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Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is used therapeutically for eclampsia and tocolysis. Some reports have suggested a relationship between therapeutic MgSO4 and patent ductus arteriosus (DA) in preterm infants.
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Indomethacin loaded SD were prepared by solvent evaporation and melt granulation technique using SFE 1815 as carrier in 1:0.25, 1:0.5 1:0.75 and 1:1 ratios of drug and carrier. Prepared SD and tablets were subjected to in vitro dissolution studies in 900 mL of pH 7.2 phosphate buffer using apparatus I at 100 rpm. The promising SD were further formulated as tablets using suitable diluent (DCL 21, Avicel PH 102 and pregelatinised starch) to attain the drug release similar to that of SD.. The obtained dissolution data was subjected to kinetic study by fitting the data into various model independent models like zero order, first order, Higuchi, Hixon-Crowell and Peppas equations. Drug and excipient compatibility studies were confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy.
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Diets of Wistar rats were supplemented with oltipraz, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), sulforaphane analogue compound-30, indole-3-carbinol, D-limonene, relafen, indomethacin, ibuprofen, piroxicam, acetyl salicylic acid or sulindac. Hepatic and intestinal UGT enzyme activities were quantified by using 4-nitrophenol and 4-methylumbelliferone as substrates.
This experimental study was designed to evaluate systemic and topical anti-inflammatory effects of the hydro-alcoholic extract from aerial parts of Stachys pilifera (HESP).
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In the fall of 2007, 250 Sprague-Dawley rats provided by the Shiraz University Laboratory Animal Center were divided into 4 equal groups including control (70 rats), and 3 experimental groups (60 rats each), and each group received different doses of T. polium. Ten rats were used to study the induction of gastric ulcer by indomethacin (25 mg/kg/stat). After 24 hours, their stomachs were evaluated for any mucosal ulcer. The T. polium extract was administered orally, 24 hours after indomethacin administration. In the experimental group, 10 animals were sacrificed after 24, 48, and 72 hours, after administration of T. polium, and at one, 2, and 4 weeks, and in the control group identically after the administration of distilled water.
The main objective of this work was to use Weibull distribution function and Baker-Lonsdale models to study the dissolution kinetics of prepared binary and ternary interactive mixtures containing indomethacin in comparison with three commercially available capsules of indomethacin, namely, Rothacin®, Indomin® and Indylon®. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in conjunction with cloud point method was used to study the compatibility of indomethacin with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and lactose and to provide an explanation(s) for the insignificant increase in dissolution rate observed in the ternary interactive mixture as well as for the reduction in the dissolution rate observed from the binary system in our previous study. Results showed that the Weibull distribution function equation was the best fit to the dissolution data for all formulations used in this study. DSC curves showed that the decrease in dissolution rate from the binary and ternary interactive mixtures was due to incompatibility of indomethacin with PVP. Also DSC curves showed that lactose was compatible with indomethacin and that lactose was used as excipient in two commercial products (Rothacin® and Indylon®). Results from the cloud point method showed that the addition of indomethacin to 1% PVP solution containing ammonium sulfate (with cloud point at 76°C) reduces the cloud point of PVP indicating that there is an interaction between indomethacin and PVP, while the cloud point of 1% PVP containing ammonium sulfate was not affected by the addition of lactose.
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Application of 1 μM PGE2 increased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions without affecting frequency. 10 μM of indomethacin reduced amplitude but not frequency.The addition of indomethacin did not alter F(ini) after the first application (p = 0.7665). However, after the second wash, F(ini) was decreased (p = 0.0005). F(steady), P(steady) and P(ini) were not significantly different in any of the conditions. These effects of indomethacin were reversible by PGE2 addition..
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We included all patients with PE primarily corrected by Nuss procedure from July 2005 to December 2011. The clinical features, treatment and outcomes of these patients with pleural effusion were analyzed retrospectively.
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Ergostatrien-3beta-ol (ST1), an active and major ingredient from Antrodia camphorata (AC) submerged whole broth was evaluated for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Treatment of male imprinting control region (ICR) mice with ST1 (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the numbers of acetic-acid-induced writhing response in 10 min. Also, our result showed that ST1 (10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the formalin-induced pain in the late phase (p < 0.001). In the anti-inflammatory test, ST1 (10 mg/kg) decreased the paw edema at 4 and 5 h after lambda-carrageenin (Carr) administration and increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver tissue. We also demonstrated that ST1 significantly attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the edema paw at 5 h after Carr injection. ST1 (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) decreased the nitric oxide (NO) levels on both the edema paw and serum level at 5 h after Carr injection. Also, ST1 (5 and 10 mg/kg) diminished the serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) at 5 h after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that ST1 (10 mg/kg) decreased Carr-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cycloxyclase (COX-2) expressions at 5 h in the edema paw. An intraperitoneal (ip) injection treatment with ST1 also diminished neutrophil infiltration into sites of inflammation, as did indomethacin (Indo). The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of ST1 might be related to the decrease in the level of MDA, iNOS, and COX-2 in the edema paw via increasing the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx in the liver through the suppression of TNF-alpha and NO.
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Internal mammary (IMA) and radial artery (RA) have different incidence of vasospasm and long-term patency rates in arterial grafting. We compared the vasoreactivity of human urotensin II (hU-II) and its receptor with mechanism investigations in IMA and RA.
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Bradykinin (BK) plays an important role in different physiological processes including the general preservation and modulation of vascular systems. The present study was designed in order to examine the effect of BK on isolated rat femoral artery rings and to investigate the participation of intact endothelium, cyclooxygenase products, Ca(2+) channels, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and B2 kinin receptors in BK-induced action. Circular artery segments were placed in organ baths. The endothelium was mechanically removed from some arteries. Concentration-contraction curves for BK were obtained in the rings previously equilibrated at the basal tone. BK produced a concentration-dependent contraction, which was reduced by endothelial denudation. The BK-induced effect was almost completely inhibited by indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor) or OKY-046 (thromboxane A2-synthase inhibitor). Nifedipine (Ca(2+) channel blocker), ouabain (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor), or HOE-140 (selective B2 kinin receptor antagonist) significantly reduced the BK-evoked effect. In conclusion, it can be proposed that BK produces concentration- and endothelium-dependent contractions of the isolated rat femoral artery, which is for the most part a consequence of B2 kinin receptor activation. Cyclooxygenase contractile products, especially thromboxane A2, play a significant role in this course of action. The transduction mechanism involved in the process of BK-induced femoral artery contraction include the activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, and in a smaller extent Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase as well.
To confirm content validity of GutCheck(NEC) , a risk index for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and to determine the level of agreement among experts about NEC risk factors in premature infants.
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Scientific validation of an ethnomedicinal combination consisting of Semecarpus kurzii Engler (Anacardeaceae) leaves (SKL) and Hernandia peltata Meisn (Hernandeaceae) stem-bark (HPB), traditionally used in ailments related to inflammation, pain and fever.
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We have reported that rebamipide, a gastroprotective drug, suppresses indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury in humans and rats. However, the mechanisms of the cytoprotective actions of rebamipide have not been fully addressed. In the present study, we determined mRNA expression profile of the gastric mucosa treated with indomethacin in rats, and investigated the cytoprotective effects of rebamipide against indomethacin-induced injury with a high-density oligonucleotide array (Rat Toxicology U34 GeneChip array). Gastric epithelial cells were obtained by laser-assisted microdissection. Data analysis was performed with a GeneChip Operating Software, GeneSpring software 7.0, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Among 1,031 probes, the expression of 160 probes (15.5%) showed at least 2.0-fold up-regulation (158 probes) and down-regulation (2 probes) 2 h after indomethacin administration in comparison with the vehicle-treated rats. The pathway analysis of the up-regulated 123 probes identified the network with a highly significant score, which consisted of known clusters of cell death, cancer, and endocrine system disorders. We succeeded in listing 10 genes that were up-regulated by the treatment with indomethacin and that were down-regulated by rebamipide, including growth arrest and DNA damage-induced 45alpha. In conclusion, we demonstrated that cell death, especially apoptosis, pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury, and that inhibition of apoptosis-related genes is possibly important for the cytoprotective effect of rebamipide against this injury.
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Biochanin A caused concentration-dependent relaxation in aortic rings from 2K1C hypertensive and sham-treated rats, which was greater in 2K1C rats than in sham rats. Biochanin A-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated by removing the endothelium in aortic rings from 2K1C rats, but not in sham rats. N (ω)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, or indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, did not affect the biochanin A-induced relaxation in aortic rings from 2K1C and sham rats. By contrast, treatment with glibenclamide, a selective inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K(+) channels, or tetraethylammonium, an inhibitor of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, significantly reduced biochanin A-induced relaxation in aortic rings from both groups. However, 4-aminopyridine, a selective inhibitor of voltage-dependent K(+) channels, inhibited the relaxation induced by biochanin A in 2K1C rats, whereas no significant differences were observed in sham rats.