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The median age of patients was 59 years. Only 3 (7.7%) patients had positive family history. All patients presented by breast swellings that were associated with axillary mass in about one third of them. Around 80% had hormone receptor positive (estrogen and/or progesterone receptors). Two third of patients had advanced T-stage (T3 and T4). Left sided breast cancer occurred in 51.3%. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most common type of histology encountered and grade 2 was the predominant grade of tumor. Modified radical mastectomy was the most common (87.2%) type of surgery done followed by chemotherapy for 32 patients and loco-regional radiotherapy for 20 patients. Tamoxifen was administered in 31 patients. Distant relapse occurred in 7 patients (17.9%) and local recurrence occurred in 2 patients (5.1%). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 82% and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 84%. Only negative axillary lymph node and positive hormone receptor status were significantly associated with favorable DFS and OS. T-stage, grade of tumor and type of chemotherapy given had no statistically significant impact on either DFS or OS.
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Tamoxifen treatment decreased BALF neutrophil counts (65.3 ± 19.38% before treatment; 7.6 ± 4.5% 2 days post-treatment,; and 13.6 ± 9.3% 5 days post-treatment). A similar decrease was observed with dexamethasone treatment (48.6 ± 5.88% before treatment; 11.5 ± 8.1% 2 days post-treatment; 14.6 ± 10.3% 5 days post-treatment). Clinical and endoscopic scores improved in both treatment groups. Tamoxifen treatment significantly increased early apoptosis of peripheral blood neutrophils at 5 days post-treatment (27.04 ± 15.2%), and in BALF neutrophils at 2 and 5 days post-treatment (42.11 ± 11.67% and 48.98 ± 2.6%, respectively).
Previous studies have indicated that aromatase (CYP19A1) is involved in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). We hypothesized that exposure to AFB1 contaminated food during pregnancy could disrupt the normal production of steroid hormones in placenta. We examined the capability of AFB1 exposure to disrupt CYP19A1 expression as a putative endocrine disrupter, and to investigate the metabolism of AFB1 by CYP19A1. JEG-3 cells, as model for placental cells, were exposed alone and in combination to AFB1 and estrogen receptor ligands for 24-96 h. AFB1 (0.3-1.0 μM) induced the expression of CYP19A1 by 163%-339% compared to control at the 96 h time point, although no induction was observed at 24 h. AFB1 concentrations higher than 1 μM were cytotoxic to JEG-3 cells, and the cytotoxicity was inhibited by the aromatase inhibitor, finrozole. AFB1 was metabolized to aflatoxicol (AFL) by JEG-3 cells and CYP19A1 recombinant protein. AFL formation was partially inhibited by addition of tamoxifen and finrozole to the JEG-3 cells. AFB1 had no effect on the expression of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in JEG-3 cells. These results reveal that AFB1 can affect the expression of aromatase enzyme, indicating that chronic exposure to AFB1 may cause endocrine disruption in the foetoplacental unit.
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Most treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) during the extension study were mild or moderate in severity. The most common TEAE related to study drug was hot flushes (10%; leading to discontinuation for 2% of patients). One serious TEAE, a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with pre-existing cardiac disease, was considered possibly related to study medication. One mild breast-related TEAE, considered unrelated to study drug, was ongoing at study completion. There were no instances of pelvic organ prolapse, incontinence, venous thromboembolism, fractures, breast cancers or death. No clinically significant adverse changes were observed in other safety parameters.
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Women taking tamoxifen experience hot flashes and night sweats (HF&NS); acupuncture may offer a nonpharmaceutical method of management. This study explored whether traditional acupuncture (TA) could reduce HF&NS frequency, improve physical and emotional well-being, and improve perceptions of HF&NS. DESIGN/SETTINGS/LOCATION: This was a single-arm observational study using before and after measurements, located in a National Health Service cancer treatment center in southern England.
Using concentrations that mimic the clinical situation we examined effects of 4OHtam, 4OHNDtam and NDtam on global gene expression in 17β-estradiol (E2) treated MCF-7 cells. Transcriptomic responses were assessed by correspondence analysis, differential expression, gene ontology analysis and quantitative real time PCR (Q-rt-PCR). E2 deprivation and knockdown of Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 (SRC-3)/Amplified in Breast Cancer 1 (AIB1) mRNA in MCF-7 cells were performed to further characterize specific effects on gene expression.
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Tissue-specific transgene expression in the prostate epithelium has previously been achieved using short prostate-specific promoters, rendering transgenic mouse lines susceptible to integration site-dependent effects. Here we demonstrate the applicability of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology to transgene expression in the prostate epithelium. We present mouse lines expressing an inducible Cre protein (MerCreMer) under the control of regulatory elements of the probasin gene on a BAC. These mouse lines show high organ specificity, high transgene expression in anterior, dorsal and lateral prostate lobes, no background Cre recombination using a reporter strain and adjustable amounts of Cre-induced recombination upon tamoxifen induction. Together with two recently reported transgenic lines expressing the Cre-ERT2 protein from small prostate-specific promoters, these mouse lines will be useful in research focused on prostate-specific disorders such as benign hyperplasia or cancer.
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Patients with primary invasive breast cancer <2 cm diameter, grade 1 or good prognosis special type, and node negative, treated by wide local excision (WLE) with clear margins were randomised into a 2 × 2 clinical trial of factorial design with or without radiotherapy and with or without tamoxifen. Trial entry was allowed to either comparison or both.
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The primary objective was to identify the survival benefit of the primary medical modalities in HCC, as more trials were uncovered between 2005 and 2010. The secondary objective was to conduct a meta-analysis. Selection criteria were implemented to select randomized controlled trials (RCTs), to include in this study. After selection, all the articles were ranked according to their strength.
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The Immediate Preoperative Anastrozole, Tamoxifen, or Combined with Tamoxifen (IMPACT) trial compared the preoperative use of anastrozole with tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive primary operable breast cancer over 12 weeks. Circulating VEGF and sVEGFR-1 were measured by ELISA in 106 patients treated with anastrozole or tamoxifen alone at baseline and after 2 and 12 weeks of treatment.
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To evaluate preoperative clinical risk factors associated with significant uterine histopathologic abnormalities in final hysterectomy specimens in patients with inadequate preoperative endometrial biopsies.
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The use of anastrazol has an additional cost per relapse-free year of 7,521,363 pesos (2007). Therefore, for postmenopausal, early breast cancer hormone receptor positive women in Colombia, the cost-effective alternative is tamoxifen used as adjuvant therapy for five years.
Data extraction and quality assessment were done independently by two review authors. The primary outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes were pregnancy, ovulation, miscarriage, multiple pregnancy, overstimulation, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and women reported adverse effects.