FREE
SHIPPING!

on all orders above $200.00

FREE Pills!

via4gra pills

for free with every order

OUR DRUG PRICES are

70%

Less than in your
local pharmacy

Search by letter:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Inderal (Propranolol)
+ BONUS

Rating of sales:          

 
Inderal

Inderal is an effective medication which helps to fight with hypertension and other heart or circulatory conditions. It is also taken to prevent heart attack and reduce severe headaches. Inderal acts by affecting the heart and circulation.

Other names for this medication:
N-propranolol

Similar Products:
Propranolol , Innopran XL

60 pills
 
When you purchase you get a bonus:
Cialis Soft
Cialis Soft 20mg
or Viagra Soft
Viagra Soft 100mg

You can choose your bonus in the shopping cart before checkout.

 
   bonus pills

  $20

  $30

USD 0.73 per pill   -20% USD 55.13 USD 44.10 per 60 pills   Order now
90 pills
 
When you purchase you get a bonus:
Cialis Soft
Cialis Soft 20mg
or Viagra Soft
Viagra Soft 100mg

You can choose your bonus in the shopping cart before checkout.

 
   bonus pills

  $20

  $30

USD 0.64 per pill   -20% USD 72.06 USD 57.65 per 90 pills   Order now
120 pills
 
When you purchase you get a bonus:
Cialis Soft
Cialis Soft 20mg
or Viagra Soft
Viagra Soft 100mg

You can choose your bonus in the shopping cart before checkout.

 
   bonus pills

  $20

  $30

USD 0.60 per pill   -20% USD 89.78 USD 71.82 per 120 pills   Order now
180 pills
 
When you purchase you get a bonus:
Cialis Soft
Cialis Soft 20mg
or Viagra Soft
Viagra Soft 100mg

You can choose your bonus in the shopping cart before checkout.

 
   bonus pills

  $20

  $30

USD 0.58 per pill   -20% USD 129.94 USD 103.95 per 180 pills   Order now

Also known as: Propranolol.

Description

Inderal is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against hypertension and other heart or circulatory conditions. Its target is to prevent heart attack and reduce severe headaches.

Inderal acts by affecting the heart and circulation. It is beta blocker.

Inderal is also known as Propranolol, Avlocardyl, Deralin, Dociton, Inderalici, InnoPran XL, Sumial, Anaprilinum.

Generic name of Inderal is Propranolol.

Brand names of Inderal are Inderal, Inderal LA, InnoPran XL.

Dosage

The dosage of Inderal depends on your condition.

Take Inderal tablets and capsules every day at the same time orally with water.

Do not crush or chew it.

The extended-release (long-acting) tablet is usually taken once a day. Immediate-acting Inderal can be taken 2-4 times a day.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Inderal suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Inderal and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Inderal overdosage: shortness of breath, uneven heartbeats, seizure, weakness, fainting, dizziness, bluish-colored fingernails.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Inderal are:

  • inderal online
  • inderal 40mg generic
  • inderal la generic
  • inderal xl generic
  • inderal generic
  • inderal la 80mg generic
  • inderal 20mg cost

Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Inderal if you are allergic to Inderal components.

Do not take Inderal if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby. Do not use it if you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Inderal if you are taking heart medicines (such as nifedipine (Procardia, Adalat), reserpine (Serpasil), verapamil (Calan, Verelan, Isoptin), diltiazem (Cartia, Cardizem)), MAO inhibitor (such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), phenelzine (Nardil), or selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam)),cold medicines, stimulant medicines or diet pills,medicine for asthma or other breathing disorders (such as albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil), bitolterol (Tornalate), metaproterenol (Alupent), pirbuterol (Maxair), terbutaline (Brethaire, Brethine, Bricanyl) and theophylline (Theo-Dur, Theolair)),a diabetes medication (such as insulin, glyburide (Diabeta, Micronase, Glynase), glipizide (Glucotrol), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), or metformin (Glucophage)), allergy medicine, guanabenz (Wytensin),clonidine (Catapres).

Be careful with Inderal if you suffer from or have a history of bradycardia (<50 beats/minute), uncontrolled congestive heart failure, sick sinus syndrome, atrioventricular block (2 or 3 degree), cocaine toxicity, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, depression, liver or kidney disease, myasthenia gravis, Raynaud's syndrome. You can take Inderal on the lower dose.

Be careful with Inderal if you are going to have a surgery.

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Inderal suddenly.

inderal la generic

For extrapolation of k'IAMw, linear plots were obtained both with the respective dielectric constants and the mole fractions of the organic modifier. All tested compounds showed a similar pH-D diagram in both systems; however, significant differences were reproducibly found in the pH range of 5 to 8. In all cases, deltaG and deltaH were negative, whereas deltaS values were negative for acids and positive for bases.

inderal 40mg generic

This is the largest single-center case series of beta-blocker-induced hypoglycemia. Clinicians should be cognizant of hypoglycemia symptoms in younger children during periods of poor appetite and during viral illness, and parents of these children should be educated about the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. A potential LQT2-hypoglycemia genotype-phenotype relationship warrants further investigation.

inderal online

Pancreatic islet blood perfusion varies according to the needs for insulin secretion. We examined the effects of blood lipids on pancreatic islet blood flow in anesthetized rats. Acute administration of Intralipid to anesthetized rats increased both triglycerides and free fatty acids, associated with a simultaneous increase in total pancreatic and islet blood flow. A preceding abdominal vagotomy markedly potentiated this and led acutely to a 10-fold increase in islet blood flow associated with a similar increase in serum insulin concentrations. The islet blood flow and serum insulin response could be largely prevented by pretreatment with propranolol and the selective β₃-adrenergic inhibitor SR-59230A. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester prevented the blood flow increase but was less effective in reducing serum insulin. Increased islet blood flow after Intralipid administration was also seen in islet and whole pancreas transplanted rats, i.e., models with different degrees of chronic islet denervation, but the effect was not as pronounced. In isolated vascularly perfused single islets Intralipid dilated islet arterioles, but this was not affected by SR-59230A. Both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system are important for the coordination of islet blood flow and insulin release during hyperlipidemia, with a previously unknown role for β₃-adrenoceptors.

inderal 20mg cost

A new medication is needed to treat essential tremor. Preliminary evidence suggests that arotinolol may be effective in the treatment of this disorder.

inderal xl generic

In this paper we consider nonparametric estimation of transition probabilities for multi-state models. Specifically, we focus on the illness-death or disability model. The main novelty of the proposed estimators is that they do not rely on the Markov assumption, typically assumed to hold in a multi-state model. We investigate the asymptotic properties of the introduced estimators, such as their consistency and their convergence to a normal law. Simulations demonstrate that the new estimators may outperform Aalen-Johansen estimators (the classical nonparametric tool for estimating the transition probabilities) in non-Markov situation. An illustration through real data analysis is included.

inderal la 80mg generic

The binding site of 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) on alpha-acid glycoprotein (AGP) was studied by fluorescence and ultracentrifugation experiments. Three ligands, propranolol, warfarin and progesterone were employed as marker ligands and quinaldine red was employed as a fluorescent probe. The presence of UCN-01, pro- pranolol, warfarin and progesterone resulted in a significant quenching of the fluorescence of quinaldine red, when bound to AGP, depending upon the potency of the binding to AGP. The construction of Klotz plots indicated that the displacement effects of propranolol, warfarin and progesterone on UCN-01-AGP binding were competitive in nature. These data suggest that the binding site of UCN-01 on the AGP partly overlaps the binding site for basic drugs, acidic drugs, as well as steroid hormones.

inderal generic

Cardiac failure regressed and thyroid function normalized within ten days on propranolol, 4 x 40 mg and thiamazole 3 x 40 mg daily intravenously. Subtotal thyroidectomy was performed three weeks later with subsequent thyroid hormone substitution. Liver functions were normal six months later and ultrasound showed no signs of cirrhotic change and the ascites had resolved.

inderal la generic

The results suggested that natural product XJP/isopropanolamine moiety hybrids may provide a promising approach for the discovery of novel cardiovascular drug candidates.

inderal 40mg generic

A 5-year-old Japanese boy died because of a ruptured left coronary artery aneurysm (CAA). He was diagnosed as having Kawasaki disease (KD) on the 5th day from onset, with all of the principal signs. On the 7th day of illness, bilateral CAAs were already found via echocardiography, and he was treated with intravenous (IV) gamma globulin and oral ASA. However, the fever persisted and the CAA progressed rapidly. Echocardiography on the 12th illness day showed a giant (18-mm) left anterior descending (LAD) artery aneurysm. Oral propranolol and nifedipine were administered, in conjunction with warfarin/aspirin anti-coagulation therapy. On the 13th day of illness, cardiac arrest developed abruptly, and, despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the patient remained unresponsive and died one hour later. The final pathological diagnosis was a ruptured LAD artery aneurysm and cardiac tamponade. Microscopic investigation of the ruptured vascular wall revealed marked neutrophilic infiltration, with fewer macrophages and lymphocytes. CAA ruptures are a very rare, but fatal, complication of KD. Based on a review of previous reports on CAA ruptures, we consider it useful to distinguish aneurysms which rapidly dilate and continue to expand beyond a diameter of 10 mm with ongoing vasculitis (these CAAs can be termed "super-giant") from the more common giant CAAs limited to a diameter of 8 or 9 mm, because a decision must be made as to whether to start intensive care or to intervene surgically, in order to ensure the survival of patients with such a potentially critical complication.

inderal online

In patients with high-risk esophageal varices, endoscopic ligation of the varices is safe and more effective than propranolol for the primary prevention of variceal bleeding.

inderal 20mg cost

We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS up to November 2015. Bibliographies of identified studies were checked. No language restrictions were applied.

inderal xl generic

Bot III neurotoxin is the most lethal α neurotoxin purified from Buthus occitanus tunetanus scorpion venom. This toxin binds to the voltage-gated sodium channel of excitable cells and blocks its inactivation, inducing an increased release of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine and catecholamines). This study aims to elucidate the involvement of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in pathogenesis and inflammatory response triggered by this toxin. Injection of Bot III to animals induces an increase of peroxidase activities, an imbalance of oxidative status, tissue damages in lung parenchyma, and myocardium correlated with metabolic disorders. The pretreatment with nicotine (nicotinic receptor agonist) or atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist) protected the animals from almost all disorders caused by Bot III toxin, especially the immunological alterations. Bisoprolol administration (selective β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist) was also efficient in the protection of animals, mainly on tissue damage. Propranolol (non-selective adrenergic receptor antagonist) showed less effect. These results suggest that both cholinergic and adrenergic receptors are activated in the cardiopulmonary manifestations induced by Bot III. Indeed, the muscarinic receptor appears to be more involved than the nicotinic one, and the β1 adrenergic receptor seems to dominate the β2 receptor. These results showed also that the activation of nicotinic receptor leads to a significant protection of animals against Bot III toxin effect. These findings supply a supplementary data leading to better understanding of the mechanism triggered by scorpionic neurotoxins and suggest the use of drugs targeting these receptors, especially the nicotinic one in order to counteract the inflammatory response observed in scorpion envenomation.

inderal la 80mg generic

Results show that the aqueous root extract of Aristolochia ringens possesses antidiarrhoeal activity possibly mediated by its non selective action on adrenoceptors in the GIT and physiological antagonism of the parasympathetic nervous system.

inderal generic

The mucus layer covering the surface of the gastrointestinal tract may act as a barrier to drug absorption. The aim of this investigation was to study the self-diffusion coefficients of model drugs with different physicochemical properties in gastrointestinal mucus. An in vitro method was used to determine the self-diffusion coefficients of radiolabeled model drugs in different diffusion media. Glucosamine, mannitol, glucuronic acid, glucose, metoprotol, antipyrine, propranolol, hydrocortisone, and testosterone, which display large differences in charge and octanol/water distribution ratios (K), were used as model drugs. The diffusion coefficients of model drugs were compared in phosphate buffer (PB), native pig intestinal mucus (PIM), and purified pig gastric much (PPGM). PIM was not purified and therefore contained all the original components of native mucus, whereas PPGM contained only high molecular weight mucin molecules. Charge had only minor effects on the diffusion coefficients of the model drugs. Lipophilicity, however, had a much larger effect, the largest decrease in diffusion coefficient, 58%, was observed for testosterone in PIM. A negative relationship between the diffusion coefficient and log K was observed in PIM, but no relationship was observed in PPGM and PB. In contrast, the diffusion coefficients for two larger molecules of comparable size, the lipophilic peptide cyclosporin and the hydrophilic peptide D-arginine vasopressin, were markedly reduced in PIM. In conclusion, the most important physicochemical characteristic influencing the diffusion coefficient of most drugs in gastrointestinal mucus appears to be lipophilicity, whereas molecular size appears to have more influence for larger peptide drugs.

inderal la generic

The baseline NE plasma concentration of 298 +/- 153 pg/ml increased to 708 +/- 419 pg/ml after the infusion of NE. NE significantly increased the mean blood pressure, sinus cycle length, corrected sinus node recovery time, ventriculoatrial block cycle length, and the atrial and ventricular effective refractory periods. In a subset of 10 patients 0.2 mg/kg propranolol administered during continued infusion of NE resulted in a further increase in sinus cycle length, atrial-His interval, and ventricular refractoriness.

Target Point Shipping Method Tracking Delivery Time Price
Worldwide shipping

Worldwide shipping

Registered Mail  Not trackable 14-21 business days USD 20.00 per order
EMS  Trackable, where available 5-9 business days USD 30.00 per order

Delivery time is:

Registered Mail - 14-21 business days, prices - USD 20.00, no signature is required on delivery.
EMS - 5-9 business days, prices - USD 30.00, signature is required on delivery.
Your order will be packed safe and secure and dispatched within 24 hours.

front back side

This is exactly how your parcel will look like (pictures of a real shipping item). It has a look of a regular private letter and does not disclose its contents. Size - 9.4x4.3x0.3 inches (24x11x0.7cm).

Testimonials
Best
 Show Hide 
inderal la generic 2016-11-05

We included 25 RCTs that evaluated the BP lowering effects of seven nonselective beta-blockers in 1264 people with hypertension. Among the 25 RCTs, four were parallel studies and 21 were cross-over studies. Overall, nonselective beta-blockers lowered systolic BP and diastolic BP compared with placebo. Nonselective beta-blockers, in the recommended dose range, did not showed a convincing dose-response relationship by direct comparison. The once (1x) and twice (2x) starting dose subgroups contained the largest sample size. The estimate of BP lowering efficacy for nonselective beta-blockers by combining the 1x and 2x starting dose subgroup was -10 mmHg (95% CI -11 to -8) for systolic BP and -7 mmHg (95% CI -8 to -6) for diastolic BP (low-quality evidence). Nonselective beta-blockers starting at the 1x recommended starting doses Crestor Monthly Cost lowered heart rate by 12 beats per minute (95% CI 10 to 13) (low-quality evidence). The dose-response relationship in heart rate was evident by both direct and indirect comparison. Due to imprecision, there was no clear evidence of an effect of nonselective beta-blockers on pulse pressure in any dose subgroups except for a small reduction with the 2x starting dose (-2.2 mmHg, 95% CI -3.7 to -0.7) (very low quality evidence). The point estimates in the 1x, four times (4x) and eight times (8x) starting dose subgroups were similar to the 2x starting dose subgroup. Therefore, it would appear that if nonselective beta-blockers do lower pulse pressure, the magnitude is likely to be about 2 mmHg. There were very limited data (two studies) on withdrawals due to adverse effects (risk ratio (RR) 0.84; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.82).

inderal online 2015-11-14

Norepinephrine and dopamine are both believed to affect signal-to-noise in the cerebral cortex. Dopaminergic agents appear to modulate semantic networks during indirect semantic priming, but do not appear to affect problem solving dependent on access to semantic networks. Noradrenergic agents, though, do affect semantic network dependent problem solving. We wished to examine whether noradrenergic agents affect indirect semantic priming. Subjects attended three sessions: one each after propranolol (40 mg) (noradrenergic antagonist), ephedrine (25 mg) (noradrenergic agonist), and placebo. During each session, closely related, distantly related, and unrelated pairs were presented. Reaction times for a lexical decision task on the target words (second word in the pair) were recorded. No decrease in indirect semantic priming occurred with ephedrine. Furthermore, across all three drugs, a main effect of semantic relatedness was found, but no main effect of drug, and no drug/semantic relatedness interaction effect. These findings suggest that noradrenergic agents, with these drugs and at these doses, do not affect Lipitor Generic Price Comparison indirect semantic priming with the potency of dopaminergic drugs at the doses previously studied. In the context of this previous work, this suggests that more automatic processes such as priming and more controlled searches of the lexical and semantic networks such as problem solving may be mediated, at least in part, by distinct mechanisms with differing effects of pharmacological modulation.

inderal xl generic 2015-08-13

To describe a case of diffuse choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal Crestor Cost No Insurance detachment treated successfully with oral propranolol.

inderal la 80mg generic 2015-04-03

Sympathetic blockade is superior to the antiarrhythmic therapy recommended by the ACLS guidelines in treating ES patients. Our study Vytorin Generic Alternative emphasizes the role of increased sympathetic activity in the genesis of ES. Sympathetic blockade-not class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs-should be the treatment of choice for ES.

inderal 20mg cost 2017-09-26

Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are common and mostly emerge in the head-neck area. Recently, propranolol has been replacing oral corticosteroids (OCS) as the main treatment Buy Cheap Omnicef Cod modality.

inderal generic 2017-01-16

We found that NE upregulated the expression of VEGF, IL-8 and IL-6 in vitro and stimulated tumor growth in vivo, which was mediated by β-AR/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway Zithromax Online Purchase and could be inhibited by propranolol, a β-blocker for hypertension for decades.

inderal 40mg generic 2016-08-16

Simultaneous optical mapping of transmembrane potential and Ca(2+) transients was performed in normal rabbit hearts during subepicardial injections (50 μL) of norepinephrine (NE) or control (normal Tyrode's solution). Local NE produced premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) from the injection site that were dose-dependent (low-dose [30-60 μmol/L], 0.45±0.62 PVCs per injection; high-dose [125-250 μmol/L], 1.33±1.46 PVCs per injection; P<0.0001) and were inhibited by propranolol. NE-induced PVCs exhibited abnormal voltage-Ca(2+) delay at the initiation site and were inhibited by either sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibition or reduced perfusate [Ca(2+)], which indicates a Ca(2+)-mediated mechanism. NE-induced PVCs were more common at right ventricular than at left ventricular sites (1.48±1.50 versus 0.55±0.89, P<0.01), and this was unchanged after chemical ablation of endocardial Purkinje fibers, which suggests Benicar Hct Generic Substitute that source-sink interactions may contribute to the greater propensity to right ventricular PVCs. Partial gap junction uncoupling with carbenoxolone (25 μmol/L) increased focal activity (2.18±1.43 versus 1.33±1.46 PVCs per injection, P<0.05), which further supports source-sink balance as a critical mediator of Ca(2+)-induced PVCs.

inderal la generic 2015-08-04

1. We found previously that propranolol augments hyperpnoea-induced bronchoconstriction (HIB). This study was performed to investigate the underlying mechanism of this aug- menting action of propranolol. 2. In the first series, 45 young Hartley guinea-pigs were divided into five groups: control; propranolol; adrenalectomy; metoprolol and reserpine. Each animal underwent three periods: baseline, hyperpnoea, and recovery. For Buy Cleocin Gel each animal 1 ml of arterial blood was sampled during the baseline and recovery periods. 3. Treatments of propranolol, metoprolol, and reserpine caused significant decreases in both dynamic respiratory compliance (Crs) and forced expiratory volume in 0.1 s (FEV0.1) during the baseline period. Hyperpnoea caused slight but not significant decreases in Crs, FEV0.1, and maximal expiratory flow at 50% total lung capacity (TLC) (V(max50)) during the recovery period in the control group. Propranolol, but not other treatments, significantly augmented these decreases (indicating HIB). Plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels in the reserpine group were not detectable. The above treatments or hyperpnoea did not induce any significant effect on the plasma noradrenaline level. Plasma adrenaline level of the control group was higher than that of either adrenalectomy or reserpine group during the baseline and the recovery periods. 4. In the second series, we avoided repeated blood samplings. Forty-eight animals were evenly divided into two groups: control and propranolol. Each group was again evenly divided into three subgroups: baseline; hyperpnoea, and recovery. Five minutes into the recovery period, we demonstrated HIB in the control group. In terms of V(max50), this HIB was significantly augmented by propranolol. Plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels, however, were not significantly altered by either hyperpnoea or propranolol. 5. Taken together, these data suggest that propranolol-augmented HIB has no direct relationship with decreased catecholamine activity.

inderal online 2016-02-07

Brugada syndrome is characterized by the electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of right bundle-branch block (RBBB) with a high take-off, coved ST-segment elevation in the precordial leads V1 to V3, and the risk of sudden cardiac death. Typically, there is no evidence of structural heart disease. In many cases, Brugada syndrome has been linked to a mutation of the gene SCN5A, which encodes for the fast cardiac sodium channel. In patients with the Brugada syndrome, pharmacologic sodium channel blockade can increase the degree of ST-segment elevation. Interestingly, even in patients with a normal baseline ECG and no clinical suggestion of the Brugada syndrome, toxic doses of class I antiarrhythmic agents as well as toxicities with Ziac Generic For several nonantiarrhythmic drugs that possess sodium channel blocking properties can induce the Brugada ECG abnormality. Specifically, the beta-receptor blocker propranolol, at high doses, binds to the cardiac sodium channels and inhibits sodium uptake. In this report, we describe a case of severe propranolol toxicity, which resulted in the Brugada ECG pattern in an otherwise healthy individual who had no clinical or ECG suggestion of the genetically determined Brugada syndrome.

inderal xl generic 2015-06-07

Five mongrel dogs were equipped with 4-strain gauge-force transducers on the gastric body, antrum, duodenum, and jejunum to measure contractile activity of the circular muscle. Dai-Kenchu-To (1.5 g) or the separate ingredients zanthoxylum fruit, ginseng root, or dried ginger rhizome (1.0 g each) were administered by bolus into the gastric lumen. The effect of atropine, hexamethonium, phentolamine, propranolol, and ondansetron on intragastric Dai-Kenchu-To-induced contractions was studied.

inderal la 80mg generic 2016-12-28

Treatment with oral propranolol vs prednisolone (2.0 mg/kg/d) until halted owing to toxic effects or clinical response.

inderal 20mg cost 2016-05-08

Incomplete removal of pharmaceuticals during wastewater treatment can result in their discharge into the aquatic environment. The discharge of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents into rivers, lakes and the oceans has led to detectable concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment in many countries. However, to date studies of WWTP discharges into the aquatic environment have largely been confined to areas of relatively high population density, industrial activity or systems impacted on by such areas. In this work, two sites in the far north of Scotland were used to assess whether, and which, pharmaceuticals were being introduced into natural waters in a rural environment with low population density. Samples from two WWTPs (with differing modes of operation), and one receiving water, the River Thurso, were analysed for the presence of 12 pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, clofibric acid, erythromycin, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, paracetamol, propranolol, sulfamethoxazole, tamoxifen, trimethoprim and dextropropoxyphene). Ten of the 12 pharmaceuticals investigated were detected in at least one of the 40 WWTP effluent samples. Maximum concentrations ranged from 7 ng L(-1) (sulfamethoxazole) to 22.8 μg L(-1) (paracetamol) with diclofenac and mefenamic acid being present in all of samples analysed at concentrations between 24.2 and 927 ng L(-1) and 11.5 and 22.8 μg L(-1), respectively. Additionally, the presence of four pharmaceuticals at ng L(-1) levels in the River Thurso, into which one of the WWTPs discharges, shows that such discharges result in measurable levels of pharmaceuticals in the environment. This provides direct evidence that, even in rural areas with low population densities, effluents from WWTPs can produce quantifiable levels of human pharmaceutical in the natural aquatic environment. These observations indicate that human pharmaceuticals may be considered as contaminants, with potential to influence water quality, management and conservation not only in urban and industrial regions but also those more rural in nature.