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Nolvadex (Tamoxifen)
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Nolvadex

Nolvadex is the medication of high quality, which is taken in treatment of breast cancer. Nolvadex is also taken to decrease the risk of breast cancer development, especially in women after surgery and radiation due to DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ). Sometimes Nolvadex is taken to produce female ovulation and to treat McCune-Albright syndrome.

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Also known as:  Tamoxifen.

Description

Nolvadex target is the treatment of breast cancer. Nolvadex is also taken to decrease the risk of breast cancer development, especially in women after surgery and radiation due to DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ). Sometimes Nolvadex is taken to produce female ovulation and to treat McCune-Albright syndrome.

Nolvadex is acting by blocking effect of female hormone called estrogen. It is antiestrogen.

Nolvadex is also known as Tamoxifen, Blastofen, Istubal, Valodex, Soltamox, Genox, Tamofen.

Dosage

The dosage of Nolvadex depends on the type of your disease and health state.

Take Nolvadex once or twice a day with or without food.

Take Nolvadex tablets orally at the same time every day with water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Nolvadex suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Nolvadex and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Nolvadex overdosage: uncontrolled body shaking, unsteadiness, problems with walking, convulsions, lightheadedness, exaggerated reflexes, problems with breathing, tremor.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Nolvadex are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Nolvadex if you are allergic to its components.

Do not take Nolvadex if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Nolvadex if you have a history of leg or lung blood clots.

Do not take Nolvadex if you are taking anticoagulants, anastrozole.

Be very careful with Nolvadex if you suffer from or have a history of vision problems, diabetes, heart attack, stroke, high blood levels of cholesterol, high blood pressure.

Be careful with Nolvadex if you are taking phenobarbital; aminoglutethimide (such as Cytadren); cancer chemotherapy medicines (cyclophosphamide (such as Neosar, Cytoxan), letrozole (such as Femara); bromocriptine (such as Parlodel); cytotoxic cancer medicines; aromatase inhibitors; fluorouracil or mitomycin C, medroxyprogesterone (such as Provera, in Prempro Depo-Provera); rifampin (such as Rimactane, Rifadin).

Avoid people who have infections or colds.

Do not take Nolvadex if you are taking birth-control medications.

Avoid consuming alcohol and smoking cigarettes.

Do not drive or operate machinery while taking Nolvadex.

Do not stop taking Nolvadex suddenly.

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The median age of patients was 59 years. Only 3 (7.7%) patients had positive family history. All patients presented by breast swellings that were associated with axillary mass in about one third of them. Around 80% had hormone receptor positive (estrogen and/or progesterone receptors). Two third of patients had advanced T-stage (T3 and T4). Left sided breast cancer occurred in 51.3%. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most common type of histology encountered and grade 2 was the predominant grade of tumor. Modified radical mastectomy was the most common (87.2%) type of surgery done followed by chemotherapy for 32 patients and loco-regional radiotherapy for 20 patients. Tamoxifen was administered in 31 patients. Distant relapse occurred in 7 patients (17.9%) and local recurrence occurred in 2 patients (5.1%). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 82% and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 84%. Only negative axillary lymph node and positive hormone receptor status were significantly associated with favorable DFS and OS. T-stage, grade of tumor and type of chemotherapy given had no statistically significant impact on either DFS or OS.

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Tamoxifen treatment decreased BALF neutrophil counts (65.3 ± 19.38% before treatment; 7.6 ± 4.5% 2 days post-treatment,; and 13.6 ± 9.3% 5 days post-treatment). A similar decrease was observed with dexamethasone treatment (48.6 ± 5.88% before treatment; 11.5 ± 8.1% 2 days post-treatment; 14.6 ± 10.3% 5 days post-treatment). Clinical and endoscopic scores improved in both treatment groups. Tamoxifen treatment significantly increased early apoptosis of peripheral blood neutrophils at 5 days post-treatment (27.04 ± 15.2%), and in BALF neutrophils at 2 and 5 days post-treatment (42.11 ± 11.67% and 48.98 ± 2.6%, respectively).

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Previous studies have indicated that aromatase (CYP19A1) is involved in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). We hypothesized that exposure to AFB1 contaminated food during pregnancy could disrupt the normal production of steroid hormones in placenta. We examined the capability of AFB1 exposure to disrupt CYP19A1 expression as a putative endocrine disrupter, and to investigate the metabolism of AFB1 by CYP19A1. JEG-3 cells, as model for placental cells, were exposed alone and in combination to AFB1 and estrogen receptor ligands for 24-96 h. AFB1 (0.3-1.0 μM) induced the expression of CYP19A1 by 163%-339% compared to control at the 96 h time point, although no induction was observed at 24 h. AFB1 concentrations higher than 1 μM were cytotoxic to JEG-3 cells, and the cytotoxicity was inhibited by the aromatase inhibitor, finrozole. AFB1 was metabolized to aflatoxicol (AFL) by JEG-3 cells and CYP19A1 recombinant protein. AFL formation was partially inhibited by addition of tamoxifen and finrozole to the JEG-3 cells. AFB1 had no effect on the expression of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in JEG-3 cells. These results reveal that AFB1 can affect the expression of aromatase enzyme, indicating that chronic exposure to AFB1 may cause endocrine disruption in the foetoplacental unit.

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Most treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) during the extension study were mild or moderate in severity. The most common TEAE related to study drug was hot flushes (10%; leading to discontinuation for 2% of patients). One serious TEAE, a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with pre-existing cardiac disease, was considered possibly related to study medication. One mild breast-related TEAE, considered unrelated to study drug, was ongoing at study completion. There were no instances of pelvic organ prolapse, incontinence, venous thromboembolism, fractures, breast cancers or death. No clinically significant adverse changes were observed in other safety parameters.

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Women taking tamoxifen experience hot flashes and night sweats (HF&NS); acupuncture may offer a nonpharmaceutical method of management. This study explored whether traditional acupuncture (TA) could reduce HF&NS frequency, improve physical and emotional well-being, and improve perceptions of HF&NS. DESIGN/SETTINGS/LOCATION: This was a single-arm observational study using before and after measurements, located in a National Health Service cancer treatment center in southern England.

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Using concentrations that mimic the clinical situation we examined effects of 4OHtam, 4OHNDtam and NDtam on global gene expression in 17β-estradiol (E2) treated MCF-7 cells. Transcriptomic responses were assessed by correspondence analysis, differential expression, gene ontology analysis and quantitative real time PCR (Q-rt-PCR). E2 deprivation and knockdown of Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 (SRC-3)/Amplified in Breast Cancer 1 (AIB1) mRNA in MCF-7 cells were performed to further characterize specific effects on gene expression.

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Tissue-specific transgene expression in the prostate epithelium has previously been achieved using short prostate-specific promoters, rendering transgenic mouse lines susceptible to integration site-dependent effects. Here we demonstrate the applicability of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology to transgene expression in the prostate epithelium. We present mouse lines expressing an inducible Cre protein (MerCreMer) under the control of regulatory elements of the probasin gene on a BAC. These mouse lines show high organ specificity, high transgene expression in anterior, dorsal and lateral prostate lobes, no background Cre recombination using a reporter strain and adjustable amounts of Cre-induced recombination upon tamoxifen induction. Together with two recently reported transgenic lines expressing the Cre-ERT2 protein from small prostate-specific promoters, these mouse lines will be useful in research focused on prostate-specific disorders such as benign hyperplasia or cancer.

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Patients with primary invasive breast cancer <2 cm diameter, grade 1 or good prognosis special type, and node negative, treated by wide local excision (WLE) with clear margins were randomised into a 2 × 2 clinical trial of factorial design with or without radiotherapy and with or without tamoxifen. Trial entry was allowed to either comparison or both.

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The primary objective was to identify the survival benefit of the primary medical modalities in HCC, as more trials were uncovered between 2005 and 2010. The secondary objective was to conduct a meta-analysis. Selection criteria were implemented to select randomized controlled trials (RCTs), to include in this study. After selection, all the articles were ranked according to their strength.

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The Immediate Preoperative Anastrozole, Tamoxifen, or Combined with Tamoxifen (IMPACT) trial compared the preoperative use of anastrozole with tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive primary operable breast cancer over 12 weeks. Circulating VEGF and sVEGFR-1 were measured by ELISA in 106 patients treated with anastrozole or tamoxifen alone at baseline and after 2 and 12 weeks of treatment.

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To evaluate preoperative clinical risk factors associated with significant uterine histopathologic abnormalities in final hysterectomy specimens in patients with inadequate preoperative endometrial biopsies.

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The use of anastrazol has an additional cost per relapse-free year of 7,521,363 pesos (2007). Therefore, for postmenopausal, early breast cancer hormone receptor positive women in Colombia, the cost-effective alternative is tamoxifen used as adjuvant therapy for five years.

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Data extraction and quality assessment were done independently by two review authors. The primary outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes were pregnancy, ovulation, miscarriage, multiple pregnancy, overstimulation, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and women reported adverse effects.

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nolvadex online usa 2015-07-24

Tamoxifen (TAM) is an established endocrine treatment for all stages of oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Its complex metabolism leads to the formation of multiple active and inactive metabolites. One of the main detoxification and elimination pathways of tamoxifen and its active metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) and endoxifen, is Zantac Otc Dose via glucuronidation catalysed by uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). However, few studies have comprehensively examined the impact of variations in the genes encoding the major hepatic UGTs on the disposition of tamoxifen and its metabolites. In the present study, we systematically sequenced exons, exon/intron boundaries, and flanking regions of UGT1A4, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 in 240 healthy subjects of different Asian ethnicities (Chinese, Malays and Indians) to identify haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms. Subsequently, 202 Asian breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen were genotyped for 50 selected variants in the three UGT genes to comprehensively investigate their associations with steady-state plasma levels of tamoxifen, its active metabolites and their conjugated counterparts. The UGT1A4 haplotype (containing variant 142T>G, L48 V defining the *3 allele) was strongly associated with higher plasma levels of TAM-N-glucuronide, with a twofold higher metabolic ratio of TAM-N-glucuronide/TAM observed in carriers of this haplotype upon covariate adjustment (P < 0.0001). Variants in UGT2B7 were not associated with altered O-glucuronidation of both 4-OHT and endoxifen, while UGT2B15 haplotypes had a modest effect on (E)-endoxifen plasma levels after adjustment for CYP2D6 genotypes. Our findings highlight the influence of UGT1A4 haplotypes on tamoxifen disposition in Asian breast cancer patients, while genetic variants in UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 appear to be of minor importance.

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The number of resting follicles in the ovary and their successful maturation during development define the fertile female lifespan. Oocytes, enclosed within follicles, are subject to natural selection, and the majority will undergo apoptosis during prenatal life through adulthood. Our previous studies revealed high levels of the lipid hydrolase, acid ceramidase (AC), in human and mouse oocytes, follicular fluid and cumulus cells. In addition, supplementation of in vitro fertilization media with recombinant AC enhanced the survival of oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Herein we constructed and used a conditional knockout mouse model of AC deficiency (cACKO) to further investigate the role of this enzyme in oocyte survival in vivo. Immunohistochemical staining, activity assays, and western blot analysis revealed that AC expression was high in the ovaries of normal mice, particularly in the theca cells. After induction of the AC gene knockout with tamoxifen (TM), AC levels decreased in ovaries, and ceramide was correspondingly elevated. A novel immunostaining method was developed to visualize follicles at various stages, and together with light microscopic examination, the transition of the follicle from the secondary to antral stage was found to be defective in the absence of AC. Western blot analysis showed elevated BAX and PARP expression in TM-treated cACKO mouse ovaries compared to control animals. In parallel, the levels of BCL-2 and anti-Mullerian hormone, a marker of ovarian reserve, were decreased. In addition to the above, there was a significant decrease in fertility observed in the TM-treated cACKO mice. Together, these data suggest that AC plays an important role in the preservation of fertility by maintaining low ceramide levels and preventing apoptosis of theca Periactin Vita Syrup cells, thereby promoting survival of the follicle during the transition from the secondary to antral stage.

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Estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family receptors interact in breast cancer; co-targeting Cymbalta Drug Reviews these receptors is of interest. We previously reported on a synergistic growth inhibition for the combination of trastuzumab plus tamoxifen in HER2+/ER+ BT474 cells, but no induction of apoptosis. Herein we describe the effects of co-targeting in models of differing HER2 overexpression status (MCF7 HER2-normal/ER+, BT474 HER2-overexpressing/ER+).

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Although adjuvant therapies reduce the risk of LRR, young age is Ziac Medication Hydrochlorothiazide an independent risk factor for LRR.

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Everolimus (Afinitor®) plus exemestane are indicated for hormone receptor-positive 5 Paracetamol Overdose , HER2/neu-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC), in menopausal women without symptomatic visceral disease after recurrence or progression following aromatase inhibitors. But everolimus efficacy as late treatment has not been explored.

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The study included 634 women with contralateral breast cancer (case patients) and 1158 women with unilateral breast cancer (control subjects) from the Women's Environment, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study. The women were younger than age 55 when they were first diagnosed Flagyl Po Dosage with breast cancer during 1985-1999. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for contralateral breast cancer after treatment with chemotherapy or tamoxifen were assessed by multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression analyses.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate treatment-related complications, outcomes, and patient satisfaction in women with locally advanced breast cancer who received post-mastectomy Sustiva Tablet radiation therapy (PMRT) after breast reconstruction (BR).

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Patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of previously untreated, operable, and measurable Geodon 80mg Medication primary breast cancer (tumour (T), nodes (N) and metastases (M) score: T2-3(> or = 3 cm) N0-2 M0) were treated in a prospectively randomised trial with four cycles of dose-dense (bi-weekly) doxorubicin and docetaxel (ddAT) chemotherapy, with or without tamoxifen, prior to surgery. Clinical and pathological parameters (menopausal status, clinical tumour size and nodal status, grade, and clinical response after two cycles) and a panel of biomarkers (oestrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), p53, bcl-2, all detected by immunohistochemistry) were correlated with the detection of a pathological complete response (pCR).

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Endocrine resistance is a frequent complication, and strategies to reverse it are a high research priority for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) that is hormone receptor positive. Preclinical data suggest Artane Medication re-exposure to estrogen induces tumor regression in tamoxifen-resistant tumors. We conducted a pilot study to determine whether short-term estradiol exposure would reverse endocrine resistance and resensitize tumors

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Retinopathy of prematurity is becoming obvious with the improvement of neonatal ambulance. However there is still not a good treatment. The present study is to observe the effect of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) on oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), and explore the relationship between the changes of avascular area and malondialdehyde (MDA) in retina.

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At baseline, 50/813 (6.2%) patients had lymphopenia. Lymphopenia was associated with positive rheumatoid factor (P=0.02), cytopenia (P≤0.05), hepatitis C (P=0.05), higher C-reactive protein and DAS28 (P≤0.05 for both). Cytokine profile and radiological progression were not significantly different between patients with and without lymphopenia. Suspected diagnoses at inclusion were rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n=27), unclassified arthritis (n=15), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n=3), spondyloarthritis (n=2), Sjögren's syndrome (n=1), hematologic disease (n=1), and fibromyalgia (n=1). Fifteen patients out of 42 (35.7%) with initial lymphopenia had persistent lymphopenia after 3 years, including 5 with documented causes (lupus, hepatitis C, undernutrition, azathioprine, and tamoxifen); none had PVB19, HIV, or HBV infection and none experienced infections, solid or hematologic malignancies during follow-up. Final diagnoses in these 15 patients were RA (n=6), unclassified arthritis (n=6), SLE (n=1), spondyloarthritis (n=1), and fibromyalgia (n=1).

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There are now a number of highly effective options for the treatment of hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. Although tamoxifen was the standard hormonal treatment for many years, we now have another option for postmenopausal women: the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) anastrozole, exemestane and letrozole. A number of trials have investigated the use of third-generation AIs compared with tamoxifen throughout the continuum of treatment settings for postmenopausal women with breast cancer. In the neoadjuvant setting, letrozole, given for 4 months, resulted in better overall clinical response and breast-conserving surgery rates than tamoxifen. The Immediate Preoperative Anastrozole Tamoxifen or Combined with Tamoxifen trial gave anastrozole for 3 months with no difference in clinical response but significantly improved breast-conserving surgery rates. Compared with tamoxifen, anastrozole and letrozole significantly improved disease-free survival as early adjuvant treatment for hormone-receptor-positive disease. Switching to anastrozole or exemestane after 2 to 3 years of adjuvant tamoxifen for a total of 5 years of therapy was also more effective than continued tamoxifen. All three agents are approved in the early adjuvant or switching setting in the USA. Letrozole following 5 years of tamoxifen as extended adjuvant treatment improved disease-free survival and, in the node-positive subgroup, overall survival when compared with placebo. Anastrozole and letrozole are both approved for the first-line treatment of hormone-sensitive advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women; letrozole showed an improved response rate compared with tamoxifen. Anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane are all indicated for the second-line treatment of advanced breast cancer. In summary, third-generation AIs have been shown to have superior efficacy over tamoxifen in the metastatic, neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings and to improve outcome as extended adjuvant therapy following 5 years of tamoxifen. Ongoing studies will further define the role of sequential adjuvant treatment. Appropriate duration of treatment is another important area of investigation. This review will cover hormonal therapy for postmenopausal women with breast cancer and will not address the treatment of premenopausal women.

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We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of bisphosphonates to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? What are the effects of pharmacological treatments other than bisphosphonates to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? What are the effects of non-pharmacological treatments to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).