The isolation and structure elucidation of gedunin , the antimalarial agent of Azadirachta indica, are reported. Its 1H- and 13C-nmr spectra were assigned by using one- and two-dimensional nmr spectroscopy, especially homonuclear and heteronuclear COSY, nOe difference, and COLOC experiments.
Crude extraction from Neem, Chili and, Pong-pong showed a complete inhibition zone at 3,000ppm (100%) in the green mould in vitro. At in vivo, concentrations (4,000 and 5,000ppm), Neem, Chili, and Pong-pong showed a high effect on the prevention of the development of mycelia growth Penicillium digitatum on the surface fruits in storage conditions at 25 °C±2. In addition, the lethal concentration (LC50) values of the crude extracts were investigated by using the Brine-shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality test (BST). At 20.5 and 30 μg/ml-1, Neem, Pong-pong and hot Chili showed very high lethal toxicity on brine and effect. Lemon grass and Ginger killed 50% at 495 and 473 μg/ml(-1), respectively, compared with controls.
neem toothpaste review
Azadirachta indica, popularly known as 'Neem' in India, is widely grown all over the tropics. The seed contains 45% oil and is a minor oil of considerable potential. Neem oil is bitter and inedible. Recently, a method has been developed to completely remove the bitter and odoriferous principles and leave a bitterless, odourless and colourless oil. The nutritional and chemical evaluation of debitterized neem oil (NO) was reported earlier (C. Rukmini, Food Chemistry 1987, 26, 119). We report here a three-generation study, carried out according to WHO/FDA protocol in groups of 15 male and 15 female rats fed a diet containing 10% NO or groundnut oil (GNO). Reproductive toxicology was monitored for three generations. The results obtained in both the matings in all the three generations did not show any adverse effects on the reproductive parameters studied in rats fed NO and were similar to those observed in rats fed GNO. The mean organ weights and the histopathological evaluation of all the organs were similar to those of the control (GNO-fed) rats. A mutagenicity test of NO was also found to be negative in Ames test as reported earlier (K. Polasa and C. Rukmini, Food and Chemical Toxicology 1987, 25, 763). These studies indicate that NO devoid of all the bitter and odoriferous principles, may be recommended as safe for consumption by humans.
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Dioxins like various gaseous pollutants and aerosols can be scavenged by appropriate vegetative greenbelts. Based on their stomatal properties and the models for contaminant uptake, uptake of dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by three important Indian plant species, viz. Eugenia jambolana (Jamun), Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Ficus religiosa (Peepal), has been estimated. 2,3,7,8-TCDD is a contaminant with severe harmful ecological ramifications. Computations show that Ficus religiosa has highest uptake capacity. The present exercise has its utility in designing appropriate green-belts for mitigating adverse environmental and human health impacts due to dioxins. This can be an effective management option for mitigating the damages caused by dioxins.
Surgery is still the main treatment in hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus, which is a global health problem in human and animals. So, there is need for some natural protoscolicidal agents for instillation to prevent their reoccurrence at therapeutic doses. In this present investigation, anticestodal activity of one of the endophytic fungi Pestalotiopsis sp. from Neem plant was observed on protoscoleces of hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by 0.1% aqueous eosin red stain method, where mortality was observed at different concentrations with respect to time. An average anticestodal activity was observed with different endophytic fungal strains, that is, Nigrospora (479 ± 2.9), Colletotrichum (469 ± 25.8), Fusarium (355 ± 14.5), and Chaetomium (332 ± 28.3) showing 64 to 70% protoscolicidal activity, except Pestalotiopsis sp. (581 ± 15.0), which showed promising scolicidal activity up to 97% mortality just within 30 min of incubation. These species showed significant reduction in viability of protoscoleces. This is the first report on the scolicidal activity of endophytic Pestalotiopsis sp. We conclude that ultrastructural changes in protoscoleces were due to endophytic extract suggesting that there may be some bioactive compounds that have selective action on the tegument layer of protoscoleces. As compared with that of standard drug used, endophytic species of Neem plant shows significant anticestodal activity.
We evaluated the protective effects of subfractions of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and the methanolic fraction (MF) from the crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) leaves against various free radicals and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage to red blood cells (RBCs) and pBR322 DNA. Neem leaf fractions reduced DPPH(*), ABTS(*+), superoxide (O(*-)), hydroxyl (OH(*)), and nitric oxide radicals to nonradical forms in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with the benzene insoluble fraction from EAF (EBIF), the chloroform insoluble fraction from EAF (ECIF), the chloroform insoluble fraction from MF (MCIF), and the ethyl acetate insoluble fraction from MF (MEIF) significantly mitigated H2O2-induced oxidative damage to RBCs and pBR322 DNA. Although we found low in vitro free radical scavenging activity for the benzene insoluble fraction from EAF (EBSF), the chloroform soluble fraction from EAF (ECSF), the chloroform soluble fraction from MF (MCSF), and the ethyl acetate soluble fraction from MF (MESF), these fractions showed no effect on H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation and pBR322 DNA damage. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and TLC-Iatroscan analysis revealed that the greater efficacy of EBIF, ECIF, MCIF, and MEIF may be due to the presence of more polar compounds such as nimbolide and quercetin. Our studies suggest that the antioxidant and protective effects of active neem leaf fractions against H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation and pBR322 DNA damage can be attributed to their ability to inhibit various free radicals.
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This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest.
Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a medicinal plant, used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, one of which is diabetes mellitus. It is known to possess antiinflammatory, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and diverse pharmacological properties. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of A. indica on insulin signal transduction and glucose homeostasis is obscure.
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Twigs of the above mentioned chewing sticks were sun dried and powdered, and sterile aqueous solutions of 10%, 25% and 50% concentrations were prepared. Culture plates for S mutans and L acidophilus were prepared and the growth was transferred to nutrient agar and Mueller-Hinton agar; antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested after 72 h, using the disc diffusion method. Normal saline was used as control.
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Toothbrushes in regular use can become heavily contaminated with microorganisms, which can cause infection or reinfection. There is a need for toothbrush disinfection methods, which are rapidly effective, cost-effective, nontoxic, and that can be easily implemented.
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Acute skin toxicity is a frequent finding during combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Its timely and appropriate management is crucial for both oncological results and patient's global quality of life. We herein report clinical data on the use of Hypericum perforatum and neem oil in the treatment of acute skin toxicity during concurrent chemo-radiation for head and neck cancer. A consecutive series of 50 head and neck cancer patients undergoing concomitant radio-chemotherapy with weekly cisplatin was analyzed. Treatment with Hypericum perforatum and neem oil was started in case of G2 acute skin toxicity according to the RTOG/EORTC scoring scale and continued during the whole treatment course and thereafter until complete recovery. The maximum detected acute skin toxicity included Grade 2 events in 62% of cases and G3 in 32% during treatment and G2 and G3 scores in 52 and 8%, respectively, at the end of chemo-radiation. Grade 2 toxicity was mainly observed during weeks 4-5, while G3 during weeks 5-6. Median times spent with G2 or G3 toxicity were 23.5 and 14 days. Patients with G3 toxicity were reconverted to a G2 profile in 80% of cases, while those with a G2 score had a decrease to G1 in 58% of cases. Time between maximum acute skin toxicity and complete skin recovery was 30 days. Mean worst pain score evaluated with the Numerical Rating Scale-11 was 6.9 during treatment and 4.5 at the end of chemo-radiotherapy. Hypericum perforatum and neem oil proved to be a safe and effective option in the management of acute skin toxicity in head and neck cancer patients submitted to chemo-radiation with weekly cisplatin. Further studies with a control group and patient-reported outcomes are needed to confirm this hypothesis.
The mean CFSS-SF score for test-group children was statistically significantly lower than for the control-group children. The mean DAS score for test-group adults was statistically significant lower than the control. No significant correlation was observed between dental anxiety level and restoration/extraction ratio per operator for both dentitions in both groups.