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After assessment of locomotor behavior in the open-field test (OFT), FST was applied for evaluation of the antidepressant-like activity of baclofen in mice. Baclofen at different doses (0.1, 0.3, and 1mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) were administrated by intraperitoneal (ip) route, 30min before the FST or OFT. To clarify the probable involvement of KATP channels, after determination of sub-effective doses of glibenclamide as a KATP channel blocker and cromakalim, as an opener of these channels, they were co-administrated with the sub-effective and effective doses of baclofen, respectively.
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Presynaptic GABAB receptors play a regulatory role in central synaptic transmission. To elucidate their underlying mechanism of action, we have made whole-cell recordings of calcium and potassium currents from a giant presynaptic terminal, the calyx of Held, and EPSCs from its postsynaptic target in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body of rat brainstem slices. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen suppressed EPSCs and presynaptic calcium currents but had no effect on voltage-dependent potassium currents. The calcium current-EPSC relationship measured during baclofen application was similar to that observed on reducing [Ca2+]o, suggesting that the presynaptic inhibition generated by baclofen is caused largely by the suppression of presynaptic calcium influx. Presynaptic loading of the GDP analog guanosine-5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDPbetaS) abolished the effect of baclofen on both presynaptic calcium currents and EPSCs. The nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPgammaS) suppressed presynaptic calcium currents and occluded the effect of baclofen on presynaptic calcium currents and EPSCs. Photoactivation of GTPgammaS induced an inward rectifying potassium current at the calyx of Held, whereas baclofen had no such effect. We conclude that presynaptic GABAB receptors suppress transmitter release through G-protein-coupled inhibition of calcium currents.
Baclofen is a useful, but suboptimal treatment option for refractory GERC.
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The good clinical response to treatment of spasticity and rigidity, improved quality of life, pain reduction and patient satisfaction with short length of admission demonstrate the efficacy of intrathecal baclofen therapy. Safe and efficacious, this mode of treatment appears to be the gold standard for treating severe spasticity.
Retrospective cohort study.
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Tinnitus handicap inventory, pitch and loudness matching, and maskability of tinnitus.
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In France, the off-label use of high-dose baclofen (HDB) for alcohol dependence is spreading. HDB induces frequent neuropsychiatric adverse events (AEs). Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a major axis-two psychiatric disorder that exposes to frequent comorbid alcohol dependence and increased risky behaviors. We investigated the drinking and safety outcomes of patients with BPD treated with HDB for comorbid alcohol dependence. In a prospective cohort of 204 patients with alcohol dependence treated by HDB, 23 patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for BPD. We paired two control participants without a psychiatric history with each BPD patient according to age and sex. We compared the average lengths of follow-up, average doses of baclofen received, rates of heavy drinking days, rates of serious AEs, and rates of AEs resulting in baclofen withdrawal. Between BPD patients (n=23) and controls (n=46), there were no significant differences in mean age (45.3±11.2 vs. 45.2±11.2 years), sex ratio (43.5% women), mean duration of follow-up (8.0±4.0 vs. 7.7±4.2 months; P=0.77), and average daily dose of baclofen (102.2±42.7 vs. 94.6±9.7 mg/day; P=0.44). However, the mean rate of heavy drinking days (74.3±25.3 vs. 41.7±33.3%; P<10E-4), the rate of serious AEs (65.2 vs. 6.5%; P<10E-4), and the rate of treatment discontinuation after AEs (52.2 vs. 8.6%; P<10E-4) were significantly higher in BPD. The benefit/risk balance of HDB appears to be unfavorable in comorbid BPD patients compared with nonpsychiatric patients.
We have studied the effects of selective GABAA and GABAB agonists on alpha-melanophore stimulating hormone (alpha MSH) release from intact rat neurointermediate lobes (NIL) in vitro. Agonist effects were tested against either basal alpha MSH output or BaCl2 (5 mM)-evoked release. GABA (50 microM) produced a biphasic effect on basal release, with an enhancement followed by inhibition of release. The enhancement but not the inhibition was blocked by bicuculline methiodide (100 microM). Baclofen (10 microM), a specific GABAB agonist, reduced the basal and Ba2+-evoked hormonal release in a stereospecific manner. (-)-Baclofen (5 microM) was active whereas the (+)-isomer was inactive at the same concentration. Isoguvacine (50 microM) a specific GABAA agonist, potentiated the Ba2+-evoked release of alpha MSH. GABA (50 microM) mimicked this effect, and its action was antagonized by bicuculline methiodide (200 microM). The results suggest that both GABAA and GABAB receptors are present on the endocrine cells of the intermediate lobe.
No SynchroMed EL pumps were damaged by magnetic resonance imaging, and the programmable settings remained unchanged in all patients.
There are substances with central cardiovascular action which do not reach the brain when given systemically, because they are unable to cross the blood-brain barrier in sufficient amount. We adapted an osmotic brain barrier disruption procedure in order to study the central cardiovascular effects of these substances. By studying the central hypotensive action of baclofen in the rat, we validated this technique with permeabilization of the brain area supplied by the carotid artery. In the cat, we permeabilized the area supplied by the vertebral artery, i.e. the medulla oblongata. Taurine, completely inactive when systemically or intravertebrally injected, became hypotensive after disruption with a hyperosmolar solution of mannitol. In conclusion, drugs inactive before permeabilization and becoming active after treatment with mannitol, could be considered as models for structural analogues with sufficient lipophily, permitting the crossing of the blood-brain barrier and, therefore, constituting models for new central hypotensive agents.
At early stages of brain development, GABA plays a dual role. It fulfills important trophic functions and provides a major excitatory drive for the immature neuronal network. Here, we investigated whether GABA itself can limit the strength of excitatory GABAergic synapses on Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells in sagittal slices from the mouse visual cortex. (2S)-3-[[(1S)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino-2-hydroxypropyl](phenylmethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP55845), a specific GABAB receptor (GABABR) blocker, increased the frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ transients and spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) but did not affect mIPSC amplitudes or kinetics. CGP55845 significantly increased evoked IPSC (eIPSC) amplitudes and decreased the paired-pulse ratio (PPR). Baclofen, a specific GABABR agonist, produced opposite effects. The size of the readily releasable pool was not affected by these GABABR modulators. The same CGP55845 actions were observed at physiological temperatures, but they were abolished after glutamate decarboxylase block with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP). These results indicate that presynaptic GABABRs dynamically regulate GABA release probability. SNAP-5114, a specific GABA transporter-2/3 (GAT-2/3) blocker, enhanced mIPSC frequencies, decreased PPR, and increased eIPSC amplitudes without changing eIPSC kinetics. These effects were blocked by CGP55845 and 3-MP. NO-711, a specific GAT-1 blocker, prolonged eIPSC decay and decreased eIPSC/mIPSC amplitudes. These NO-711-mediated effects were not sensitive to CGP55845 and 3-MP. We conclude that the strength of GABAergic inputs to CR cells is constrained by GABABRs that are persistently activated by ambient GABA. The latter is also provided by GAT-2/3 operating in the reversed mode. Presynaptic GAT-1 functions in the uptake mode and possibly provides GABA for presynaptic vesicle filling.
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Bilateral ablation of the PMM blocked the light-induced neuroendocrine response from occurring in photosensitive turkeys. Microarray analyses revealed an increase in GABAergic activity in the PMM of photorefractory birds as opposed to photosensitive ones, and this enhanced GABAergic activity appeared to inhibit the photoperiodic signal. Additionally, GABAA and GABAB receptors were expressed by dopamine-melatonin neurons in the PMM, and the administration of the GABA receptor agonist baclofen blocked the photoperiodic reproductive neuroendocrine responses.
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gamma-Aminobutyric acid type B receptors (GABA(B)Rs) mediate both slow inhibitory synaptic activity in the adult nervous system and motility signals for migrating embryonic cortical cells. Previous papers have described the expression of GABA(B)Rs in the adult brain, but the expression and functional significance of these gene products in the embryo are largely unknown. Here we examine GABA(B)R expression from rat embryonic day 10 (E10) to E18 compared with adult and ask whether embryonic cortical neurons contain functional GABA(B)R. GABA(B)R1 transcript levels greatly exceed GABA(B)R2 levels in the developing neural tube at E11, and olfactory bulb and striatum at E17 but equalize in most regions of adult nervous tissue, except for the glomerular and granule cell layers of the main olfactory bulb and the striatum. Consistent with expression differences, the binding affinity of GABA for GABA(B)Rs is significantly lower in adult striatum compared with cerebellum. Multiple lines of evidence from in situ hybridization, RNase protection, and real-time PCR demonstrate that GABA(B)R1a, GABA(B)R1b, GABA(B)R1h (a subunit subtype, lacking a sushi domain, that we have identified in embryonic rat brain), GABA(B)R2, and GABA(B)L transcript levels are not coordinately regulated. Despite the functional requirement for a heterodimer of GABA(B)R subunits, the expression of each subunit mRNA is under independent control during embryonic development, and, by E18, GABA(B)Rs are negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase in neocortical neurons. The presence of embryonic GABA(B)R transcripts and protein and functional receptor coupling indicates potentially important roles for GABA(B)Rs in modulation of synaptic transmission in the developing embryonic nervous system.
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Intrathecal baclofen management.