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Lamictal

Generic Lamictal is a single antiepileptic drug(AED) of the phenyltriazine class. Generic Lamictal is a medication indicated for adjunctive therapy for infancy with the following types of seizure: partial seizures, primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, generalized seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome; monotherapy for adult patients with partial seizures who are also receiving their treatment with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital,primidone and valproate.

Other names for this medication:
Apo-lamotrigine, Arvind, Convulsan, Crisomet, Dafex, Daksol, Danoptin, Dezepil, Doclamotri, Dyna-lamotrigine, Elmendos, Epilepax, Epimil, Epiral, Epitec, Epitrigine, Epizol, Espa-trigin, Flamus, Fringanor, Gerolamic, Labileno, Lafigin, Lagotran, Lamal, Lambipol, Lamdra, Lamepil, Lameptil, Lametec, Lameton, Lamez, Lamia, Lamicstart, Lamictin, Lamidus, Lamilept, Lamirax, Lamitor, Lamitrin, Lamo tad, Lamo-q, Lamodex, Lamogin, Lamogine, Lamolep, Lamorin, Lamoro, Lamotax, Lamotaxyl, Lamotiran, Lamotor, Lamotren, Lamotri hexal, Lamotrig-isis, Lamotrigin, Lamotrigina, Lamotriginum, Lamotrihexal, Lamotrin-mepha, Lamotrix, Lamox, Laribax, Larig, Latrigil, Latrigin, Latrigine, Logem, Lomarin, Medotrigin, Meganox, Mogine, Neurium, Plexxo, Pms-lamotrigine, Protalgine, Ratio-lamotrigine, Sandoz lamotrigine, Seaze, Symla, Tradox, Trigila, Triginet, Triglyx, Trogine

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Also known as:  Lamotrigine.

Description

Generic Lamictal is a medication indicated for adjunctive therapy for infancy with the following types of seizure such as partial seizures, primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, generalized seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome; monotherapy for adult patients with partial seizures who are also receiving their treatment with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital,primidone and valproate; bipolar disorder treatment for adults. Generic Lamictal helps to control mood episodes (depression, mania, hypomania and mixed episodes).

Generic Lamictal remains an effect of sodium channels. Generic Lamictal keeps off sodium channels thereby stabilizing nervous membranes and hereupon modulate presynaptic transmitter release of excitatory amino acids.

Lamictal is also known as Lamotrigine, Lametec.

Generic name of Generic Lamictal is Lamotrigine.

Brand name of Generic Lamictal is Lamictal.

Dosage

Take it orally.

Generic Lamictal can be used by children and adults.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Lamictal suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Lamictal and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Lamictal overdosage: ataxia, nystagmus, increased seizures, decreased level of consciousness, coma, intraventricular conduction delay.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Lamictal are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Lamictal if you are allergic to Generic Lamictal components.

Be careful with Generic Lamictal if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful with Generic Lamictal in case of different types of contraception usage, hepatic impairment, renal impairment.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Lamictal taking suddenly.

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Most of the compounds examined ameliorated at least a subset of pharmacologically induced PPI deficits. That none of the antipsychotic treatments attenuated the PPI deficit in the mGluR5 KO mice indicates that this model is not predictive of known treatments for schizophrenia, but does not preclude a role for the mGluR5 receptor in schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorders.

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There was a significantly higher risk of the ponderal index being below the 10th percentile and infants being small for gestational age (SGA) in the epilepsy group; exposure to AED increased the risk. The frequency of SGA and low ponderal index was highest in Lamotrigine exposed infants. In the AED group, head circumference was significantly smaller among Carbamazepine exposed.

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The story began on 11th May 1857 when Charles Locock commented in the Lancet on his use of potassium bromide in 15 cases of "hysterical" epilepsy in young women. The next development was the serendipitous discovery of the anticonvulsant properties of phenobarbital by Alfred Hauptmann in 1912. This predated by more than 20 years the screening of potential therapeutic agents against "electrical seizures" in cats by Houston Merritt and Tracy Putnam. The result was the launching of phenytoin in 1938. Next came primidone, ethosuximide, carbamazepine and valproic acid, all of which can be regarded as first generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Shortly after their synthesis, the benzodiazepines were rapidly recognised as having anticonvulsant activity. The modern era focused on the systematic screening of many thousands of compounds against rodent seizure models under the Anticonvulsant Drug Development Program in the US. This resulted in the global licensing, in chronological order, of vigabatrin, zonisamide, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, felbamate, gabapentin, topiramate, tiagabine, levetiracetam, pregabalin and lacosamide. Rufinamide is available in the US and Europe for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and stiripentol has been made available for Dravet syndrome under the European orphan drug scheme. Eslicarbazepine can be prescribed in Europe for partial seizures, but not in the US. Has all this activity improved the lives of people with epilepsy? The short answer is-probably yes, but not by very much! This paper will conclude with a précis of the views of a selected group of paediatric and adult epileptologists on the advances in pharmacological management achieved over the last 20 years.

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This naturalistic study indicates that lamotrigine can be an effective treatment option for maintenance of bipolar illness in women of childbearing age.

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Cases of recovery from vegetative and minimally conscious state after the administration of various pharmacological agents have been recently reported. These agents include CNS depressants (zolpidem, baclofen, lamotrigine) and CNS stimulants (tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, dopaminergic agents, methylphenidate). The action of CNS depressants as awakening agents sounds paradoxical, as they are commonly prescribed to slow down brain activity in the management of anxiety, muscle tension, pain, insomnia and seizures. How these drugs may improve the level of consciousness in some brain-injured patients is the subject of intense debate. Here we hypothesize that CNS depressants may promote consciousness recovery by reversing a condition of GABA impairment in the injured brain, restoring the normal ratio between synaptic excitation and inhibition, which is the prerequisite for any transition from a resting state to goal-oriented activities (GABA impairment hypothesis). Alternative or complementary mechanisms underlying the improvement of consciousness may include the reversal of a neurodormant state within areas affected by diaschisis (diaschisis hypothesis) and the modulation of an informative overload to the cortex as a consequence of filter failure in the injured brain (informative overload hypothesis). A better understanding of how single agents act on neural networks, whose functioning is critical for recovery, may help to advance a tailored pharmacological approach in the treatment of severely brain injured patients.

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Neurodegeneration is a major cause of disability in multiple sclerosis, and it is therefore important to understand its mechanisms in order to develop rational neuroprotective therapy. Recent work on the toxicity of nitric oxide to axons has suggested that damage can occur from the combined effects of energy failure and axonal sodium overload. Partial blockade of axonal sodium channels should therefore be protective, and this has been confirmed in several models of inflammatory axonal injury. Clinical trials of neuroprotection using blockers of sodium channels are now under way. There is no agreement yet on several aspects of trial design, but the situation should become clearer once the results of these trials are reported.

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Lacosamide is a new-generation antiseizure medication that is approved for use as an adjunctive treatment and monotherapy in focal epilepsy. Its use in generalized epilepsy, however, has not been adequately evaluated in controlled trials. We report a 67-year-old woman who experienced new-onset myoclonic seizures after initiation of lacosamide. We presume that she had an undiagnosed generalized epilepsy syndrome, likely juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Myoclonic seizures were not reported before introducing lacosamide and completely resolved after lacosamide was discontinued. This suggests that lacosamide may have the potential to worsen myoclonus, similar to what has been reported with another sodium channel agent, lamotrigine, in some individuals with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE).

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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic, recurring and potentially life-threatening mental illness. Current treatments are inadequate - many depression medications, although safe and effective, generally have a slow onset of clinical benefit and around half of the MDD patients do not show full remission with optimized treatment. Therefore, there is still a need for the development of faster-acting and more effective medication for MDD. Recent studies have demonstrated that the TREK-1 protein, one of the 17 members of the two-pore domain K+ (K2P) potassium channel family, is inhibited by the antidepressant fluoxetine. Deletion of TREK-1 in mice caused a substantially reduced elevation of corticosterone levels under stress, and produced behaviour similar to that of naive animals treated with fluoxetine in various behavioural tests. These findings suggested that the blocker of the TREK-1 channel might potentially be a new type of antidepressant. Sipatrigine (BW619C89), a neuroprotective agent, has been found to be a potent antagonist of TREK-1. Its related compound, lamotrigine, has been approved for the treatment of bipolar depression and is used to supplement antidepressant medication in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Furthermore, in addition to its antagonistic effect on TREK-1, sipatrigine is also a glutamate release inhibitor. Excessive glutamatergic neurotransmission is associated with depressive-like behaviours and inhibiting glutamate neurotransmission may be implicated in antidepressant therapeutic mechanisms. From the above findings of the effects of sipatrigine on TREK-1 and glutamate neurotransmission, it is hypothesised that sipatrigine could have potential therapeutic effects for MDD or bipolar depression. Further evaluation of its antidepressant therapeutic and toxic effects in animal models is needed before clinical application.

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Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a common disorder in psychiatric practice and drugs are widely used in its treatment, targeting symptom clusters, such as affective dysregulation, impulsive-behavioural dyscontrol, and cognitive-perceptual symptoms. In last period, a growing number of studies on pharmacological treatment of BPD have been performed, but different proposals of treatment guidelines are not completely in accordance on drug indications for BPD patients. This article reviews double-blind randomized controlled trials comparing active drugs versus placebo and drugs versus drugs, published between 1990 and 2010 and focused on the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Different classes of psychoactive agents, such as antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and dietary supplementation were tested in BPD patients. More recent evidences suggest that mood stabilizers (topiramate, valproate and lamotrigine), second generation antipsychotics (olanzapine and aripiprazole) and omega-3 fatty acids can be useful to treat affective symptoms and impulsive-behavioural dyscontrol in BPD patients. Moreover, antipsychotics significantly improve cognitive symptoms in patients with BPD. SSRIs were found effective in decreasing severity of depressed mood, anxiety and anger, mainly in subjects with a concomitant affective disorder. Effects of antidepressants on impulsive behaviours are uncertain. Further studies are needed to improve methods of trials and confirm these findings.

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Concomitant use of carbamazepine and indinavir may cause failure of antiretroviral therapy due to insufficient indinavir plasma concentrations. Drugs other than carbamazepine should be considered to prevent this interaction. Amitriptyline or gabapentin are alternatives for postherpetic neuralgia; valproic acid or lamotrigine are alternatives for seizures. When alternate drug therapy is not possible, dosage adjustments, therapeutic drug monitoring, and careful clinical observation may help reduce adverse clinical consequences.

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GBM patients received 600 mg imatinib p.o./o.d. in combination with 1.0 g HU p.o./o.d..together with either EIAEDs, non-EIAEDs, or no antiepileptic drug (non-AEDs) comedication. Trough plasma levels of imatinib and its active main metabolite N-desmethyl-imatinib (CGP74588) were determined biweekly in these patients, total 543 samples being collected from 224 patients (up to 6 times / patient). All three groups were compared to each other and with historical pharmacokinetic data obtained from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).

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We assessed the associations between first trimester antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure and risk of spontaneous abortion and major congenital malformations in the North American AED Registry (1996-2013). We performed logistic regression analyses, conditional or unconditional on gestational age at enrollment, to estimate relative risk (RR) for first trimester AED users compared with non-users. We also compared first trimester users of valproic acid and lamotrigine. Analyses were repeated in women who enrolled before prenatal screening.

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lamictal increased dosage 2017-06-28

Lamotrigine and felbamate are 2 newer anticonvulsant medications used to control refractory partial and generalized seizures. Although several cases of lamotrigine toxicity secondary to acute intentional or unintentional overdose have been described, there is little published information related to potential side-effects associated with the therapeutic use of these agents. Described is a case of a 22-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department after experiencing 2 seizure-like episodes. Findings on evaluation included nystagmus, ataxia, widening of the QRS complex and right-axis deviation on ECG. The patient reported only therapeutic use of her medications. The lamotrigine level was 14.8 mg/L. The mechanism of action for lamotrigine is blockade of the sodium channels; therefore, the patient Bystolic 10 Mg was treated with intravenous sodium bicarbonate with resultant QRS narrowing following administration.

lamictal user reviews 2015-12-25

Acute lamotrigine (10-15mg/kg i.p.) reversed the hyperactivity and novel object recognition impairment induced by PCP-SI but had no effect on the prepulse inhibition deficit. Microarray revealed Motrin Chewable Tablets small but significant down-regulation of hippocampal genes involved in glutamate metabolism, dopamine neurotransmission, and GABA receptor signaling and in specific schizophrenia-linked genes, including parvalbumin (PVALB) and GAD67, in PCP-SI rats, which resemble changes reported in schizophrenia.

lamictal generic cost 2015-09-08

The use of valproate and polytherapy with any AED combinations should be avoided, if clinically appropriate, during pregnancy. Seizure freedom in 9-12 months before pregnancy should be a goal. AED levels should be maintained at or near the therapeutic level known for that individual Cenforce 150 Review patient, with frequent monitoring during pregnancy as appropriate for the patient and the AED.

lamictal bipolar medicine 2015-06-25

The literature is reviewed and subdivided into the following sections: carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, valproate, lamotrigine, gabapentin and other AED Requip Drug Classification , and discussion.

lamictal 125 mg 2016-05-21

All patients showed significant improvement (P < .001) in both the manic and depressive symptoms from baseline. Behavioral data showed that accuracy improved over 14 weeks in patients and healthy controls. Significant time by group interaction effects for the difference between stop versus go Flomax 24 Mg blocks showed greater increases of activation in prefrontal (left inferior and middle frontal gyri and medial frontal gyrus bilaterally) and temporal (left superior temporal gyrus and right middle temporal gyrus) regions and greater decreases in activation in right putamen and bilateral thalamus at follow-up in the adolescent bipolar disorder group than in healthy controls. Increased ventrolateral prefrontal cortex function was related to clinical treatment response.

lamictal 200 mg 2016-06-21

The EURAP registry is an observational international cohort study primarily designed to determine the risk of major congenital malformations (MCMs) after Kemadrin Tablet prenatal AED exposure. Using EURAP data, we prospectively monitored pregnancies exposed to the 6 most common AED monotherapies and to polytherapy. Intrauterine death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth combined) was the primary endpoint.

lamictal overdose effects 2017-10-01

The choice of an antiepileptic drug depends firstly on its efficacy in specific seizure types and epilepsies. However, it is imperative to consider whether possible adverse events will outweigh any benefits. The advantages and disadvantages of vigabatrin, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, tiagabine and felbamate are considered in some detail, and oxcarbazepine, stiripentol, remacemide, zonisamide and levetiracetam more briefly. Vigabatrin is effective for partial seizures and infantile spasms, but visual field defects are limiting its use. Lamotrigine has a wide spectrum, needs to be prescribed with care. Gabapentin is unlikely to cause adverse effects, but has relatively poor efficacy. Topiramate is widely effective, but can be poorly tolerated. Tiagabine is relatively untried in childhood epilepsies. The use of felbamate is restricted to severe refractory epilepsies. Stiripentol can be effective Artane Medication Classification in severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy. Zonisamide has a special place in the progressive myoclonus epilepsies. Levetiracetam, remacemide and oxcarbazepine have been used mainly for partial seizures: further studies of their roles in other circumstances are required.

lamictal dosage forms 2017-08-09

The purpose of this study was to use interleaved transcranial magnetic stimulation/functional magnetic resonance imaging (TMS/fMRI) to investigate the effects of lamotrigine (LTG) and valproic acid (VPA) on effective connectivity within motor and corticolimbic circuits. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, 30 healthy volunteers received either drug or placebo 3.5 h prior to interleaved TMS/fMRI. We utilized dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to assess changes in the endogenous effective connectivity of bidirectional networks in the motor-sensory system and corticolimbic circuit. Results indicate that both LTG and VPA have network-specific effects. When TMS was applied over the motor cortex, both LTG and VPA reduced TMS-specific effective connectivity between primary motor (M1) and pre-motor cortex (PMd), and between M1 and the supplementary area motor (SMA). When TMS was applied over prefrontal cortex, however, LTG alone increased TMS-specific effective connectivity between the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex(DLPFC Cordarone 600 Mg ) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In summary, LTG and VPA inhibited effective connectivity in motor circuits, but LTG alone increased effective connectivity in prefrontal circuits. These results suggest that interleaved TMS/fMRI can assess region- and circuit-specific effects of medications or interventions.

lamictal 100 mg 2016-06-08

Lamotrigine (LTG) is commonly used to control seizure in epilepsy patients and with referenced therapeutic windows in clinical practice. This study is to identify and characterize the function of genetic variants that influence the trough concentrations of LTG in epilepsy patients following monotherapy regimen (37.5-250 mg/d). Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in LTG metabolism and transport pathways, including UGT2B7, ABCB1, ABCG2, NR1I2 and HNF4α were genotyped in 140 Chinese epilepsy patients. Steady-state trough concentration of LTG was measured by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. Polymorphisms in ABCG2 rs2231142, rs3114020, HNF4α rs2071197 and ABCB1 rs1128503 were found to be associated with LTG CDR (concentration/dose normalized by body weight). In addition, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that ABCG2 rs2231142 had a remarkable effect on LTG concentrations which is stated to be 4.8% of the variability of LTG and may also help to interpret ethnic difference in LTG pharmacokinetics. Our findings provided new insights that SNPs of genes involved in the transport of LTG contribute to interpatient variation in LTG pharmacokinetics. Future studies are necessary to determine whether these SNPs can be used to provide LTG dosing guidance and influence seizure control and adverse reaction of LTG.

lamictal overdose symptoms 2016-06-30

This was an individual patient data review. Outcomes were (1) time to treatment withdrawal, (2) time to first seizure post randomization, and (3) seizure freedom at six months. Time to event data were analysed using a stratified logrank analysis with results expressed as hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI); binary data were expressed as relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A HR or a RR greater than 1 indicated an event was more likely on lamotrigine than carbamazepine.

lamictal 30 mg 2017-08-06

Lamotrigine (LTG), 6-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazine-3,5-diamine, is a novel antiepieptic drug structurally unrelated to the major anticonvulsants in current use. Previous studies of LTG in rodents revealed efficacy in maximal electroshock test, pentylenetetrazol test and kindling models of seizures suggesting potential utility in the treatment of partial and generalized (tonic-clonic) seizures. In the present study, LTG was found to block sustained repetitive firing of sodium-dependent action potentials in mouse spinal cord cultured neurons and inhibit [3H]batrachotoxinin A 20-alpha-benzoate binding in rat brain synaptosomes suggesting a direct interaction with voltage-activated sodium channels.

lamictal dosage pediatric 2015-07-18

In the 1970s, several randomized controlled trials demonstrated significant antimanic and antidepressant properties of lithium in the prophylactic treatment of bipolar disorder. However, a recent meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of lithium in bipolar disorder found that its protective effect against depressive relapse/recurrence was equivocal. By examining potentially relevant parameters of recent randomized controlled trials with regard to lithium's prophylactic antidepressant efficacy, we try to identify factors which might help to explain these discrepant results across the different trials. Lithium's efficacy against manic relapse/recurrence appears rather robust at plasma levels between 0.8 and 1.2 mmol/L, whereas lithium's efficacy against depressive relapse/recurrence may be more modest and dependent on whether a response during the preceding acute episode was achieved by lithium treatment. Furthermore, it might be advisable to continue lithium without interruption at the same dose/plasma level, which yielded the initial response. A lithium level between 0.5 and 0.8 mmol/L may be equally efficacious against overall relapse and associated with equal or even superior efficacy regarding depressive relapse/recurrence. To provide evidence-based guidelines on this issue, large prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are needed comparing the efficacy of lithium at different plasma levels against manic and depressive relapse/recurrence. In these trials, factors previously associated with predicting response to lithium should also be assessed.

lamictal starting dose 2017-11-01

Aspirin hypersensitivity has been associated with various genetic polymorphisms. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-related markers and a variety of genetic polymorphisms of leukotriene-related genes, eosinophil-related genes, and genes associated with immune function have been described according to ethnicity. The genetic mechanisms of antibiotic hypersensitivity have been reported in Italian, French, and Chinese populations in addition to antibiotics-induced cutaneous reactions in the Korean population. Most prior genetic studies on antituberculus drug-induced hepatitis have focused on a few drug-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 and N-acetyltransferase 2. HLA-related markers associated with CBZ, lamotrigine, and abacavir-induced severe hypersensitivity reactions have been described.