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The generalizability should be considered since this study conducted in a single center.
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Rats experienced MS and chronically received escitalopram (ESC) or nortryptiline (NOR). Serum proteins were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Corticosterone, cytokines, BDNF and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by immunoassays.
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Thus, 5-HTR1A and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphisms may not play an important role in antidepressant drug response or remission.
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In a controlled, clinical, multicentre trial comprising a total of 43 patients (17 men and 26 women) citalopram was compared double-blindly with amitriptyline. Nineteen patients of each group were classified as endogeneously depressed, whereas four patients of the citalopram group and one of the amitriptyline group were classified as non-endogenously depressed. The patients were seriously ill with a high frequency of previous depressive episodes and of mental disorders among their closest relatives. Thirteen of the patients in either group had received antidepressants without satisfactory effect before entry into the trial. Each patient was treated for a period of at least 3 weeks with daily citalopram doses of 30-60 mg or daily amitriptyline doses of 75-225 mg. A statistically significant reduction of MADRS scores (total scores as well as each of the 10 individual items) was recorded in both groups. The only difference between the groups was a trend towards a better effect on sleep disturbances in the amitriptyline group. Side-effects were recorded more frequently in the amitriptyline group than in the citalopram group, global assessment of side effects being significantly different in favour of citalopram. It is concluded that citalopram is an effective and safe drug in the treatment of endogenous depression - probably as efficacious as amitriptyline, but with fewer side effects.
The effect of antidepressants and anxiogenics in the forced swimming (Porsolt') test was investigated in rats. On the second day of an experiment, desipramine (10 mg/kg), pentylenetetrazole (20 mg/kg), picrotoxin (2.5 mg/kg), and clonidine (1.0 mg/kg) shortened while buspirone (1.0 mg/kg), yohimbine (2.5 mg/kg), DMCM (1.0 mg/kg), and Ro-15-4513 (1.0 mg/kg) prolonged the time of immobility or behavioral despair; fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg), citalopram (10 mg/kg), and flumazenil (10 mg/kg) were ineffective. While clonidine, given in a subeffective dose (0.1 mg/kg), augmented the effect of desipramine (10 mg/kg), buspirone (1.0 mg/kg) had an opposite effect. The picrotoxin (2.5 mg/kg) challenge prominently shortened the time of immobility after desipramine (10 mg/kg) or citalopram (10 mg/kg) treatment. In conclusion, our results indicate that pharmacologically enhanced anxiety interacts with the effects of acute drug treatment in the forced swimming test.
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We found that, in acute conditions, the 5-HT(4) agonist prucalopride was able to counteract the inhibitory effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) fluvoxamine and citalopram on 5-HT neuron impulse flow, in Dorsal Raphé Nucleus (DRN) cells selected for their high (>1.8 Hz) basal discharge. The co-administration of both prucalopride and RS 67333 with citalopram for 3 days elicited an enhancement of DRN 5-HT neuron average firing rate, very similar to what was observed with either 5-HT(4) agonist alone. At the postsynaptic level, this translated into the manifestation of a tonus on hippocampal postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors, that was two to three times stronger when the 5-HT(4) agonist was combined with citalopram. Similarly, co-administration of citalopram synergistically potentiated the enhancing effect of RS 67333 on CREB protein phosphorylation within the hippocampus. Finally, in the Forced Swimming Test, the combination of RS 67333 with various SSRIs (fluvoxamine, citalopram and fluoxetine) was more effective to reduce time of immobility than the separate administration of each compound.
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This study addressed whether the SSRI escitalopram increases serum BDNF levels in subjects with PTSD and whether BDNF levels are associated with treatment response.
Treatment with antidepressant citalopram in the acute but not in the late phase after MI significantly increased mortality in mice by disturbing early healing. Pharmacological MMP inhibition partially reversed the deleterious effects of citalopram.
Late-life depression frequently co-occurs with cognitive impairment. To inform clinical management of these conditions, we examined the hypotheses that, relative to cognitively normal elders meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder, those with cognitive impairment would require greater intensity of pharmacotherapy to reach criteria for antidepressant response and would take longer to respond.
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We sought to examine the efficacy and safety of acamprosate augmentation of escitalopram in patients with concurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol use disorders. Twenty-three adults (43% female; mean ± SD age, 46 ± 14 years) were enrolled and received 12 weeks of treatment with psychosocial support; escitalopram, 10 to 30 mg/d; and either acamprosate, 2000 mg/d (n = 12), or identical placebo (n = 11). Outcomes included change in clinician ratings of depressive symptoms, MDD response and remission rates, changes in frequency and intensity of alcohol use, retention rates, and adverse events. Twelve subjects (acamprosate, n = 7; placebo, n = 5) completed the study. There was significant mean reduction in ratings of depressive symptoms from baseline in both treatment arms (P < 0.05), with no significant difference between the groups. Those in the acamprosate group had a 50% MDD response rate and a 42% remission rate, whereas those in the placebo arm had a 36% response and remission rate (not significant). Those assigned to acamprosate had significant reduction in number of drinks per week and drinks per month during the trial, whereas those assigned to placebo demonstrated no significant change in any alcohol use parameter, but the between-group difference was not significant. There were no significant associations between change in depressive symptoms and change in alcohol use. Attrition rates did not differ significantly between the 2 arms. Acamprosate added to escitalopram in adults with MDD and alcohol use disorders was associated with reduction in the frequency of alcohol use. The present study was not powered to detect superiority versus placebo. Further study in a larger sample is warranted.
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Genome-wide transcriptional profiles were examined in peripheral blood leukocytes sampled at baseline and 16 weeks from 35 older adults with major depression, who were randomized to methylphenidate + citalopram, citalopram + placebo, or methylphenidate + placebo. Methylphenidate doses ranged between 10 and 40 mg/day, and citalopram doses ranged between 20 and 60 mg/day. Remission was defined as Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of 6 or below. Early remission was achieved in the first 4 weeks of treatment. We hypothesized that differential gene expression at baseline can predict antidepressant response.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an integrative treatment approach on cognitive performance. The study sample comprised 35 medically ill patients (20 male, 15 female) with an average age of 71.05, who were diagnosed with mild dementia and depression. These patients were evaluated at baseline and at six, 12, and 24 months of treatment, which included antidepressants (sertraline, citalopram, or venlafaxine XR, alone or in combination with bupropion XR), cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine or galantamine), as well as vitamins and supplements (multivitamins, vitamin E, alpha-lipoic acid, omega-3 and coenzyme Q-10). Patients were encouraged to modify their diet and lifestyle and perform mild physical exercises. Results show that the integrative treatment not only protracted cognitive decline for 24 months but even improved cognition, especially memory and frontal lobe functions.
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National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program).