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The present study is the first to report an attenuation of I/R-induced intestinal injury by the systemic administration of amlodipine.
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To explore the effects of Western medicine including Ca(2+) channel antagonist and angiotensin-receptor antagonist combined with Songling Xuemaikang Capsule (SXC), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine for calming liver and suppressing liver yang, on blood pressure indexes derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and to evaluate the effects and stability of SXC in lowering blood pressure.
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Initial pharmacologic therapy for hypertension is low-dose thiazide diuretics, beta-blockers, and ACE inhibitors. Increasing data have confirmed that ACE inhibitors have specific benefit in patients with diabetes, atherosclerosis, left ventricular dysfunction, and renal insufficiency. CCBs are alternative agents for ISH in the elderly and appear to decrease stroke with perhaps less protection against progression of renal insufficiency and proteinuria, CAD mortality and new onset heart failure versus other initial agents, especially ACE inhibitors. ARBs are well tolerated and effective blood pressure lowering agents but have not been confirmed as effective as ACE inhibitors for reducing renal progression, clinical events, or mortality from heart failure. Effective pharmacologic antihypertensive therapy may avoid disabling and undetected cerebrovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, and disturbing symptoms of elevated blood pressure. Vasopeptidase inhibitor, such as omapatrilat, and endothelin-1 antagonist, such as bosentan, may become future agents approved for the reduction of morbidity and mortality with hypertension. The ALLHAT trial continues to examine the potential benefits and harms of amlodipine versus chlorthalidone and lisinopril in a diverse high-risk population. Based on ALLHAT data, however, doxazosin is no longer an acceptable initial pharmacological agent. Intensive pharmacologic treatment with blood pressure lowering to less than 130/85 mm Hg is recommended with diabetes, renal insufficiency, and heart failure with additional goal of less than 125/75 mm Hg with renal failure and proteinuria greater than 1 g/24 h, based on multiple outcome studies.
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Introducing a new class of chiral selectors is an interesting work and this issue is still one of the hot topics in separation science and chirality. In this study, for the first time, sulfated maltodextrin (MD) was synthesized as a new anionic chiral selector and then it was successfully applied for the enantioseparation of five basic drugs (amlodipine, hydroxyzine, fluoxetine, tolterodine, and tramadol) as model chiral compounds using CE. This chiral selector has two recognition sites: a helical structure and a sulfated group which contribute to three corresponding driving forces; inclusion complexation, electrostatic interaction, and hydrogen binding. Under the optimized condition (buffer solution: 50 mM phosphate (pH 3.0) and 2% w/v sulfated MD; applied voltage: 18 kV; temperature: 20°C), baseline enantioseparation was observed for all mentioned chiral drugs. When instead of sulfated MD neutral MD was used under the same condition, no enantioseparation was observed which means the resolution power of sulfated MD is higher than neutral MD due to the electrostatic interaction between sulfated groups and protonated chiral drugs. Also, the countercurrent mobility of negatively charged MD (sulfated MD) allows more interactions between the chiral selector and chiral drugs and this in turn results in a successful resolution for the enantiomers. Furthermore, a higher concentration of neutral MD (approximately five times) is necessary to achieve the equivalent resolution compared with the negatively charged MD.
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Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension have been associated with decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial dysfunction. Increased concentrations of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are implicated.
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As several international guidelines on hypertension have now recommended, single-pill/fixed-dose combination antihypertensive therapies may be particularly beneficial as first-line therapy in high-risk patients, in whom more rapid and pronounced blood pressure (BP) control is desired. Upon the single-pill combination of amlodipine and valsartan becoming available, the authors conducted this international, observational study to evaluate its efficacy and safety in a real-life practice setting.
Hypertension is a public health problem worldwide, but the prevalence in Amassoma, Southern Ijaw Local Government Area is not known.
A total of 22 418 participants from the ALLHAT (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) with baseline diabetes, incident diabetes (7.5% with chlorthalidone, 5.6% with amlodipine, and 4.3% with lisinopril), or no diabetes at 2 years of in-trial follow-up were followed for a mean total of 6.9 years (2.9 years in-trial and 4 additional years posttrial) through the use of national databases. The primary outcome was CVD mortality (death from coronary heart disease [CHD], stroke, heart failure, or other CVD). Among other outcomes were all-cause mortality, non-CVD mortality, and CHD (nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD). Participants on chlorthalidone with incident diabetes versus no diabetes had consistently lower, nonsignificant risk for CVD mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 95% CI, 0.74-1.47), all-cause mortality (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.82-1.30), and non-CVD mortality (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.77-1.42) than participants on amlodipine or lisinopril with incident diabetes (HR range, 1.22-1.53). Participants with incident diabetes had elevated CHD risk compared with those with no diabetes (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.09-1.96), but those on chlorthalidone had significantly lower risk than those on lisinopril (HR, 1.18 versus 2.57; P=0.04 for interaction).
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Eighty-four patients (48 ARB/CCB/HCTZ, 36 ARB/HCTZ) had ABPM at baseline and at week 6. Reductions of systolic/diastolic ABP were greater in the ARB/CCB/ HCTZ group than in the ARB/HCTZ group for 24-hour mean ABP (-22.0/-13.3 versus -17.4/-8.1 mmHg), as well as nighttime ABP (-22.2/-13.3 versus -16.2/-7.4 mmHg), daytime ABP (-21.9/-13.0 versus -18.1/-8.6 mmHg), ABP in the last 4 hours of the dosing period (-21.5/-13.5 versus -17.0/-7.7 mmHg), and ABP load (21.7%/12.8% versus 30.8%/20.0%).
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Hypertension has been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), but data on antihypertensive drugs and PD are inconclusive. We aim to evaluate antihypertensive drugs for an association with PD in hypertensive patients.