We included randomised or quasi-randomised trials with two or more arms, of women with clinical or urodynamic evidence of stress urinary incontinence, urgency urinary incontinence or mixed urinary incontinence. One arm of the trial included PFMT added to another active treatment; the other arm included the same active treatment alone.
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The muscarinic receptor in homogenates of human tissues (bladder mucosa and detrusor muscle and parotid gland) was measured using a radioligand binding assay with [N-methyl-(3) H]scopolamine methyl chloride ([(3) H]NMS).
The quality of evidence is rated and recommendations are made using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1).
Compared with baseline, all OAB symptom indexes significantly decreased at all visits. A total of 32 (24.8%) and 25 (19.4%) patients reported successful therapeutic effect at weeks 4 and 12, respectively. Twenty-four (18.6%) and 44 (34.1%) patients discontinued therapy at weeks 4 and 12, respectively. Only 31 (24.0%) patients continued the combined medication for up to 12 months. Discontinuation of the combined medication was noted in 28 (21.7%) patients due to AE and in 70 (54.3%) due to lack of efficacy.
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Our results in a double blinded cross-over trial suggest that long-acting oxybutynin and tolterodine do not have a deleterious effect on children's attention and memory. Other cognitive functions may be affected.
Neurological assessment revealed a motor level from T8 to S1 in all 7 children, whereas only 3 had sensory denervation ranging from T8 to L4. Urodynamic studies demonstrated a mixed upper and lower motor neuron pattern in 3 patients, a lower motor neuron lesion only in 3 and a pure upper motor neuron deficit in 1. Treatment consisted of oxybutynin in 5 cases, Credé voiding in 1 and close observation in 1. All children are dry and kidney function has remained stable.
An 84-year-old woman is reported whose death was associated with strenuous exercise on an extremely hot day (maximum temperature=43.1 °C, 109.6 °F). At autopsy there was evidence of exposure to high environmental temperatures with early putrefactive changes and mummification. There was underlying cardiomegaly with mild pulmonary emphysema. No significant injuries were detected. Toxicology revealed therapeutic levels of oxybutynin prescribed for urinary stress incontinence. Death was considered to be heat related, exacerbated by oxybutynin therapy, exercise, and cardiomegaly. Given that it has been predicted that there may be an increase in the number of heatwaves and in their intensity and duration, it is possible that such cases may be encountered more often in future. The assessment of all deaths occurring during conditions of extreme heat will require consideration of postmortem toxicology, particularly if there are underlying conditions such as stress incontinence that may be associated with anticholinergic drug therapy.
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To systematically review the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with dementia and associated disorders.
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A total of 100 patients (91 men, 9 women; mean [SD] age, 75.8 [9.7] years; 73% white) were included in the study. Eighty-six patients were determined at the time of evaluation to have some kind of cognitive impairment. They were mildly impaired, with a mean (SD) Mini-Mental State Examination score of 22.9 (5.1), based on a scale of 0 to 30. Twenty-two patients were taking > or =1 contraindicated medication that could potentially affect their cognition; the most frequently prescribed were benzodiazepines, oxybutynin, amitriptyline, fluoxetine, and diphenhydramine. Twenty-eight of the 100 patients were being treated with a cholinesterase inhibitor at the time of their evaluation; of these, 4 (14%) were also taking > or =1 medication with anticholinergic properties.
Propiverine hydrochloride, oxybutynin hydrochloride and terodiline hydrochloride have both anticholinergic and antispasmodic effects, and are used for the management of urinary frequency and incontinence. The average standard therapeutic doses of these drugs differ greatly. We retrospectively analyzed their pharmacological effects with consideration given to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding affinities, anticholinergic activities, and inhibitory effects on KCl-induced contraction. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor occupancies and the inhibitory ratios of the drugs for both acetylcholine-induced and KCl-induced contraction in a steady state after oral administration of standard doses were calculated based on pharmacokinetics and the receptor occupancy theory. The average muscarinic acetylcholine receptor occupancy and inhibitory ratio of acetylcholine-induced contraction were estimated to be 12.6+/-1.06% and 3.27+/-0.74%, respectively, with no significant differences found between the drugs for those parameters. A significant linear relationship was found between muscarinic acetylcholine receptor occupancy and the maximum ratio of increase in bladder urinary capacity. On the other hand, the inhibitory ratios of KCl-induced contraction varied from 0.01 to 0.48%. The present results suggest that muscarinic acetylcholine receptor occupancy is a principal determinant of the therapeutic effect of a drug used for treatment of urinary disturbance.
Recent pharmacologic treatment for detrusor overactivity has resulted in more favorable side effect profiles, not only because of the use of different drug delivery systems for older drugs but perhaps also due to the improved bladder selectivity of newer antimuscarinic agents. These developments translate into higher patient compliance and better long-term results with the newer agents over generic immediate-release oxybutynin for the treatment of the overactive bladder.
To investigate the effect on urodynamics of 4 weeks treatment with solifenacin succinate in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) due to multiple sclerosis (MS) or spinal cord injury (SCI).
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This case report aims to help healthcare providers and methadone clinic patients to recognize one of the less recognized adverse effects of methadone, hyperhidrosis, and to suggest oxybutynin as a possible solution.
Study Type--Therapy (prevalence) Level of Evidence 2b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Persistence with long-term medication in chronic diseases is typically low and that for overactive bladder medication is lower than average. Sub-optimal persistence is a major challenge for the successful management of overactive bladder. Using UK prescription data, persistence was generally low across the range of antimuscarinics. Patients aged 60 years and above were more likely to persist with prescribed oral antimuscarinic drugs than younger patients (40-59 years). Solifenacin was consistently associated with the highest rate of persistence compared with the other antimuscarinics included in the study
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Antimuscarinic agents currently dominate medical treatment for urinary incontinence secondary to overactive bladder (OAB). Alternatives to improve their risk-benefit ratio are welcomed.