In patients with type 2 diabetes, glibenclamide/metformin resulted in lower PPGE, suggesting that the higher glibenclamide AUC(3) observed with this formulation may contribute to better postprandial glycaemic control than is attained by glibenclamide plus metformin separately.
The model was fitted using Partial Least Squares method. For the assessment of the level of fitting, Q2, R2 and Anova tests were performed. The desired drug release pattern can be achieved by using a proper percent of superdesintegrant, by reducing the filler and by the presence of extragranulary added binder.
Final HbA(1c) values were lower for repaglinide/metformin treatment than for nateglinide/metformin (7.1 vs. 7.5%). Repaglinide/metformin therapy showed significantly greater mean reductions of HbA(1c) (-1.28 vs. -0.67%; P < 0.001) and of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (-39 vs. -21 mg/dl; P = 0.002). Self-monitoring of blood glucose profiles were significantly lower for repaglinide/metformin before breakfast, before lunch, and at 2:00 A.M. Changes in the area under the curve of postprandial glucose, insulin, or glucagon peaks after a test meal were not significantly different for the two treatment groups during this study. Median final doses were 5.0 mg/day for repaglinide and 360 mg/day for nateglinide. Safety assessments were comparable for the two regimens.
Oral anti-diabetic combinations that address insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction (e.g. metformin and glibenclamide) represent a rational therapeutic option for patients uncontrolled on monotherapy. A 52-week, open-label extension to a double-blind study evaluated metformin-glibenclamide combination tablets (Glucovance) in 477 patients with hyperglycaemia despite sulphonylurea therapy. Reductions in HbA1C were maintained, with a mean reduction of -1.7% after 52 weeks, compared with the baseline value for the double-blind trial. Eighty-five patients receiving 4 x 500 mg/2.5 mg tablets daily displayed a marked improvement in HbA1c following up-titration to a regimen of 2 x 500 mg/2.5 mg + 3 x 500 mg/5 mg tablets. Lipid profiles improved significantly. The combination tablets were well tolerated: 11.1% of patients reported hypoglycaemic symptoms (all either mild or moderate severity). No patient withdrew or required pharmacologic intervention for hypoglycaemia. Metformin-glibenclamide combination tablets are an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic option for intensifying oral anti-diabetic therapy.
A randomised, double-blind, two-way crossover study in which patients with type 2 diabetes received either glibenclamide/metformin 2.5/500mg tablets or glibenclamide 2.5mg with metformin 500mg twice daily for 14 days. After a 2-week washout, patients were crossed over to the other treatment for 14 days. Patients consumed standardised meals on the days when pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluations were performed.
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the consequence of both insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. In the progression from normal glucose tolerance to diabetes, postprandial glucose (PPG) levels often rise before fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels increase above 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L). Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown that impaired glucose tolerance is associated with increased risk for macrovascular disease and that isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia is an independent factor for increased mortality. Reducing the risk for microvascular complications by improving glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels is well documented. Emerging data now support the relationship between glycemic control and macrovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies documenting postprandial hyperglycemia and the risk for increased mortality suggest that lowering PPG levels might be beneficial. Optimizing both FPG and PPG is important in achieving normal/near-normal glucose levels. Many patients with type 2 diabetes have difficulty attaining the recommended HbA(1c) goal despite normal/near-normal FPG levels; thus, pharmacologic treatment targeting PPG levels may prove beneficial.
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The improvement of the diabetic equilibrium decreases the microvascular complications. Unfortunately, the HbA1c has tendency to increase with time and too few type 2 diabetic patients are well equilibrated with HbA1c under 7%. We have now new medicaments to improve this. The thiazolidinediones are agonists of the PPARgamma and ameliorate the insulin resistance with decrease of the HbA1c. Pioglitazone (Actos) and rosiglitazone (Avandia) are the two thiazolidinediones in Belgium. To be reimbursed, these medicaments have to be prescribed with sulfonylureas or metformin. The glinides are secretagogues drugs acting on the post-prandial glycaemia, but they improve the three parameters of diabetic equilibrium: fasting glycaemia, postprandial glycaemia and HbA1c. There is only one in Belgium: repaglinide (Novonorm). We can also improve the treatment by increasing the compliance. Therefore we can prescribe treatment with once daily dosage so as glimepiride (Amarylle) or gliclazide MR (Unidiamicron). Finally there are 'fixed combinations of two molecules so as glibenclamide + metformin (Glucovance) or rosiglitazone + metformin (Avandamet).
Treatment with glibenclamide/metformin resulted in a significantly smaller mean PPGE than was attained by treatment with glibenclamide plus metformin, according to measurements taken after the day 14 afternoon standardised meal (89.5 vs 117.4 mg/dl, p = 0.011). The mean glibenclamide peak concentration (C(max)) was significantly greater (approximately 16%) after glibenclamide/metformin treatment on both days 1 and 14. Glibenclamide/metformin treatment was associated with a 2-fold greater area under the concentration-time curve to 3 hours for glibenclamide (AUC(3)) [p < 0.001], although the AUC over the administration interval was equivalent for both formulations.
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In this 16-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, 4-arm and parallel clinical trial study, 100 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited and 76 patients were available for statistical analysis at the end of the study. After 1 week of placebo washout period, eligible patients were randomly assigned into 1 of 4 treatment groups: glyburide 5 mg b.i.d.; metformin 500 mg b.i.d.; glyburide/metformin 2.5 mg/500 mg b.i.d.; or glyburide/metformin 5.0 mg/500 mg b.i.d. The doses were titrated every 2 weeks to a maximum of 4 tablets per day if the patients fasting plasma glucose (FPG) still exceeded 140 mg/dL. Efficacy was evaluated by the changes from baseline in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and FPG at week 16. Adverse events were recorded and summarized by treatment group.
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The study sample comprised 2,275 diabetic patients, aged 45-74 years, with proven CAD, who were screened but not included in the bezafibrate infarction prevention study. In addition, 9,047 nondiabetic patients with CAD represented a reference group. Diabetics were divided into four groups on the basis of their therapeutic regimen: diet alone (n = 990), glyburide (n = 953), metformin (n = 79), and a combination of the latter two (n = 253).
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This study was designed to examine the survival in type 2 diabetics with proven coronary artery disease (CAD) receiving a combined glyburide/metformin antihyperglycemic treatment over a long-term follow-up period.
Adherence was measured by medication possession ratio; the proportion of days on which a patient had medication available.