lanoxin tablets dosage
Minimal pharmacokinetic data on digoxin immune Fab are currently available, especially in patients with impaired renal function. The serum concentration-time profiles of total digoxin, free digoxin, and digoxin immune Fab in four patients with moderate to severe renal impairment who received digoxin immune Fab are presented. The calculated elimination half-life of digoxin immune Fab was 25-73 hours. The calculated elimination half-life of total digoxin was 24-72 hours. Free digoxin concentrations rebounded to a peak of 1-2.9 ng/mL 44-97 hours after the administration of digoxin immune Fab. The areas under the curve for digoxin immune Fab were 213-1026 micrograms.h/mL, and total body clearances were 2.3-7.1 mL/min. The total digoxin concentrations peaked at 14-33 times the pre-Fab digoxin concentrations 5-30 hours after digoxin immune Fab administration. In comparing these data with data available from patients with normal renal function, the half-life of digoxin immune Fab and total digoxin was longer, the peak total digoxin concentration occurred later, the ratio of the peak total digoxin concentration to pre-Fab digoxin concentration was larger, and the rebound in free digoxin occurred later in patients with renal impairment. The Fab dose should not be reduced in patients with renal impairment; however, post-Fab monitoring should be extended to compensate for the prolonged half-life of Fab and later rebound of free digoxin.
Rate and rhythm control strategies for atrial fibrillation (AF) are not always effective or well tolerated in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). We assessed reasons for treatment failure, associated characteristics, and effects on survival.
lanoxin drug medication
Digoxin-specific antibody fragments remain the only proven therapy for yellow oleander poisoning. Further studies are needed to determine the place of activated charcoal, the benefits or risks of atropine and isoprenaline, the place and choice of antiarrhythmics, and the effect of intravenous magnesium in yellow oleander poisoning.
lanoxin drug guide
The intestinal microflora are capable of performing a wide variety of metabolic transformations. The digestive tract can be exposed to orally ingested, bile excreted, or blood-borne exogenous and endogenous substances that can be converted by the intestinal flora into carcinogens, mutagens, cocarcinogens or tumor promoting agents. In addition, the intestinal microflora can metabolize a wide variety of pharmacological agents resulting in production of metabolites required for the physiological activity of these agents or conversely in the inactivation of these agents. This article reviews the current knowledge of the relationship between the intestinal microflora and the metabolic reactions leading to the transformation of drugs and the production of mutagenic or carcinogenic compounds. The composition and distribution of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract is discussed and the type of reactions these bacteria perform is summarized. The conversion of specific substrates such as, rutin, digoxin, cycasin, azulfidine and cyclamate are discussed and the physiological implication of these conversions are presented.
#ENTITYSTARTX02014; The Yellow Oleander is an ornamental tree that is common throughout the tropics. Ingestion of its seeds results in a clinical picture similar to digoxin toxicity.
The sensitivity of a new homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for the determination of digoxin (CEDIA Digoxin assay) and a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) to interference by digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLIF) was studied in sera from pregnant women, newborns, patients undergoing hemodialysis and patients with renal insufficiency, but without hemodialysis. None of the patients had been treated with digoxin or digitoxin. Cross-reactivity of DLIF in the CEDIA assay was generally lower than in the FPIA. Data on the distribution DLIF of values and method comparisons showed that sera of the four patient groups reacted in a completely different way in both assays, suggesting that the nature of DLIF in the four groups is not identical. Addition of digoxin to sera of patients not treated with this drug resulted in a reduction of the apparent DLIF concentration in the CEDIA assay and the FPIA. This shows that DLIF interference may be less pronounced in sera of patients undergoing digoxin therapy compared to untreated persons. Although the CEDIA assay is less sensitive to DLIF interference than the FPIA, further efforts are needed to reduce the extent of this interference.
lanoxin elixir dosage
A Caucasian female octogenarian with multiple medical problems was admitted to the inpatient geriatric psychiatry unit with intermittent altered mental status and decline in memory. She had been hospitalized four times in the previous three months. She was admitted on more than 10 medications and received more than 20 different medications in this time period. It was determined that she had delirium concurrent with dementia and/or depression. During her hospital stay a urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated, her anticholinergic medications were minimized, and her digoxin dose was adjusted. As her mental status cleared, a workup was completed to differentiate between dementia and depression. She was initially treated with memantine, but as time progressed it became more evident she was experiencing depression and a "pseudodementia," which was treated with sertraline. Her Mini-Mental State Examination returned to 29/30 (her score previously was 26/29). This case demonstrates the complexity of treating an elder individual and the importance of differentiating among delirium, depression, and dementia. The pharmacy team played an active role in medication reconciliation. Additionally, they worked with the medical team to minimize her potentially harmful medications and optimize the treatment of her UTI and depression.
lanoxin overdose effects
Caco-2 epithelial layers were used as a model to re-evaluate the mechanism(s) by which intestinal digoxin absorption is limited by its active secretion back into the lumen. It is widely recognised that intestinal secretion of digoxin is mediated by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter Multidrug Resistance 1, MDR1. In MDR1-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney, MDCKII, cell monolayers, digoxin secretion was reduced by the MDR1 inhibitor cyclosporin A, whereas no inhibition was seen in the presence of MK-571, 3-([(3-(2-[7-chloro-2-quinolinyl]ethyl)phenyl]-[(3-dimethylamino-3-oxoprphyl)-thio)-methyl]-thio) propanoic acid, a Multidrug Related Protein (MRP) inhibitor. In contrast, digoxin secretion by Caco-2 epithelia was significantly inhibited by both cyclosporin A and MK-571, suggesting that an additional non-MDR1 component may contribute to this transport. Since digoxin secretion by MRP2-transfected MDCKII monolayers was increased by only 1.2-fold relative to controls, it is likely that the contribution of MRP2 to digoxin secretion by Caco-2 cells is negligible. An additional MK-571-sensitive secretory pathway for digoxin, together with MDR1, is likely to mediate digoxin secretion in Caco-2 epithelia.
lanoxin renal dose
A 58-year-old woman who had been taking digoxin 0.25 mg/day for more than 35 years for heart palpitations after mitral valve repair was prescribed a 5-day course of telithromycin for acute bronchitis. On the sixth day of therapy, she came to the emergency department complaining of general malaise and having experienced three episodes of syncope over the previous 2 days. Laboratory analysis revealed elevated digoxin plasma levels, and electrocardiography showed several nonspecific repolarization anomalies. Telithromycin is known to increase digoxin plasma levels; however, the clinical significance of this interaction is not known. To our knowledge, this is the first report of elevated plasma digoxin levels associated with signs and symptoms of toxicity. This drug interaction-determined as probable according to the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale-may be mediated by P-glycoprotein. By inhibiting the transport of digoxin by P-glycoprotein, telithromycin may have decreased digoxin elimination in the intestinal lumen and its renal tubular excretion, resulting in elevated plasma levels and drug toxicity. Clinicians should be aware of possible digoxin toxicity after concomitant administration with telithromycin, especially in patients who are at risk, such as those with electrolyte abnormalities and decreased renal function.
lanoxin oral dosage
A crossover observational study, carried out wholly at the Primary Care level.
Sodium potassium pump (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase) is a transmembrane protein complex found in all higher eukaryotes acting as a key energy-consuming pump maintaining ionic and osmotic balance in cells. Recently recognized as an important transducer and/or integrator of various signals as well as a protein-protein interaction scaffold forming receptor complexes with signaling properties, the most prominent pharmacological role of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibitors is the increase of myocardial contractility in pathologic conditions such as congestive heart failure. Consequently, modulators of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase such as digoxin have been approved by regulatory authorities and are widely used in the treatment of cardiac failure since 1975. Initiating from early observations of reduction of cancer incidence in cardiac patients taking digoxin, recent epidemiological and other studies have consolidated the anti-cancer potential of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibitors in indications such as prostate, breast, lung cancer or leukemia. More importantly, a new series of pharmacologically optimized Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibitors has recently shown strong anti-cancer activities in multiple preclinical assays and have reached early clinical trials. Altogether, these results suggest that Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is an emerging cancer target that merits further investigation. In this review, we summarize key functional properties of the enzyme that are highly relevant for cancer cell selectivity, review the most prominent chemical classes of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibitors and analyze their downstream effectors. Moreover, we discuss overall development prospects of these candidate drugs on their way to becoming new effective treatments of cancer in patients.
lanoxin 150 mg
Substances in the middle molecular weight range have been shown to play a significant pathogenetic role in as diverse disorders as end-stage renal disease and multiple organ failure. To overcome the limitations in the amount removed by hemofilters, new sorbents with a high biocompatibility are actively being developed. Furthermore, biocompatible sorbents by their nonspecific adsorptive behavior could have great impact on detoxification treatment in exogenous intoxications. We performed an in vitro evaluation of a newly developed highly biocompatible sorbent cartridge (Betasorb((R))), examining its adsorptive capacity concerning therapeutic drugs.
lanoxin dosage range
Ibutilide fumarate is an investigational class III antiarrhythmic agent that prolongs repolarization by increasing the slow inward sodium current and by blocking the delayed rectifier current. It can be administered intravenously and has a rapid onset of electrophysiologic effects.