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Intranasal sumatriptan (Imitrex(®) ) may be an alternative for patients who refuse injections and cannot tolerate oral agents, but due to low bioavailability and slow absorption, the clinical utility of the currently marketed formulation is limited, highlighting an unmet need for an effective non-oral migraine medication with a rapid onset of action. To overcome the slow absorption profile associated with intranasal administration, we evaluated the impact of 1-O-n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltopyranoside (DDM, Intravail A-3™), a permeation enhancer, on sumatriptan's pharmacokinetic profile by comparing the pharmacokinetic characteristics of two commercial sumatriptan products, 4 mg subcutaneous and 6 mg subcutaneous in healthy adults, with DFN-02 - a novel intranasal agent comprised of sumatriptan 10 mg plus 0.20% DDM. We also determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics of DDM and evaluated its safety and tolerability.
This double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the acute treatment of migraine investigated the efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan 100 mg (Imitrex) administered for up to nine attacks compared with placebo administered for up to three attacks. Patients were randomized to receive oral sumatriptan 100 mg or placebo on an outpatient basis in a 3:1 ratio for three four-attack blocks. Headache relief 4 hours postdose was observed in 59 to 65% of patients after sumatriptan treatment compared with 18 to 23% of patients after placebo treatment across three four-attack blocks (p < 0.005). For each block, oral sumatriptan 100 mg was also significantly more effective than placebo at relieving clinical disability and nausea and vomiting. Efficacy on all these measures was consistently maintained with repeated administration. Oral sumatriptan 100 mg was well tolerated, and repeated administration did not alter the pattern or severity of adverse events. These data demonstrate that the efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan 100 mg was consistently maintained with repeated administration for up to nine separate migraine attacks.
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Both sumatriptan and dihydroergotamine were effective in aborting migraine headaches. Headache recurrence was two and a half time as likely with sumatriptan as with dihydroergotamine.
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Advances in investigative research (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging) have made it possible to study putative migraine processes and better understand the pathophysiology of the disorder. Consequently, the apparent opposing vascular and neuronal theories of migraine are now reconciled into a neurovascular hypothesis that pieces together migrainous events and allows us to better target such events in the hope of providing safe and effective therapies. Parallel discoveries in the fields of pharmacology, physiology, genetics and other biomedical disciplines will lead to the development of optimal migraine therapeutics. Such discoveries have already yielded some major enhancement in acute migraine treatment with the development of sumatriptan (Imitrex, GlaxoSmithKline) and other triptans and the trajectory is likely to be exponential. Novel targets, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists and inhibitors of excitatory glutamatergic receptors, are leading the pack but many other promising targets are in development. The post-sumatriptan decades will witness treatment strategies that will improve the therapeutic index of acute therapies and others which will effectively and safely prevent migraine attacks.
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Double-blind, randomized trial with parallel treatment arms.
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The percentage of patients reporting satisfied/very satisfied for Overall Satisfaction of SNC versus S/N (primary endpoint) was 85% versus 72% respectively (p = 0.054). For Overall Effectiveness, the results were 82% for SNC versus 73% for S/N (p = 0.159); and for Overall Side Effects the results were 86% for SNC versus 69% for S/N (p = 0.005). Mean PPMQ-R scores reflect greater satisfaction with SNC than S/N for Total score and for each of four subscales. The difference between SNC and S/N was significant for the Ease of Use subscale (p = 0.004) and met the criterion of being clinically meaningful for both the Total score and Ease of Use. SNC did not differ from S/N with respect to pain-free response 2 h post dose, pain relief 2 h post dose, sustained 24 h pain-free response, or sustained 24 h pain relief.
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Practitioners can optimize the use of health care dollars without compromising quality of care through awareness of cost-saving treatment strategies, as well as price variations among medications.
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To investigate whether a needle-free system can deliver s.c. sumatriptan. If so, to examine whether needle-free administration is bioequivalent to a 26-gauge needle-based auto-injector. Lastly, to assess the needle-free system for clinical acceptability and ease of use during migraine attacks.
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There is evidence that serotonin may be implicated in the pathophysiology of myofascial pain (MFP). Because of this, we used oral sumatriptan (Imitrex, Glaxo), a peripherally acting agonist of 5-HT1D receptors, in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled double crossover pilot study of 7 patients with episodic MFP of the temporalis muscles. The results showed that there was a significant reduction in pain intensity and increase in pain relief over time with both the active medication and the placebo, but no significant difference between treatments. All but 1 patient reported that they are not interested in retaking the same medication. These data suggest that oral sumatriptan may not be the drug of choice in the control of episodic MFP.
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Sumatriptan succinate (SS) is a 5-HT1 receptor agonist used in the treatment of migraine having poor bioavailability (15%) due to its extensive first-pass effect. The aim of this work was to prepare SS sublingual fast dissolving thin films (SFDTFs) allowing the drug to directly enter the systemic circulation and bypassing the first-pass metabolism. Plain thin films were prepared using solvent casting technique adopting 2(3) × 3 factorial design to study the effect of polymer and plasticizer type and concentration on mechanical properties and in vitro disintegration time of the plain prepared films using Design-Expert®. Medicated films were prepared after addition of 35 mg SS to each of the two selected plain formulae (F6 and F7) having desirability values above 0.9 showing the values of: 0.038, 0.039 kgf/mm(2) and 156.24, 164.16% and 0.0248, 0.0240 kgf/mm(2) as tensile strength, percent elongation and elastic modulus, respectively. PVP K30 was efficient as crystallization inhibitor in retarding SS crystallization. Pharmacokinetic study of the optimum formula F7 (PVP K30:SS (1:1 w/w)) in healthy human volunteers using LC/MS/MS revealed a shorter tmax (0.25 h) compared to Imitrex® tablet 25 mg (2 h) which is considered promising especially for the rapid relief of acute migraine attacks.
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The objective of this human factors study was to compare migraine patients' device use performance and preferences for three sumatriptan subcutaneous autoinjectors: a disposable two-step device (Zembrace(®) SymTouch(®)), a disposable three-step device (Sumavel(®) DosePro(®)), and a multistep reloadable device (Imitrex(®) STATdose(®)), using simulated injections.
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Patients with moderate or severe head pain were randomized to receive either 1 mg of subcutaneous dihydroergotamine mesylate or 6 mg of subcutaneous sumatriptan succinate. Patients rated head pain, functional ability, nausea, and vomiting at baseline and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours after the injection. Presence or absence of headache at 3 hours was calculated from collected data. If pain persisted after 2 hours, a second injection of the same study medication was allowed, and self-ratings were repeated 30 and 60 minutes later. Follow-up data were collected at 24 hours.
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A 13-year-old boy died suddenly at night while asleep. A colloid cyst filled the third ventricle, obstructed the flow of cerebral spinal fluid, and led to prominent hydrocephalus. Acute ventricular distension with brain herniation resulted in death, whereas repeated previous episodes had led to cerebral compression and edema. Complaints included only episodic headache in the month prior to death. His pediatrician prescribed a course of Imitrex (sumatriptan) because of lack of neurologic signs or other symptoms and a family history of migraine headaches. The headaches persisted, however, and within 1 month the patient died. The difficulty of accurate clinical diagnosis in this case is common. Subtle signs or even lack of symptoms of increased intracranial pressure may prevent a timely diagnosis before the occurrence of deadly complications. This case report helps to remind both forensic medical examiners and clinicians that this entity, although rare, should remain in the differential diagnosis of headache in children and young adults and of hydrocephalus at autopsy. Timely diagnosis of this benign lesion can lead to a surgical cure.