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We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, and observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
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Although physicians are aware of phantom limb pain, which can occur in up to 85% of patients who undergo amputation, and its potential effect on functional status, the presence of phantom pain after amputation of other body parts such as the breast and its effect on function may be less appreciated. We report the case of a 63-yr-old woman with multiple sclerosis who underwent a modified radical mastectomy for left intraductal breast carcinoma. After her mastectomy, she required a brief course of inpatient rehabilitation and was discharged from rehabilitation independent, with feeding, dressing, hygiene, and transfers. Two months after her mastectomy, she had difficulty with these tasks because of phantom breast pain. Accurate diagnosis of her pain and successful treatment resulted in a return to premorbid functional status.
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Sixty-seven patients were identified as fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Nineteen patients developed the M-AS after the first docetaxel administration. Forty-eight patients did not develop the syndrome. Three patients in this group were excluded because they had been taking gabapentin or pregabalin at the time of docetaxel administration for another indication. The remaining 45 patients constituted the control group. The two groups were similar in age, menopause status, stage of their cancer, and histology. The M-AS group had a higher median body surface area and was more likely to receive less than the three intended cycles of docetaxel. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, atypical antiepileptics, extended corticosteroids, and opioids were drugs used as M-AS treatments.
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Centrally active agents (eg, venlafaxine, paroxetine, gabapentin) are regarded as the most promising nonhormonal treatments for hot flashes in breast cancer survivors. Nonpharmacologic and complementary alternative medicine therapies have limited effectiveness.
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502 articles were retrieved, of which 30 were selected. Dopaminergic agents, anticonvulsants, opioids, benzodiazepines, zolpidem, entacapone and ketamine were all effective on the restless legs syndrome treatment. One study showed that iron was not effective.
Although standard anticonvulsants are effective in achieving complete seizure control in the majority of patients, an appreciable proportion (about 20 to 25%) is at least in part resistant to conventional pharmacotherapy. Efficacy of carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and valproate is very similar. Should one drug fail because of inadequate efficacy and unacceptable adverse effects, an alternative monotherapy should be used. Surgical treatment is a possible therapeutic option for only some of these patients. The development of newer, more effective drugs, such as vigabatrin, lamotrigine, gabapentin and oxcarbazepine, for monotherapy is desirable. The search for new antiepileptic agents is reasonable in order to reduce the proportion of drug-resistant patients. The choice of conventional or new drugs should include not only expected efficacy and risk of adverse effects, but also pharmacokinetic properties and expense. Consequently, no general rule is appropriate, and each decision and recommendation for treatment should be individualized.
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Although gabapentin may be helpful in some patients, a clinical essay that shows its efficacy as add-on treatment is need.
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The inoculation of mice with herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) causes herpes zoster-like skin lesions and pain-related responses (tactile allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia) from day 5 after inoculation. Skin lesions completely heal by day 15 after inoculation, but about half of mice with acute herpetic pain show pain-related responses long after the lesions heal. Using this mouse model, we examined the effects of repeated administration of gabapentin and amitriptyline on the acute herpetic pain and the incidence of postherpetic pain. Gabapentin and amitriptyline were administered three times daily from day 5 to 11 after inoculation. Postherpetic pain-related responses were assessed on day 30 after inoculation. Gabapentin (10-100 mg/kg) produced the dose-dependent inhibition of acute herpetic pain-related responses. This medication produced marked reduction in the incidence of delayed postherpetic pain and the dose of 100 mg/kg produced the complete inhibition. Amitriptyline (10 mg/kg) did not affect the acute pain-related responses in the initial 3- and 2-day periods and then gradually inhibited them. This dosage produced a substantial but non-significant decrease in the incidence of postherpetic pain-related responses. Amitriptyline (1 and 3 mg/kg) was without effects on acute herpetic and postherpetic pain-related responses. The results strongly support the idea that the severity of the acute herpetic pain is a risk factor of postherpetic neuralgia. It may be worth testing the effects of gabapentin on acute herpetic pain and the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia in human subjects.
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Under normal conditions of everyday clinical practice, GBP is an effective drug which is well tolerated by adults and adolescents with refractory partial seizures.
Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials in which patients were assigned to treatment or control group (placebo or no drug).
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At day 15, both gabapentin and propranolol demonstrated significant and comparable efficacy in reducing tremor from baseline in all tremor measures. The initial drug effects evaluated through accelerometry revealed no significant changes with the use of a placebo, but gabapentin and propranolol use significantly reduced tremor power.
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We report the discovery of F 13640 and evidence suggesting this agent to produce powerful, broad-spectrum analgesia by novel molecular and neuroadaptative mechanisms. F 13640 stimulates G(alphaomicron) protein coupling to 5-HT(1A) receptors to an extent unprecedented by selective, non-native 5-HT(1A) ligands. Fifteen minutes after its injection in normal rats, F 13640 (0.01-2.5 mg/kg) decreases the vocalization threshold to paw pressure; 15 min upon injection in rats that are exposed to formalin-induced tonic nociception, F 13640 inhibits pain behavior. The initial hyperalgesia induced by 0.63 mg/kg F 13640 was followed, 8 hrs later, by paradoxical hypo-algesia; 5 mg/kg of morphine produces the opposite effects (i.e., hypo-algesia followed by hyper-algesia). Repeated F 13640 injections cause an increase in the basal vocalization threshold and a reduction of F 13640-produced hyperalgesia; in these conditions, morphine causes basal hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance. Continuous two-week infusion of F 13640 (0.63 mg/day) exerts little effect on the threshold in normal rats, but markedly reduces analgesic self-administration in arthritic rats. F 13640 infusion also decreases allodynic responses to tactile and thermal stimulations in rats sustaining spinal cord or sciatic nerve injury. In these models of chronic nociceptive and neuropathic pain, the analgesia afforded by F 13640 consistently surpasses that of morphine (5 mg/day), imipramine (2.5 mg/day), ketamine (20 mg/day) and gabapentin (10 mg/day). Very-high-efficacy 5-HT(1A) receptor activation constitutes a novel mechanism of central analgesia that grows rather than decays with chronicity, that is amplified by nociceptive stimulation, and that may uniquely relieve persistent nociceptive and neuropathic pains.
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Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a chronic painful disorder that sometimes develops after an acute episode of herpes zoster infection (shingles) and can be difficult to treat. Although opioids are sometimes effective for chronic neuropathic pain, adverse effects are common, particularly among the elderly, and may cause many patients to discontinue therapy.
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Twenty-five patients were included, mean age (standard deviation) 58.88 (7.69) years. After 6 months of treatment, a statistically significant reduction of pain (p = 0.001) and improvement of severity of symptoms (p = 0.008) were observed, although functional capacity did not change. EMG was performed in 19 patients at 6 months. Compared to baseline EMG: 52.6% patients showed no changes in EMG findings, while 5.3% patients showed improvement and in 26.3% the EMG was normal. Progression was only seen in 15.8% of patients after 6 months of treatment. In 28% of the patients gabapentin was stopped because of side effects.