional and morphological disruption of mitochondria, which culminate in cell death.
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Raloxifene, 60 mg, 2 tablets daily; or raloxifene, 60 mg, 1 tablet daily and 1 placebo tablet; or 2 placebo tablets.
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In the base case analysis, risedronate was dominated by etidronate and alendronate. Alendronate and etidronate were projected to have similar costs and QALYs, and the efficiency frontier was represented by 'no intervention', etidronate, alendronate, and raloxifene (Can$32 571, Can$38 623 and Can$114 070 per QALY respectively). Alternative assumptions of raloxifene's impact on CHD and breast cancer, alternative discount rates and alternative patient risk factors (e.g., starting age of therapy, CHD risk, and prior fracture risk) had significant impacts on the overall cost-effectiveness results for both the bisphosphonates and raloxifene.
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Raloxifene, the prototype of the selective estrogen receptor modulators, has been associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. As hemorheological factors may be involved in thrombus formation this placebo-controlled study investigated whether raloxifene was associated with changes in determinants of blood viscosity. Fifty-seven post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to receive placebo, raloxifene 60 mg/day, or raloxifene 120 mg/day for 36 months. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12-monthly intervals and used to measure hematocrit, whole blood and plasma viscosity and plasma fibrinogen concentration. Time- and treatment-related changes in the grouped and pooled data was analysed using ANOVA with repeated measures and correlation matrices. The mean values of all the hemorheological indices showed small inconsistent changes within the normal reference range over the 36-month period of the study. There was a small but significant decrease over time in high shear rate blood viscosity and plasma viscosity in raloxifene-treated subjects compared to those receiving placebo (p<0.05). Correlation analyses showed the anticipated relationships between blood viscosity and hematocrit and plasma viscosity levels and also between plasma viscosity and plasma fibrinogen concentration. No subject developed a thromboembolic vascular event during the study. These results show that compared with placebo treated-subjects, long-term raloxifene treatment in post-menopausal women, at a dose of either 60 or 120 mg daily, was not associated with adverse changes in hemorheological factors that may contribute to venous thromboembolism.
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Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent condition, characterized by compromised bone strength and fragility fractures and with an important associated socio-economic burden. Bisphosphonates are well established as the first line treatment for osteoporosis. However, while randomized control trials have in general demonstrated reasonable anti-fracture efficacy at the spine, they have shown moderate reduction in fracture incidence for non-vertebral sites. Furthermore, oral bisphosphonates are commonly associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects and both oral and parenteral bisphosphonates have been linked with osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femoral fracture, two rare but debilitating side effects. In addition, bisphosphonates are not recommended in patients with GFR <35 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Hence, there is a clear requirement for newer agents, which are able to reduce fracture risk further, whilst overcoming the limitations of bisphosphonates. Over the past 20 years, knowledge and a deeper understanding of the various signalling pathways involved in bone remodelling has increased, enabling identification of additional targets for therapy. This review focuses on these newer therapies and includes anti-resorptive agents such as raloxifene and other selective oestrogen receptor modulators, the monoclonal antibody denosumab (which inhibits the RANKL pathway), odanacatib, a cathepsin K inhibitor and the anabolic agents, PTH analogue; PTH (1-34) and anti-sclerostin antibodies (activator of the Wnt pathway). Strontium ranelate will not be reviewed as recent reports highlight concerns surrounding its cardiovascular safety and together with an apparent increased risk of thrombosis, its future use remains uncertain. Some of these agents such as raloxifene, denosumab and teriparatide are already in clinical use whilst others are at varying stages of development. This review will provide an overview of the mechanisms of action of these therapeutic agents on the skeleton and assess their efficacy in osteoporosis and fracture prevention.
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Tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor antagonist used in the treatment of breast cancer, inhibits the inward rectifier potassium current (I(K1)) in cardiac myocytes by an unknown mechanism. We characterized the inhibitory effects of tamoxifen on Kir2.1, Kir2.2, and Kir2.3 potassium channels that underlie cardiac I(K1). We also studied the effects of 4-hydroxytamoxifen and raloxifene. All three drugs inhibited inward rectifier K(+) 2.x (Kir2.x) family members. The order of inhibition for all three drugs was Kir2.3 > Kir2.1 approximately Kir2.2. The onset of inhibition of Kir2.x current by these compounds was slow (T(1/2) approximately 6 min) and only partially recovered after washout ( approximately 30%). Kir2.x inhibition was concentration-dependent but voltage-independent. The time course and degree of inhibition was independent of external or internal drug application. We tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen interferes with the interaction between the channel and the membrane-delimited channel activator, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). Inhibition of Kir2.3 currents was significantly reduced by a single point mutation of I213L, which enhances Kir2.3 interaction with membrane PIP(2). Pretreatment with PIP(2) significantly decreased the inhibition induced by tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and raloxifene on Kir2.3 channels. Pretreatment with spermine (100 microM) decreased the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on Kir2.1, probably by strengthening the channel's interaction with PIP(2). In cat atrial and ventricular myocytes, 3 microM tamoxifen inhibited I(K1), but the effect was greater in the former than the latter. The data strongly suggest that tamoxifen, its metabolite, and the estrogen receptor inhibitor raloxifene inhibit Kir2.x channels indirectly by interfering with the interaction between the channel and PIP(2).
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Our findings indicate that nongenomic ER signaling triggered by a SERM leads to a rapid activation of NO synthesis in human endothelial cells. The ability of raloxifene to facilitate ERalpha-PI3K interaction may provide additional insight into the structure-function relationship of specific SERMs, which promote the nontranscriptional effects of ER.
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A detailed analysis of the differential effects of estrogen (E) compared to raloxifene (Ral), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), following estrogen receptor (ER) binding in gynecological tissues was conducted using gene microarrays, Northern blot analysis, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 activity studies. We profiled gene expression in the uterus following acute (1 day) and prolonged daily (5 wk) treatment of E and Ral in ovariectomized rats. Estrogen regulated twice as many genes as Ral, largely those associated with catalysis and metabolism, whereas Ral induced genes associated with cell death and negative cell regulation. Follow-up studies confirmed that genes associated with matrix integrity were differentially regulated by Ral and E at various time points in uterine and vaginal tissues. Additional experiments were conducted to determine the levels of MMP2 activity in uterus explants from ovariectomized rats following 2 wk of treatment with E, Ral, or one of two additional SERMs: lasofoxifene, and levormeloxifene. Both E and lasofoxifene stimulated uterine MMP2 activity to a level twofold that of Ral, whereas levormeloxifene elevated MMP2 activity to a level 12-fold that of Ral. These data show that one of the significant differences between E and Ral signaling in the uterus is the regulation of genes and proteins associated with matrix integrity. This may be a potential key difference between the action of SERMs in the uterus of postmenopausal women.