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Norvasc (Amlodipine)
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Norvasc

Norvasc is an effective strong preparation which is taken in treatment of angina and hypertension diseases. Norvasc acts as an anti-angina and anti-hypertension remedy. Norvasc operates by reducing blood pressure and regulating chest pain through blood provision to the heart.

Other names for this medication:
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Also known as: Amlodipine.

Description

Norvasc is created by pharmacy specialists to combat angina and hypertension diseases. Target of Norvasc is to control chest pain and decrease level of blood pressure.

Norvasc acts as an anti-angina and anti-hypertension remedy. Norvasc operates by reducing blood pressure and regulating chest pain through blood provision to the heart. You can take Norvasc in combination with other anti-hypertension preparations.

Norvasc is also known as Amlodipine besylate, Amlip, Avacard, Dailyvasc, Istin, Perivasc.

Norvasc is calcium channel blocker.

Generic name of Norvasc is Amlodipine.

Brand name of Norvasc is Norvasc.

Dosage

You should take it by mouth.

It is better to take Norvasc once a day at the same time.

Norvasc treats angina and hypertension diseases and can be used both by adults and by children.

Children of 6-17 years:

Starting dosage is 2.5-5 mg.

People with vasospastic angina or coronary artery disease:

Starting dosage is 5-10 mg.

Elderly people, people with hepatic:

Starting dosage is 2.5 mg.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Norvasc suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Norvasc and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Norvasc overdosage: fainting, dizziness, rapid heartbeat.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Norvasc are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Norvasc if you are allergic to Norvasc components.

Do not take Norvasc if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby. Do not use it if you are a nursing mother.

Do not use Norvasc in case of suffering from significant aortic stenosis, cardiogenic shock, and unstable angina.

Try to be careful with Norvasc usage in case of having liver disease, heart failure or hepatic impairment.

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Norvasc suddenly.

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The present study is the first to report an attenuation of I/R-induced intestinal injury by the systemic administration of amlodipine.

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To explore the effects of Western medicine including Ca(2+) channel antagonist and angiotensin-receptor antagonist combined with Songling Xuemaikang Capsule (SXC), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine for calming liver and suppressing liver yang, on blood pressure indexes derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and to evaluate the effects and stability of SXC in lowering blood pressure.

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Initial pharmacologic therapy for hypertension is low-dose thiazide diuretics, beta-blockers, and ACE inhibitors. Increasing data have confirmed that ACE inhibitors have specific benefit in patients with diabetes, atherosclerosis, left ventricular dysfunction, and renal insufficiency. CCBs are alternative agents for ISH in the elderly and appear to decrease stroke with perhaps less protection against progression of renal insufficiency and proteinuria, CAD mortality and new onset heart failure versus other initial agents, especially ACE inhibitors. ARBs are well tolerated and effective blood pressure lowering agents but have not been confirmed as effective as ACE inhibitors for reducing renal progression, clinical events, or mortality from heart failure. Effective pharmacologic antihypertensive therapy may avoid disabling and undetected cerebrovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, and disturbing symptoms of elevated blood pressure. Vasopeptidase inhibitor, such as omapatrilat, and endothelin-1 antagonist, such as bosentan, may become future agents approved for the reduction of morbidity and mortality with hypertension. The ALLHAT trial continues to examine the potential benefits and harms of amlodipine versus chlorthalidone and lisinopril in a diverse high-risk population. Based on ALLHAT data, however, doxazosin is no longer an acceptable initial pharmacological agent. Intensive pharmacologic treatment with blood pressure lowering to less than 130/85 mm Hg is recommended with diabetes, renal insufficiency, and heart failure with additional goal of less than 125/75 mm Hg with renal failure and proteinuria greater than 1 g/24 h, based on multiple outcome studies.

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Introducing a new class of chiral selectors is an interesting work and this issue is still one of the hot topics in separation science and chirality. In this study, for the first time, sulfated maltodextrin (MD) was synthesized as a new anionic chiral selector and then it was successfully applied for the enantioseparation of five basic drugs (amlodipine, hydroxyzine, fluoxetine, tolterodine, and tramadol) as model chiral compounds using CE. This chiral selector has two recognition sites: a helical structure and a sulfated group which contribute to three corresponding driving forces; inclusion complexation, electrostatic interaction, and hydrogen binding. Under the optimized condition (buffer solution: 50 mM phosphate (pH 3.0) and 2% w/v sulfated MD; applied voltage: 18 kV; temperature: 20°C), baseline enantioseparation was observed for all mentioned chiral drugs. When instead of sulfated MD neutral MD was used under the same condition, no enantioseparation was observed which means the resolution power of sulfated MD is higher than neutral MD due to the electrostatic interaction between sulfated groups and protonated chiral drugs. Also, the countercurrent mobility of negatively charged MD (sulfated MD) allows more interactions between the chiral selector and chiral drugs and this in turn results in a successful resolution for the enantiomers. Furthermore, a higher concentration of neutral MD (approximately five times) is necessary to achieve the equivalent resolution compared with the negatively charged MD.

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Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension have been associated with decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial dysfunction. Increased concentrations of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are implicated.

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As several international guidelines on hypertension have now recommended, single-pill/fixed-dose combination antihypertensive therapies may be particularly beneficial as first-line therapy in high-risk patients, in whom more rapid and pronounced blood pressure (BP) control is desired. Upon the single-pill combination of amlodipine and valsartan becoming available, the authors conducted this international, observational study to evaluate its efficacy and safety in a real-life practice setting.

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Hypertension is a public health problem worldwide, but the prevalence in Amassoma, Southern Ijaw Local Government Area is not known.

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A total of 22 418 participants from the ALLHAT (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) with baseline diabetes, incident diabetes (7.5% with chlorthalidone, 5.6% with amlodipine, and 4.3% with lisinopril), or no diabetes at 2 years of in-trial follow-up were followed for a mean total of 6.9 years (2.9 years in-trial and 4 additional years posttrial) through the use of national databases. The primary outcome was CVD mortality (death from coronary heart disease [CHD], stroke, heart failure, or other CVD). Among other outcomes were all-cause mortality, non-CVD mortality, and CHD (nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD). Participants on chlorthalidone with incident diabetes versus no diabetes had consistently lower, nonsignificant risk for CVD mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 95% CI, 0.74-1.47), all-cause mortality (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.82-1.30), and non-CVD mortality (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.77-1.42) than participants on amlodipine or lisinopril with incident diabetes (HR range, 1.22-1.53). Participants with incident diabetes had elevated CHD risk compared with those with no diabetes (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.09-1.96), but those on chlorthalidone had significantly lower risk than those on lisinopril (HR, 1.18 versus 2.57; P=0.04 for interaction).

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Eighty-four patients (48 ARB/CCB/HCTZ, 36 ARB/HCTZ) had ABPM at baseline and at week 6. Reductions of systolic/diastolic ABP were greater in the ARB/CCB/ HCTZ group than in the ARB/HCTZ group for 24-hour mean ABP (-22.0/-13.3 versus -17.4/-8.1 mmHg), as well as nighttime ABP (-22.2/-13.3 versus -16.2/-7.4 mmHg), daytime ABP (-21.9/-13.0 versus -18.1/-8.6 mmHg), ABP in the last 4 hours of the dosing period (-21.5/-13.5 versus -17.0/-7.7 mmHg), and ABP load (21.7%/12.8% versus 30.8%/20.0%).

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Hypertension has been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), but data on antihypertensive drugs and PD are inconclusive. We aim to evaluate antihypertensive drugs for an association with PD in hypertensive patients.

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Normodipin in hypertensive patients with MS has a Augmentin Online positive effect on peroxidation and platelet aggregation. Long-term normodipin administration promoted stabilization of the effect.

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The effect of anti-hypertensive drug amlodipine on regression of cardiovascular hypertrophy due to hypertension was studied by using cultured smooth muscle cells derived from arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and measuring [3H]-TdR and [3H]-Leucine binding. 48 h after adding amlodipine, [3H]-TdR binding in arterial smooth muscle cells from SHR in vitro Bystolic Generic Availability was reduced by 50.5% and [3H]-Leucine binding was reduced by 56.2% as compared with neuropeptide Y (NPY)-treated group. However, there was no significant change in cell number. The results showed that amlodipine could effectively inhibit increase of DNA and protein synthesis of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) due to NPY. It indicates that amlodipine is of great significance on regression of genesis and development of cardiovascular hypertrophy due to hypertension.

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The salt-induced increase in SBP apparent in LVH rats was attenuated to a similar extent by treatment with amlodipine or cilnidipine. The two drugs also similarly inhibited the development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. However, cilnidipine attenuated the increase in relative wall thickness as well as ameliorated LV perivascular and interstitial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction to a greater extent than did amlodipine. In addition, cilnidipine treatment was Irbesartan Generic For Avapro associated with greater inhibition of cardiac oxidative stress, inflammation, and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) gene expression. The decrease in cardiac norepinephrine content apparent in LVH rats was similarly inhibited by both drugs.

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There is a growing body of evidence that blood pressure (BP) level is one of the major determinants of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in individuals, including elderly people. However, to achieve a target BP level in the elderly is Myambutol Generic Name more difficult compared with patients aged <65 years. Current guidelines recommend combination drug therapy with different modes of action for the treatment of elderly patients with moderate hypertension (HT). However, the optimal combination regimen is not well established in elderly HT.

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: In conclusion, despite following strictly ESH guidelines for treating patients with RH to a triple therapy, around 50% of the pts Diovan Cost Walmart have RFH after 6 months follow-up in the DENERHTN trial. Female gender, high BP, low plasma creatinine, and lower adherence at baseline were associated with RFH.

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Ca2+ accumulation and Ca2+ overloading Avelox Cost in mitochondria are responsible for the cell abnormality associated with ischemia and reperfusion injury. The present study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of the Ca2+ channel blocker amlodipine on the mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation, mitochondrial antioxidant status and mitochondrial respiratory enzymes in ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) induced liver injury. I/R injury induced mitochondrial damage in rats was assessed in terms of the decrease in activities (p < 0.05) of respiratory marker enzymes (malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and NADH dehydrogenase), mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes (glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase), and significant increase (p < 0.05) in the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and Ca2+ content.Mitochondrial damage was confirmed by transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination. Pretreatment with amlodipine effectively counteracted the alteration in mitochondrial enzymes induced by ischemia-reperfusion liver damage. TEM study confirms the restoration of cellular normalcy and the cytoprotective role of amlodipine against I/R induced hepatic injury. On the basis of our findings it may be concluded that amlodipine not only possesses Ca2+ channel antagonist properties but it may also reduce the extent of mitochondrial damage by its antioxidant activity.

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To compare the effects of amlodipine and nifedipine on heart rate and Zithromax Buy Online Usa parameters of sympathetic nerve activity during the acute and chronic treatment periods in order to elucidate their influence on cardiovascular outcome.

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The antihypertensive efficacy and safety of once-daily amlodipine (5-10 mg) were studied in patients with essential hypertension. The study also included an assessment of the effects of single doses of amlodipine on platelet aggregation. Ten patients received amlodipine (mean daily dose of 7 mg) for 12 weeks in an open chronic study preceded by a 4-week placebo run-in period. Amlodipine significantly reduced the mean dorsal supine (-31/-20 mm Hg), sitting (-34/-23 mm Hg), standing (-34/ -23 mm Hg), and postexercise (-30/-20 mm Hg) blood pressures (BPs) at the end of 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo run-in period (p < 0.005), with no significant change in heart rate. At the end of a 4-week placebo washout phase following the chronic study, nine of the patients received an acute single 10-mg dose of amlodipine. Exercise testing before and 6 h after dosing showed that an Coreg Generic Side Effects acute 10 mg dose of amlodipine reduced BP without modifying the physiologic response to dynamic exercise. Amlodipine significantly reduced the degree of platelet aggregation in these patients (p < 0.005) induced by either collagen or ADP. This study demonstrated that amlodipine once daily was an effective antihypertensive agent and significantly inhibited platelet aggregation.

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The TROPHY study was designed to show the feasibility of pharmacological prevention of hypertension with respect to the group of patients with "prehypertension" as defined by the JNC VII recommendations. This clinical trial compared candesartan 16 mg/day with placebo and the result at 4 years was a reduction in the relative risk of developing hypertension of 15.6%. The antihypertensive drug delayed the onset of hypertension in a mainly overweight masculine population. Staessen, Zhu and O'Brien's groups suggest measuring an index of arterial rigidity obtained from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI). This is calculated as [1- slope of systolic/diastolic pressure]. The reference values for AASI vary with age from 0.50 to 0.70. The CAFE study, a spin-off of the ASCOT trial, showed that the central blood pressure decreased more than the peripheral blood pressure with the association amlodipine-perindopril as compared with atenolol and a thiazide diuretic. The capacity of an antihypertensive drug or an association of antihypertensives to decrease the central blood pressure could be a pertinent factor of evaluation to be taken into account in the interpretation of clinical trials. The study of the Italian cohort PAMELA showed a progressive increase in cardiovascular and global mortality with respect to the findings of increased blood pressure by one, two or three methods of measurement (at the office, at home, ambulatory) compared with patients declared normotensive by the same methods. This registry confirmed the implication of masked hypertension on cardiovascular prognosis and also showed that "white coat" hypertension was not completely benign. The "3 cities" study is a French epidemiological study of persons over 65 years of age. The control of the blood pressure of the treated elderly hypertensives was 57% in men and 70% in women when the cut-off was 160/95 mmHg and 31% for all patients in a cut-off level of 140/90 mmHg. Lafontan et al. are studying the mobilisation of fat induced by exercise, resistant to betablockers therapy and attributed to natriuretic peptides. This metabolic pathway could be of relevance in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiac failure. Renin inhibitors, such as aliskiren, are being developed. The outlook is the possible use of these drugs with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II inhibitors, taking into account the risk/benefit ratio.

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Studies with short-acting calcium antagonists show that they enhance sympathetic activation and that this has an adverse effect on patients' survival. In contrast, third generation calcium antagonists such as amlodipine, which have a slow onset and long duration of action, do not adversely affect sympathetic function and reflex cardiovascular control. Indeed, evidence suggests calcium antagonists with this profile may exert favorable clinical effects.

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Nifedipine is an effective compound for the treatment of hypertension. However, even as a tablet formulation it is relatively short acting requiring two or three times daily administration. Amlodipine is a long-acting calcium antagonist and effectively lowers BP in patients with essential hypertension. In the present study we compared the BP-lowering effect of nifedipine and amlodipine in patients with essential hypertension. Thirteen patients were studied. They had been on nifedipine tablets for at least four weeks and DBP had been consistently > 95 mmHg. After a further month run-in on nifedipine they entered a randomised double-blind crossover study of one month' treatment with either nifedipine tablet (20 mg twice daily) or amlodipine (5 mg once daily). BP was measured 12 and 2 hours after the last dose of nifedipine and 24 and 2 hours after the last dose of amlodipine. There was a significant peak/trough effect while on nifedipine tablets, the BP being significantly higher at 12 hours than at 2 hours after the last dose (155.2/90.9 +/- 4.6/1.7 vs. 136.1/84.8 +/- 4.3/1.7 mmHg; P < 0.001/P < 0.005). There was no overall difference in BP between nifedipine and amlodipine treatment when BPs were taken at the respective troughs (i.e. 12 hours and 24 hours). If anything, amlodipine tended to be slightly more effective at least on supine SBP (155.2/90.9 +/- 4.6/1.7 vs. 147.6/89.1 +2- 4.3/1.8 mmHg; P < 0.05, NS). In conclusion, amlodipine given once daily is at least as effective as nifedipine tablets given twice daily in patients with essential hypertension.

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Amlodipine is a long-acting dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with vascular selectivity. Although structurally related to nifedipine, amlodipine differs in several important respects, including its slow rate of onset and slow recovery. These effects probably reflect the relatively slow rate of association and dissociation of amlodipine with its binding site. The interaction of amlodipine with the calcium antagonist binding site associated with the slow Ca2+ channels differs from that of other dihydropyridines in that it involves the binding domains for the phenylalkylamine- and benzothiazepine-based antagonists, as well as for the dihydropyridines. The prolonged duration of action of amlodipine makes it suitable for use in conditions where calcium channel blockade is required on a 24-h basis. To determine whether amlodipine has a vascular protective effect, amlodipine was given orally to either cholesterol-fed rabbits or stroke-prone hypertensive rats. In the cholesterol-fed rabbits amlodipine (1 or 5 mg/kg/day) produced a significant, dose-dependent reduction in the incidence of atheromatous lesions in the thoracic aorta over an 8-week period. In stroke-prone rats the administration of amlodipine at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day reduced the incidence of mortality over a 30-week treatment period. In spontaneously hypertensive rats amlodipine (5 mg/kg/day) caused a fall in systolic blood pressure, accompanied by a significant (P less than 0.01) reduction in cardiac hypertrophy. When administered intravenously (0.25 mg/kg) 5 h before hearts were excised and made globally ischaemic for short periods (the 'stunned' heart) amlodipine pretreatment improved functional recovery associated with reperfusion.

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Treatment with OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg was well tolerated and more effective in reducing SeSBP than the dual-combination treatments.

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Eplerenone is a highly selective aldosterone blocker, which is under development for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. To assess its usefulness in older patients with systolic hypertension and widened pulse pressure, we compared the effects of eplerenone with amlodipine, on clinic blood pressure (BP) and pulse pressure and in a subset of the patients, ambulatory BP, vascular compliance, and urinary albumin excretion. The study involved 269 patients > or =50 years of age who were randomly assigned to either eplerenone (50 to 200 mg daily) or amlodipine (2.5 to 10 mg daily) in a double-blind titration to effect design. After 24 weeks of therapy, reductions in clinic systolic BP were similar for both treatments (eplerenone, -20.5+/-1.1 mm Hg; amlodipine, -20.1+/-1.1 mm Hg). Reductions in clinic diastolic BP were modestly larger on amlodipine (-6.9+/-0.7 mm Hg) compared with eplerenone (-4.5+/-0.7 mm Hg) (P=0.014). Pulse pressure was also reduced similarly from baseline by the 2 treatment groups (eplerenone, -15.9 mm Hg versus amlodipine, -13.4 mm Hg, P=0.07). Changes from baseline in pulse wave velocity after 24 weeks of therapy were statistically similar for eplerenone and amlodipine. In patients with microalbuminuria at baseline (>30 mg albumin/g creatinine), eplerenone reduced the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio by 52% compared with a reduction of 10% by amlodipine (P=0.04). Thus, eplerenone was as effective as amlodipine in lowering systolic BP and pulse pressure as well as pulse wave velocity in older patients with widened pulse pressure hypertension. Furthermore, eplerenone reduced microalbuminuria to a greater extent than amlodipine in this older patient group.