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Most of the compounds examined ameliorated at least a subset of pharmacologically induced PPI deficits. That none of the antipsychotic treatments attenuated the PPI deficit in the mGluR5 KO mice indicates that this model is not predictive of known treatments for schizophrenia, but does not preclude a role for the mGluR5 receptor in schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorders.
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There was a significantly higher risk of the ponderal index being below the 10th percentile and infants being small for gestational age (SGA) in the epilepsy group; exposure to AED increased the risk. The frequency of SGA and low ponderal index was highest in Lamotrigine exposed infants. In the AED group, head circumference was significantly smaller among Carbamazepine exposed.
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The story began on 11th May 1857 when Charles Locock commented in the Lancet on his use of potassium bromide in 15 cases of "hysterical" epilepsy in young women. The next development was the serendipitous discovery of the anticonvulsant properties of phenobarbital by Alfred Hauptmann in 1912. This predated by more than 20 years the screening of potential therapeutic agents against "electrical seizures" in cats by Houston Merritt and Tracy Putnam. The result was the launching of phenytoin in 1938. Next came primidone, ethosuximide, carbamazepine and valproic acid, all of which can be regarded as first generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Shortly after their synthesis, the benzodiazepines were rapidly recognised as having anticonvulsant activity. The modern era focused on the systematic screening of many thousands of compounds against rodent seizure models under the Anticonvulsant Drug Development Program in the US. This resulted in the global licensing, in chronological order, of vigabatrin, zonisamide, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, felbamate, gabapentin, topiramate, tiagabine, levetiracetam, pregabalin and lacosamide. Rufinamide is available in the US and Europe for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and stiripentol has been made available for Dravet syndrome under the European orphan drug scheme. Eslicarbazepine can be prescribed in Europe for partial seizures, but not in the US. Has all this activity improved the lives of people with epilepsy? The short answer is-probably yes, but not by very much! This paper will conclude with a précis of the views of a selected group of paediatric and adult epileptologists on the advances in pharmacological management achieved over the last 20 years.
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This naturalistic study indicates that lamotrigine can be an effective treatment option for maintenance of bipolar illness in women of childbearing age.
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Cases of recovery from vegetative and minimally conscious state after the administration of various pharmacological agents have been recently reported. These agents include CNS depressants (zolpidem, baclofen, lamotrigine) and CNS stimulants (tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, dopaminergic agents, methylphenidate). The action of CNS depressants as awakening agents sounds paradoxical, as they are commonly prescribed to slow down brain activity in the management of anxiety, muscle tension, pain, insomnia and seizures. How these drugs may improve the level of consciousness in some brain-injured patients is the subject of intense debate. Here we hypothesize that CNS depressants may promote consciousness recovery by reversing a condition of GABA impairment in the injured brain, restoring the normal ratio between synaptic excitation and inhibition, which is the prerequisite for any transition from a resting state to goal-oriented activities (GABA impairment hypothesis). Alternative or complementary mechanisms underlying the improvement of consciousness may include the reversal of a neurodormant state within areas affected by diaschisis (diaschisis hypothesis) and the modulation of an informative overload to the cortex as a consequence of filter failure in the injured brain (informative overload hypothesis). A better understanding of how single agents act on neural networks, whose functioning is critical for recovery, may help to advance a tailored pharmacological approach in the treatment of severely brain injured patients.
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Neurodegeneration is a major cause of disability in multiple sclerosis, and it is therefore important to understand its mechanisms in order to develop rational neuroprotective therapy. Recent work on the toxicity of nitric oxide to axons has suggested that damage can occur from the combined effects of energy failure and axonal sodium overload. Partial blockade of axonal sodium channels should therefore be protective, and this has been confirmed in several models of inflammatory axonal injury. Clinical trials of neuroprotection using blockers of sodium channels are now under way. There is no agreement yet on several aspects of trial design, but the situation should become clearer once the results of these trials are reported.
Lacosamide is a new-generation antiseizure medication that is approved for use as an adjunctive treatment and monotherapy in focal epilepsy. Its use in generalized epilepsy, however, has not been adequately evaluated in controlled trials. We report a 67-year-old woman who experienced new-onset myoclonic seizures after initiation of lacosamide. We presume that she had an undiagnosed generalized epilepsy syndrome, likely juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Myoclonic seizures were not reported before introducing lacosamide and completely resolved after lacosamide was discontinued. This suggests that lacosamide may have the potential to worsen myoclonus, similar to what has been reported with another sodium channel agent, lamotrigine, in some individuals with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE).
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic, recurring and potentially life-threatening mental illness. Current treatments are inadequate - many depression medications, although safe and effective, generally have a slow onset of clinical benefit and around half of the MDD patients do not show full remission with optimized treatment. Therefore, there is still a need for the development of faster-acting and more effective medication for MDD. Recent studies have demonstrated that the TREK-1 protein, one of the 17 members of the two-pore domain K+ (K2P) potassium channel family, is inhibited by the antidepressant fluoxetine. Deletion of TREK-1 in mice caused a substantially reduced elevation of corticosterone levels under stress, and produced behaviour similar to that of naive animals treated with fluoxetine in various behavioural tests. These findings suggested that the blocker of the TREK-1 channel might potentially be a new type of antidepressant. Sipatrigine (BW619C89), a neuroprotective agent, has been found to be a potent antagonist of TREK-1. Its related compound, lamotrigine, has been approved for the treatment of bipolar depression and is used to supplement antidepressant medication in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Furthermore, in addition to its antagonistic effect on TREK-1, sipatrigine is also a glutamate release inhibitor. Excessive glutamatergic neurotransmission is associated with depressive-like behaviours and inhibiting glutamate neurotransmission may be implicated in antidepressant therapeutic mechanisms. From the above findings of the effects of sipatrigine on TREK-1 and glutamate neurotransmission, it is hypothesised that sipatrigine could have potential therapeutic effects for MDD or bipolar depression. Further evaluation of its antidepressant therapeutic and toxic effects in animal models is needed before clinical application.
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Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a common disorder in psychiatric practice and drugs are widely used in its treatment, targeting symptom clusters, such as affective dysregulation, impulsive-behavioural dyscontrol, and cognitive-perceptual symptoms. In last period, a growing number of studies on pharmacological treatment of BPD have been performed, but different proposals of treatment guidelines are not completely in accordance on drug indications for BPD patients. This article reviews double-blind randomized controlled trials comparing active drugs versus placebo and drugs versus drugs, published between 1990 and 2010 and focused on the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Different classes of psychoactive agents, such as antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and dietary supplementation were tested in BPD patients. More recent evidences suggest that mood stabilizers (topiramate, valproate and lamotrigine), second generation antipsychotics (olanzapine and aripiprazole) and omega-3 fatty acids can be useful to treat affective symptoms and impulsive-behavioural dyscontrol in BPD patients. Moreover, antipsychotics significantly improve cognitive symptoms in patients with BPD. SSRIs were found effective in decreasing severity of depressed mood, anxiety and anger, mainly in subjects with a concomitant affective disorder. Effects of antidepressants on impulsive behaviours are uncertain. Further studies are needed to improve methods of trials and confirm these findings.
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Concomitant use of carbamazepine and indinavir may cause failure of antiretroviral therapy due to insufficient indinavir plasma concentrations. Drugs other than carbamazepine should be considered to prevent this interaction. Amitriptyline or gabapentin are alternatives for postherpetic neuralgia; valproic acid or lamotrigine are alternatives for seizures. When alternate drug therapy is not possible, dosage adjustments, therapeutic drug monitoring, and careful clinical observation may help reduce adverse clinical consequences.
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GBM patients received 600 mg imatinib p.o./o.d. in combination with 1.0 g HU p.o./o.d..together with either EIAEDs, non-EIAEDs, or no antiepileptic drug (non-AEDs) comedication. Trough plasma levels of imatinib and its active main metabolite N-desmethyl-imatinib (CGP74588) were determined biweekly in these patients, total 543 samples being collected from 224 patients (up to 6 times / patient). All three groups were compared to each other and with historical pharmacokinetic data obtained from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
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We assessed the associations between first trimester antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure and risk of spontaneous abortion and major congenital malformations in the North American AED Registry (1996-2013). We performed logistic regression analyses, conditional or unconditional on gestational age at enrollment, to estimate relative risk (RR) for first trimester AED users compared with non-users. We also compared first trimester users of valproic acid and lamotrigine. Analyses were repeated in women who enrolled before prenatal screening.