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PDE4 expression was observed widely distributed in the smooth muscle layer of the pig and human bladder neck. On urothelium-denuded phenylephrine (PhE)-precontracted strips of pig and human, rolipram, sildenafil and vardenafil produced concentration-dependent relaxations with the following order of potency: rolipram> > sildenafil>vardenafil. In pig, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin potentiated rolipram-elicited relaxation, whereas protein kinase A (PKA) blockade reduced such effect. On potassium-enriched physiological saline solution (KPSS)-precontracted strips, rolipram evoked a lower relaxation than that obtained on PhE-stimulated preparations. Inhibition of large (BKCa ) and intermediate (IKCa ) conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channels, neuronal voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) synthases reduced rolipram responses. Rolipram inhibited the contractions induced by PhE without reducing the PhE-evoked [Ca2+]i increase.
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Utility of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEi's) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been the focus of experimental and clinical studies. However, public preferences, attitudes, and experiences with PDEi's are rarely addressed from a population/epidemiology viewpoint. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders, first launched in the Middle East in 2010, followed by the United States in 2011.
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The main outcome assessed demonstrated the intriguing role of PDEI-5 and its metabolites on seizure susceptibility.
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Vardenafil 5, 10, and 20 mg returned 32%, 43%, and 49% of patients, respectively, to normal erectile function after 12 weeks, compared with 10% of patients receiving placebo (P < 0.0001). Return to normal IIEF-EF domain scores was noted irrespective of severity, etiology, age, and duration of ED, and was observed even in challenging-to-treat subgroups. With vardenafil 20 mg, 39% of men with severe ED at baseline, 45-49% of men with ED of mixed or organic etiology, 35% of men aged > or =65 years, and 43% of men with ED of > or =3 years of duration returned to normal erectile function at week 12. Mean per-patient SEP3 (question 3 on the Sexual Encounter Profile) success rates in patients achieving IIEF-EF domain scores > or =26 ranged from 87% to 95%.
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Vardenafil administration achieved increased peak flow velocity comparable to that after intracavernous papaverine injection. With no prolonged erection vardenafil is a safer alternative compared to more invasive intracavernous injection and is also an alternative for patients who fear injections.
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The relaxation of the smooth muscle in the vagina and clitoris and the increase of blood flow into these organs is thought to be essential in the female sexual response. Vardenafil is a type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) inhibitor that potentiates the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP pathway facilitating penile smooth muscle relaxation and improving penile erection in men. Although the potentiation of the NO/cGMP pathway through PDE5 inhibitors can clearly enhance blood flow into the penis and is used in the therapy of male sexual dysfunction, there is controversy about the efficacy of these agents in improving female sexual function. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of vardenafil on the increase of blood flow into the vagina and clitoris induced by pelvic nerve electrical stimulation (PNES) in a female dog model. Application of PNES produced consistent and frequency-related increased blood flow into the vagina and clitoris of anesthetized female dogs. The magnitude and duration of the blood flow responses to PNES were variable among the different animals but remained stable over time within the same animal. The intravenous administration of vardenafil (1 mg/kg) significantly potentiated the increases in blood flow produced by PNES into the vagina (381.4 and 206.2% of control response at 5 and 10 Hz, respectively, P<0.01, n=6) and clitoris (379.4 and 238.5% of control response at 5 and 10 Hz, respectively, P<0.01, n=6) 20 min after administration. The significant enhancement of PNES-induced responses was maintained 50 min (224.5 and 181.0%, P<0.01 in vagina; 294.8 and 258.9%, P<0.05 in clitoris) and 80 min after vardenafil administration (209.5 and 156.9%, P<0.05 in vagina; 268.9 and 194.9%, P<0.05 in clitoris). Here we present a feasible model for research into female sexual function. Our results show that vardenafil effectively potentiates the blood flow responses to PNES in the genitalia of female dogs. These results emphasize the role of the NO/cGMP pathway in the local vasodilatory response in female sexual organs and provide a rationale for testing PDE5 inhibitors, such as vardenafil, as a treatment for certain forms of female sexual dysfunction.
Two groups [tadalafil-treated (TG); vardenafil-treated (VG)] of 100 consecutive patients complaining of non-response to treatments were enrolled in three-phase study. Phase 1: inadequate use was identified and patients were rechallenged, after receiving detailed usage information. Phase 2: true non-responders were given new instructions based on drugs' pharmacologic profiles: TGs were dosed at least 2 h before intercourse; VGs were dosed only in fasted state. Remaining non-responders entered phase 3: continuous administration of 20 mg tadalafil every other day, or 20 mg vardenafil every day for 2 weeks. Efficacy was based on positive (yes) response to two questions: "Were your erections rigid, and did they last long enough to have successful intercourse?" and "Do you want to repeat your prescription?"
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To investigate the impact of penile surgery on the erectile function of the patient and to evaluate the role of small-dose vardenafil in restoring the impaired penile erection.
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This was a 16-week, double-blind, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study conducted at 40 centers across Europe and South Africa. Eligible participants were men aged > or = 18 years with ED for at least 6 months, in a stable heterosexual relationship for at least 6 months, highly motivated to obtain ED treatment, and making at least four attempts at sexual intercourse on four separate days, of which at least half were unsuccessful. Subjects were randomized to receive 12 weeks of treatment with either 10 mg vardenafil ODT on demand or placebo, and each treatment group was stratified such that approximately half of the subjects were aged > or = 65 years.
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The clinical properties (efficacy and safety profile) of a medicine are related not only to its mode of action, but also to its selectivity for its target (usually a receptor or enzyme) and are also influenced by its pharmacokinetic properties (absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination). The growing number of phosphodiesterase inhibitors that are selective for phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) represent a promising new class of compounds that are useful for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and perhaps other disorders. Some of the basic pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters that describe drug action are discussed with regard to the new PDE5 inhibitors. Central topics reviewed are the concentration that produces a given in vitro response, or potency (IC50), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (Tmax), half-life (t 1/2), area under the curve (AUC), bioavailability, onset and duration of action, and the balance to achieve optimum safety and efficacy. To illustrate these concepts, a group of inhibitors with varying selectivities and potencies for PDE5 (theophylline, IBMX, zaprinast, sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil) are discussed. Each drug has its own set of unique pharmacological characteristics based on its specific molecular structure, enzyme inhibition profile and pharmacokinetic properties. Each PDE5 inhibitor has a distinct selectivity that contributes to its safety profile. As with all new drugs, and especially those in a new class, careful evaluation will be necessary to ensure the optimal use of the PDE5 inhibitors.