The efficacy and tolerability of two combinations, namely 50 mg spironolactone + 20 mg furosemide (SF) or 50 mg spironolactone + 5 mg butizide (SB), were compared in a randomised intraindividual trial in 22 patients with congestive heart failure. The parameters used were: weight, ankle- and calf-circumference, blood pressure, resting pulse, resting ECG, spirometry and blood chemistry. The physicians' judgement of the success of treatment was also recorded. Clinical symptoms improved clearly in both groups and in most cases there was significant improvement of the various parameters. The trend towards improvement was more apparent with SF. The physicians considered SF to be more effective in 12 cases compared to one case with SB. In all other cases both treatments were considered equally effective. The blood chemistry data showed relevant differences: serum-potassium levels were less scattered with SF and showed a - desirable - shift into the upper normal range. The number of patients with elevated serum-creatinin-levels increased during SB-treatment whereas the opposite was noted with SF. This could be due to furosemide's positive effects on renal functions.
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PAC/PRA above 50 was used to denote hyperaldosteronism. Serum K was 4 +/- 0.07 mM/L, PAC 22.8 +/- 1.8 ng/dl, PRA 0.13 +/- 0.02 ng/ml/hour, PAC/PRA 190 +/- 22 (above 100 in 17). After suppression PAC decreased from 25 +/- 1.8 to 11 +/- 1 ng/dl (normal < 5 ng/dl). Stimulation did not affect PRA and PAC/PRA. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed normal adrenal glands in 15 patients. Spironolactone (116 +/- 60 mg/day) normalized blood pressure in all patients; it was used as a single therapy in 8, and in association with only one anti-hypertensive drug in the remaining 12 patients. In one patient the treatment was discontinued due to the presence of hyperkalemia.
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Furosemide is an effective diuretic that initiates a rapid diuresis and peripheral vasodilatation through renal adenylate cyclase inhibition and prostaglandin synthesis. Recently, it has been shown to be associated with activation of the neurohumoral vasoconstrictor mechanism and a further compromise of left ventricular function in patients with heart failure. The present study was performed to investigate the direct effects of furosemide on myocardial performance in the isolated perfused rabbit heart. Furosemide (10(-3) M) caused a significant decrease in developed pressure as well as a similar fall in coronary perfusion pressure. Furosemide also decreased myocardial contractility when the coronary perfusion pressure was kept constant. The change in developed pressure but not the decrease in coronary perfusion pressure could be blocked by treatment with indomethacin. Furosemide did not antagonize rabbit cardiac membrane adenylate cyclase. Therefore, furosemide has a direct inhibitory effect on cardiac contractility that is related to prostaglandin synthesis.
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To describe a case of a serous choroidal detachment which resulted after discontinuation of furosemide and illustrate the utility of ultrawide-angle fundus imaging in documenting this lesion in the retinal periphery.
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Furosemide treatment produces glomerular hypertrophy and augments glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure in the normal rat. Similar processes have been implicated in the progression of glomerulosclerosis (GS). Whereas prior experiments with furosemide treatment of 6 to 8 weeks duration have produced no detrimental effects on renal function or structure, the effects of more prolonged treatment are unknown. Male Munich-Wistar rats were pair fed with or without furosemide, 40 mg/d, from the time of weaning through 10 months of age. At selected time points, 24-hour urine collections were obtained for total protein and volume determination. At the end of the study, light and electron microscopic morphometric studies were performed. Renal cortical hypertrophy and glomerular hypertrophy were sustained throughout the 9 months of treatment in the group receiving furosemide. The cortical interstitial area was increased in the furosemide group, but this did not appear to be the result of fibrosis. Proximal and distal tubule diameter were unaffected by treatment. No differences in GS or glomerular ultrastructure were shown. This study provides no evidence of detrimental glomerular effects of furosemide in normal animals. Further studies of furosemide treatment under conditions of preexisting renal pathological conditions are warranted to confirm the safety of this treatment in situations analogous to those seen in the clinical setting. Interstitial expansion also warrants further study in this setting.
(68)Ga-PSMA-11-PET/CT at 3h p.i. showed most lesions characteristic for PCa with higher uptake and contrast. In addition, the radioactivity signal within the urinary bladder was lower at 3h p.i., especially when furosemide was applied. Consequently, scans at 3h p.i. detected more tumor lesions than 1h p.i.
With the ever-increasing population of cigarette smokers, the potential for cigarette smoke to affect drug therapy both pharmacokinetically and pharmacodynamically is significant. The overriding pharmacokinetic effect is increased drug metabolism through the induction of liver enzymes. The constituents of tobacco smoke, primarily nicotine, have their own pharmacological effects which may potentiate or antagonise the desired pharmacological effect of a particular drug, thereby affecting its efficacy. Furthermore, end-organ responsiveness may also be altered by tobacco. These latter 2 aspects constitute altered clinical pharmacodynamics. Approximately 30 drugs have been evaluated in terms of cigarette smoking. Induction of liver enzymes has been shown to increase the metabolism of imipramine, meprobamate, oestrogens, pentazocine, phenylbutazone, theophylline and warfarin. Nicotine has been shown to inhibit diuresis, alter ulcer healing, impair subcutaneous absorption, affect protein binding and stimulate catecholamine release; these effects have been evaluated in terms of therapy with frusemide (furosemide), histamine H2-antagonists, insulin, lignocaine (lidocaine) and beta-blockers, respectively. The interactions have not been correlated with clinical significance in all cases. Diminished end-organ responsiveness may account for reduced drowsiness in smokers receiving chlorpromazine and benzodiazepines, compared with non-smokers. Smoking has been associated with diminished pain tolerance, requiring increased dosages of morphine, pethidine (meperidine) and propoxyphene. Enzyme-inducers such as carbamazepine, phenytoin and phenobarbitone appear to be minimally affected by cigarette smoke, perhaps because hepatic enzymes are already maximally stimulated. Codeine, corticosteroids and nortriptyline do not appear to be affected by cigarette smoke. The bioavailability of glutethimide is higher in smokers, but this has not been associated with greater efficacy. The effect of smoking on paracetamol (acetaminophen) has been variable, depending on the extent of smoking, and does not appear to be of clinical significance.
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Six infants (6%) had renal calcification at term or before discharge compared with 96 who did not. Factors significantly associated with renal calcification included gestational age (26 weeks vs. 29 weeks, p=0.006), birth weight (851 g vs. 1141 g, p=0.004), duration of mechanical ventilation (69 days vs. 29 days, p=0.002), length of intensive care (72 days vs. 41 days, p=0.013), furosemide therapy (33% vs. 3%, p=0.027), and dexamethasone therapy (50% vs. 2% p=0.001). Birth weight and dexamethasone therapy had significant independent association after stepwise logistic regression analysis. Sex, oliguria, acidosis, duration of oxygen therapy, length of hospital stay, nutrition status, and nephrotoxic drugs did not differ between the two groups. Three of the six infants had spontaneous remission of renal calcification, whereas two patients without the finding in neonatal stage had renal calcification at a corrected age of 1 year.
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Nephrologists should promote the detection of CKD in heart disease patients. The evaluation should include estimation of GFR and detection of microalbuminuria in a recently voided urine sample by the albumin:creatinine ratio. Any patient with stage 3 or 4 CKD and rapid deterioration of GFR should be evaluated by the nephrologist. - Patients with CKD have a high risk of cardiovascular (CV) complications and heart disease patients have a high incidence of CKD and progression is also more rapid (Strength of Recommendation B). The most likely pathophysiological hypothesis is endothelial damage. - The CV risk profile should be established in each patient followed by adequate compliance with control goals for common CV risk factors: smoking, obesity, sedentarism, hypertension, dyslipidemia. Early treatment of anemia and bone mineral disease as CV risk factors requires special mention (Strength of Recommendation B). - Management of these patients will be based on individualization of treatment, close systematic follow-up, and integration between care levels: Specialized care (nephrologists and cardiologists) and primary care. - The cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a condition in which both organs are simultaneously affected and their deleterious effects are reinforced in a feedback cycle, with accelerated progression of renal and myocardial damage. Because of its prognostic value, treatment of HF takes precedence over CKD. Most studies on cardiovascular risk and on HF exclude patients with stage 4-5 CKD. We thus do not have sufficient strong evidence and recommendations are based on the extrapolation of data from studies with normal GFR or milder grades of CKD, and on the empirical use of certain treatments. - ARBs and ACEIs are the mainstays of treatment of HF with systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and have been shown to reduce mortality in studies in the general population (Strength of Recommendation A). The may also slow progression of CKD, especially in diabetics. Dual renin-angiotensin blockade with the combined use of lower doses of both drugs has shown promising results for control of CKD progression, but there are no data to recommend its use for control of HF in advanced stages of CKD (stage 4-5) (Strength of Recommendation C). - In these stages of CKD, only loop diuretics have sufficient potency. The therapeutic dose range should be achieved. Lowdose thiazides achieve diuretic synergy. The use of spironolactone and eplerenone has shown benefits in patients with AMI and HF with an ejection fraction < 40% without advanced CKD. They should always be used with strict control of GFR and K+. No benefit has been shown for the use of (may even be harmful) or continuous infusion of furosemide (Strength of Recommendation B). The use of beta-blockers should be increased in these patients. - Treatment-refractory heart failure in the context of stage 3 CKD could be amenable to ultrafiltration techniques. Continuous ambulatory PD could be an alternative treatment to maintain hemodynamic equilibrium while also allowing pharmacological treatments to be prescribed that would not be feasible without dialysis and could even improve myocardial and kidney function (Strength of Recommendation C).
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To address this problem, an International Consensus Committee was appointed by the Ninth International Symposium on Radionuclides in Nephrourology in 1994.
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To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) chlorothiazide versus oral metolazone when added to loop diuretics in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and loop diuretic resistance.
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The technique of stationary microperfusion of the early distal tubule used in experiments on male newts (Triturus vulgaris) revealed the intratubular effect of CoCl2 and furosemide on the ion transport. CoCl2 in concentration 5 X 10(-4) M increased Na and Cl reabsorption, reduced Ca, Mg and K reabsorption, and increased (TFexp/TFo)in from 1.14 +/- 0.04 to 1.68 +/- 0.27 (p less than 0.001). CoCl2 in concentration 5 X 10(-5) M enhanced Na and Cl reabsorption, without affecting transport of other ions. 6 X 10(-4) M furosemide decreased reabsorption of water, Na, Cl, Ca and Mg. The combined effect of Co2+ and furosemide inhibited reabsorption of Mg and Ca to a greater extent, but stimulated Na reabsorption. Experiments on frog skin showed that being added to the apical membrane of cells, Co2+ stimulates short circuit current and potential differences, whereas furosemide reducing Cl absorption induces only hyperpolarization. Experimental findings allow to assume that Co2+ on the outer surface of the apical membrane of the distal tubule cells blocks the selective Ca and Mg channels and activates Na channels.
In order to characterize the driving forces for the concentrative uptake of unconjugated bile acids by the hepatocyte, the effects of pH gradients on the uptake of [3H]cholate by rat basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles were studied. In the presence of an outwardly directed hydroxyl gradient (pH 6.0 outside and pH 7.5 inside the vesicle), cholate uptake was markedly stimulated and the bile acid was transiently accumulated at a concentration 1.5- to 2-fold higher than at equilibrium ("overshoot"). In the absence of a pH gradient (pH 6.0 or 7.5 both inside and outside the vesicle), uptake was relatively slower and no overshoot was seen. Reductions in the magnitude of the transmembrane pH gradient were associated with slower initial uptake rates and smaller overshoots. Cholate uptake under pH gradient conditions was inhibited by furosemide and bumetanide but not by 4, 4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic stilbene (SITS), 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), or probenecid. In the absence of a pH gradient, an inside-positive valinomycin-induced K+ diffusion potential caused a slight increase in cholate uptake which was insensitive to furosemide. Moreover, in the presence of an outwardly directed hydroxyl gradient, uphill cholate transport was observed even under voltage clamped conditions. These findings suggest that pH gradient-driven cholate uptake was not due to associated electrical potentials. Despite an identical pKa to that of cholate, an outwardly directed hydroxyl gradient did not drive uphill transport of three other unconjugated bile acids (deoxycholate, chenodeoxycholate, ursodeoxycholate), suggesting that a non-ionic diffusion mechanism cannot account for uphill cholate transport. In canalicular vesicles, although cholate uptake was relatively faster in the presence of a pH gradient than in the absence of a gradient, peak uptake was only slightly above that found at equilibrium under voltage clamped conditions. These findings suggest a specific carrier on the basolateral membrane of the hepatocyte which mediates hydroxyl/cholate exchange (or H+-cholate co-transport). A model for uphill cholate transport is discussed in which the Na+ pump would ultimately drive Na+/H+ exchange which in turn would drive hydroxyl/cholate exchange.