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Parlodel

Generic Parlodel is the most effective preparation in struggle against female diseases as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Generic Parlodel can also be helpful for patients with Parkinson`s disease and its symptoms caused by low levels of dopamine in the brain. Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level.

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Also known as:  Bromocriptine.

Description

Generic Parlodel is created using perfect medical formula which is a magnificent weapon against women problems such as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Target of Generic Parlodel is to reduce prolactin level and help to produce breast milk and fertility in women.

Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level. When it is used for treatment of Parkinson disease, it works by stimulating dopamine receptors in some certain brain parts.

Parlodel is also known as Bromocriptine, Proctinal.

Generic Parlodel is a hormone (dopamine agonist).

Generic Parlodel can't lead to vaginal bleeding, uterine or breast cancer, breast tenderness.

Generic name of Generic Parlodel is Bromocriptine.

Brand name of Generic Parlodel is Parlodel.

Dosage

Generic Parlodel is available in the form of tablets (2.5 mg) which should be taken by mouth with meals or without it.

Take Generic Parlodel every day at the same time and remember that its dosage depends on patient's health state.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Parlodel suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Parlodel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Parlodel are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are allergic to Generic Parlodel components.

Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not use Generic Parlodel in case of having uncontrolled high blood pressure, blood poisoning, having recently given birth or have coronary artery disease (chest pain) or any other severe heart disease.

In case you take Generic Parlodel while using birth control pills, remember that birth control pills become less effective

Patients under 15 years should be extremely careful with Generic Parlodel.

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parlodel 5 mg

A variety of neuropharmacologic agents, including anticholinergic drugs, amantadine hydrochloride, levodopa, selegiline, bromocriptine, and pergolide, are now available for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Of patients treated with dopaminergic agents, 30% develop visual hallucinations, 10% exhibit delusions, 10% have euphoria, 1% have mania, 10% to 15% experience increased anxiety, 15% have confusional periods, and a few exhibit altered sexual behavior. Anticholinergic drugs have a greater tendency to produce confusional states than dopaminergic compounds. Elderly patients and those with underlying dementia are most likely to have untoward side effects with anti-parkinsonism treatment. Dosage reduction is the optimum management strategy, although anti-psychotic agents may be necessary in patients with delusions, and lithium may help control drug-induced mania. Dopaminergic agents share the property of stimulation of D2 dopamine receptors, and this action may play an essential role in mediating their neuropsychiatric effects.

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We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group (CDAG) Specialized Register, PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL, PsycINFO in June 2011 and researchers for unpublished trials

parlodel tablet uses

The role of PRL in sexual maturation of female ferrets was examined in these studies. Longitudinal profiles of PRL secretion were obtained by thrice weekly blood sampling of intact female ferrets undergoing photoperiod-stimulated development as well as age-matched control females which remained in nonstimulatory short days. Two additional groups of intact females, one in each photocycle, were treated with the dopamine agonist drug bromocriptine throughout the study. The relationship between developmental changes in PRL secretion and the critical pubertal decrease in the efficacy of estradiol (E2) inhibitory feedback on LH secretion was studied by using additional groups of females which were ovariectomized and treated with E2 implants (OVX + E2). These latter females were housed in either long or short day photoperiods; some were treated with bromocriptine, the remainder were treated with the vehicle only. Results of this study revealed that PRL secretion in ferrets does not change acutely with an abrupt increase in day length. After 4 weeks of exposure to long days, however, a marked increase in PRL secretion occurred. This increased secretion of PRL was contemporaneous with the onset of pubertal ovarian activity in intact females and with the escape of LH from the negative feedback of E2 in OVX + E2-treated females. The further observation that pharmacological blockade of the long day-induced rise in PRL secretion also prevented the pubertal onset of ovarian activity suggested that PRL may play a critical role in the induction of puberty in this species. The mechanism by which bromocriptine prevented puberty induction was illustrated in the OVX + E2-treated ferrets in stimulatory photoperiod. The drug treatment prevented the pubertal decrease in the efficacy of E2 negative feedback on LH. These studies suggest an important interaction between the dopamine-PRL system and the GnRH-LH system in the regulation of sexual maturation of female ferrets.

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A 49-yr-old woman with a large pituitary tumor leading to visual loss and galactorrhea- amenorrhea was submitted to transcranial pituitary surgery, when a clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma was partially removed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of "non-secreting atypical adenoma." At that time, serum and urinary free cortisol were normal, with low T4 levels and hyperprolactinemia. The patient was discharged on thyroxine and bromocriptine and treated with conventional radiotherapy. Two years later, she presented high free urinary cortisol levels and a positive ACTH response to desmopressin testing on dexametasone 2 mg overnight. A pituitary biopsy confirmed aggressive growth as well as positive immunoreactivity for ACTH, p53, Ki-67, and c-erb-B2. The patient was then treated with radiosurgery on ketoconazole therapy. The overall clinical, laboratory, and pathological data suggest a transition from a clinically nonfunctioning to a hypersecreting ACTH-producing tumor. Putative mechanisms of tumor transformation and the possibility of a silent corticotropinoma evolving into clinical Cushing s syndrome are discussed.

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The nutritional needs of developing young place a large energetic demand on lactating females. In this paper some of the mechanisms through which lactating rats meet these demands are described. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms that drive increased food intake in suckled rats that are independent of milk delivery and negative energy balance. Evidence is presented to suggest that prolactin (PRL), released from the pituitary in response to suckling stimulation, acts centrally to stimulate food intake during lactation. Brain areas in which PRL may act to stimulate food intake as well as its interactions with other hormones and neuropeptides involved in energy balance are discussed.

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The authors begin by stressing the importance of the role of prolactin in the metabolism of testosterone in the cells of the prostate. They studied three groups of patients: 9 patients with prostatic cancer, 15 patients with benign prostatic adenoma and 11 healthy young men. Inhibition of the dopaminergic receptors by metoclopramide only resulted in a significant increase in serum prolactin in the patients with prostatic cancer, while the serum prolactin level remained unchanged in the young men and in the patients with prostatic adenoma. The authors believe that this increased secretion of prolactin in patients with prostatic cancer is related to a decrease in the testosterone: oestradiol ratio. They suggest the use of bromocriptine in patients with prostatic cancer no longer responding to oestrogen therapy in the event of prolactin over-secretion. Some papers have reported the beneficial effect of bromocriptine on the general health of these patients.

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Open label study of 5-months of duration. The first agonist was given for two months and, after a period of substitution of one month, the second agonist was also maintained for two months.

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Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare life-threatening disorder resulting from treatment with neuroleptic agents and other drugs that act as dopamine antagonists. NMS most often occurs shortly after the initiation, dose increase or withdrawal of the offending agent, but can rarely occur after long-term treatment at stable doses. Immediate discontinuation of the causative agent (or re-administration if the cause is the withdrawal of neuroleptic therapy) along with supportive therapy to maintain cardiorespiratory stability and to reduce fever are the cornerstone of the management of NMS. Additional 'specific' treatments include dantrolene, bromocriptine and amantadine, but their role in the management of NMS is controversial.

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In the present investigation the function of the Leydig cells, as the response of gonadal steroids to the injections i.m. of 2000 UI of hCG, was studied in 11 normal men, before and after the induction of hyper or hypoprolactinemia with sulpiride and bromocriptine treatments respectively. The normal response to hCG, showed an increment of serum estradiol concentration 24 h and another of serum testosterone 72 h after the administration of the gonadotropin. The serum FSH concentration decreased during the test. An increase of serum LH levels was observed in the hypoprolactinemic state, but the increment of estradiol was lower after injection of hCG. On the other hand, the hyperprolactinemia induced a low basal level of testosterone with a higher response of this steroid to hCG. The results suggest that hyperprolactinemia interfers the estradiol synthesis by Leydig cells while the loss of the trophic effect of prolactin on gonadal steroidogenesis, as seen in hypoprolactinemia produces a decrease of basal testosterone levels without any alteration of the response of this steroid to hCG. We conclude that prolactin plays an important role in the steroidogenesis of Leydig cells in normal men.

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A 21-year-old goitrous hypothyroid Chinese woman had elevated serum iodotyrosines with a monoiodotyrosine level of 85.9 nmol/l (normal 0.49-0.89 nmol/l) and a diiodotyrosine level of 25.3 nmol/l (normal 0.023-0.53 nmol/l). She was amenorrheic with low luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels at 5.8 and 2.8 U/l, respectively. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was due to an elevated prolactin level of 8.8 nmol/l. She also had a low potassium level of 3.2 mmol/l, and a high urinary aldosterone level of 158 nmol/day. The hyperprolactinemia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hyperaldosteronism and hypokalemia subsided with the administration of bromocriptine 5 mg/day. However, bromocriptine accentuated the hyperiodotyrosinemia, and the patient remained hypothyroid. Levothyroxine therapy lowered the monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine levels, ameliorated all her endocrinopathies, started her periods, and shrank the goiter. She probably had a deiodinase defect which permitted the discharge of accumulated iodotyrosines from the thyroid gland. Since iodotyrosines are tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitors, the hyperiodotyrosinemia causes dopamine synthesis inhibition, and induces the hyperprolactinemia and hyperaldosteronism.

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In a non-randomized retrospective study n = 36 prolactinoma patients (n = 7 micro- and n = 29 macroadenomas) were evaluated before (E0), 4 (E1) and 52 weeks (E2) after applying 3 different treatment modalities: A dopamine agonist (DA) therapy (n = 14), B surgery as initial procedure (n = 12) and oral DA therapy, C DA preinjection, subsequent surgery (n = 10) and oral DA medication. T0 outline the effect of the 3 regimens upon serum prolactin (PRL) and tumour size reduction, clinical signs and symptoms, anterior/posterior pituitary lobe function and MRI/CT findings were evaluated in each patient at E0, E1 and E2. In group A, PRL normalization was achieved in n = 10 patients (71%), although the frequency of an empty sella was only one out of 12 macroprolactinoma patients (less than 10%). Patients of group C showed the lowest PRLE2 levels (32 +/- 11 ng/ml, normalization rate 60%), although not statistically significant when compared with the other groups (A: 41 +/- 28 ng/ml, B: 114 +/- 33 ng/ml, normalization rate 31%). According to MRI studies in groups B and C total removal was achieved in 33% and 50% of macroprolactinomas, respectively. The most favourable ratio of the leading pre/posttreatment signs and symptoms was observed in patients of group C. It was concluded that no superiority of either treatment regimen exists for prolactinoma patients. Each mode of therapy has its own benefits which may be applied to the different biological behaviour of a prolactinoma in the respective patient.

parlodel dosage hyperprolactinemia

To investigate the potential risk for developing visual loss during single or multiple pregnancies in women with pituitary adenomas.

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SM was demonstrated in 4.87%. SM has revealed MPRL in 3 cases and appeared after bromocriptine intake in the 4(th) one. Endocrinologists should be aware of this severe condition, which can be avoided by repairing as soon as possible the bony defect secondary to aggressive tumors, unless it is clogged by fibrosis: What probably happened in our cases.

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In 44 patients with acromegaly treated by transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, the relationship between changes in pre- and post-operative GH dynamics and postoperative fasting plasma GH levels was examined to clarify which is the optimal approach for evaluating postoperative removal of the tumour. TRH, LHRH and bromocriptine tests, which act directly on the pituitary somatotroph, and the oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT), which act via hypothalamus, were carried out pre- and post-operatively. Abnormal responses postoperatively were found in most patients with fasting postoperative plasma GH over 5 ng/ml. In 24 patients with postoperative fasting plasma GH level of 5 ng/ml or below, 7 of 17 (41%) showed abnormal responses in the TRH test, 2 of 5 (40%) in the LHRH test and 3 of 13 (23%) patients in the bromocriptine test. All patients with a fasting plasma GH level less than 10 ng/ml, except for those with panhypopituitarism, showed normal responses to ITT and the paradoxical increases with the oGTT were absent. These results indicate that abnormal responses caused by a direct action on adenoma cells do not necessarily disappear even when the fasting plasma GH level is below 5 ng/ml. Abnormal responses caused by indirect actions, through the hypothalamus, disappear when the level is less than 10 ng/ml.

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parlodel medicine 2016-02-06

Thirty-two patients with ovarian hyperstimulation were randomized to receive bromocriptine or placebo from cycle day 5 onward. Bromocriptine decreased serum and follicular fluid prolactin (PRL), accelerated ovarian follicle growth, increased serum and follicular fluid estradiol, lowered luteal phase progesterone, and shortened the luteal phase length of the cycle. The maximal luteal phase estradiol and progesterone concentrations correlated with each other in the placebo group, but not in the bromocriptine group. These findings indicate that hypoprolactinemia interferes with ovarian function. The unchanged concentrations of gonadotropic hormones and pattern of luteinizing hormone pulsation during bromocriptine suggest direct ovarian effects of hypoprolactinemia. Because PRL suppression enhanced follicular responses and inhibited corpus luteum formation and function Antabuse 50 Mg , the follicular and corpus luteum actions of PRL may be different.

parlodel dosage 2017-02-21

About 20% of Voltaren Gel Uses all menstrual cycle disorders are due to a hyperprolactinemia. Although changes in the bony area of the sella indicating intrasellar space-requiring processes have been found in only 30% of these women presenting hyperprolactinemic ovarian insufficiency, an adenoma of the pituitary gland is probably also responsible for the hyperprolactinemia observed in the rest of the cases. Treatment is however not strictly necessary, as long as there are no other endocrine dysfunctions, and a pregnancy is not desired. Side-effects of a therapy of dopamine agonists can be diminished by a gradually increasing dosage.

parlodel generic 2016-07-24

The acute and long-term effects of oral pergolide mesylate, a new potent, long-acting dopamine agonist, were investigated in 10 hyperprolactinaemic patients. After a single 50 micrograms dose of pergolide mesylate, serum prolactin concentrations fell steadily to reach a mean minimum value at 6 h of 20% of baseline values; this degree of suppression Crestor Dosage Information was maintained throughout the 24 h study period. In one patient serum prolactin was measured for 2 days after a single dose and remained suppressed for 45 h. There were no acute changes in the serum concentration of luteinising hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and growth hormone. Preliminary evaluation of longer term treatment with pergolide indicates that this drug at a once-daily dose of 50-150 micrograms is a safe, well tolerated, and effective new treatment for hyperprolactinaemia.

parlodel user reviews 2016-09-25

Recent advances in the medical treatment of male fertility disturbances by specific and empirical approaches are discussed. Specific approaches follow a pathophysiological concept and require critical patient selection. In contrast, empirical approaches do not allow patient selection, and a predictability of the success is not possible. Therefore, the response of the patients towards one of the available medical compounds has to be checked on an individual basis Effexor Max Dose . Specific treatment includes replacement therapy of hormone-deficient men by human gonadotropins, inhibition of hyperprolactinemia by bromocriptine, antibiotic-antiinflammatory therapy of male genital tract infections and immunosuppressive treatment in cases of autoantibodies against spermatozoa. In addition, special medical approaches are available for disturbances of sperm transport and the retrograde ejaculation using sympathicomimetic or anticholinergic agents. Empirical treatment comprises the use of antiestrogens, human gonadotropins, androgens, kininogenases, and methylxanthines. As supporting therapy psychopharmacological compounds and spasmolytic agents should be mentioned here. The overall result of treatment is moderate. However, considering all possibilities of treatment conception rates between 30% and 50% will be obtained which differ from the spontaneous conception rates of between 10% and 20%.

parlodel online 2015-08-18

Aldosterone secretion is subject to both stimulatory and inhibitory controls. Angiotensin II (AII) is the primary stimulator of aldosterone production and an inhibitory role of dopamine (DA) has been suggested recently. In this study we investigated the interactions between DA and AII in the intracellular events leading to aldosterone secretion. By measuring aldosterone secretion and cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation in intact adrenal glomerulosa cells we show that AII induced a sustained stimulation of aldosterone secretion (EC50, 0.41 nM) and a rapid and transient increase in intracellular cAMP content (EC50, 4 nM). DA inhibited both aldosterone secretion (IC50, 300 nM) and cAMP formation (IC50, 100 nM) elicited by submaximal concentrations of AII; in contrast, DA did not attenuate either basal or adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated cell activity. The pharmacological characterization of DA effects with dopaminergic agonists and antagonists strongly indicated an involvement of D-2 receptors. Indeed, selective D-2 agonists were more effective than DA in inhibiting the glomerulosa cell responses to AII; in addition, the effects of DA on both aldosterone secretion and cAMP formation were prevented by D-2 antagonists, such as (-)-sulpiride and domperidone, but not by the selective D-1 antagonist SCH 23390. Trandate Storage These data suggest a specific functional interaction between D-2 receptors apparently associated with inhibition of cAMP formation and AII in the regulation of aldosterone production.

parlodel y alcohol 2016-02-26

The number of nucleolar organizer regions reflects nuclear and cellular activity, such as the proliferation and Evecare Capsules Himalaya differentiation of cells. Prolonged administration of estrogen (E2) induces the hyperplasia of prolactin (PRL) cells and the development of PRL-secreting pituitary tumors in rats. Dopamine agonists are known to reduce the effects of E2 treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the changes of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in PRL cells are related to circulating levels of PRL or to the proliferative activity of PRL cells during the administration of stimulatory (E2) or inhibitory (dopamine agonist) treatment in rats. E2 increased the size and number of AgNORs per nuclear profile in PRL cells in rats. Bromocriptine and cabergoline, which are dopamine agonists, each reduced the number and size of AgNORs in PRL cells treated with E2 for 10 weeks. In rats treated with E2 alone or dopamine agonists followed by E2, the number and size of AgNORs were correlated more closely with serum levels of PRL than with the proliferative activity of PRL cells. However, neither the number nor size of AgNORs in PRL cells was related with these parameters in different ages of the control. The number and size of AgNORs may be useful in evaluating the secretory activity of pituitary cells during the administration of stimulatory or inhibitory agents.

parlodel dosage used 2015-07-11

With the development of new long-acting depot preparations of bromocriptine (bromocriptine LAR), we Cordarone Drug Action investigated the effectiveness of intramuscular injections of long-acting bromocriptine in patients with prolactin and GH secreting macroadenomas.

parlodel drug class 2016-08-14

A retrospective study was undertaken of a consecutive series of patients with prolactinoma who were Tenoretic Generic Name followed for at least 1 year after transsphenoidal surgery or medical treatment. The clinical characteristics and the long-term outcomes (normalization of PRL, morbidity or mortality) were assessed. Utilizing the principle of medical economics and data from the two types of treatment, we worked out a Markov chain and calculated the lowest cost of two kinds of therapeutic protocols.

parlodel alcohol 2015-11-21

The neurotransmitter/neuromodulator dopamine plays an important role in both the central nervous system and the periphery. In the hypothalamopituitary system its function is a dominant and tonic inhibitory regulation of pituitary hormone secretion including prolactin- and proopiomelanocortin-derived hormones. It is well Floxin Pills known that dopamine agonists, such as bromocriptine, pergolide, quinagolide, cabergoline, and lisuride, can inhibit PRL secretion by binding to the D(2) dopamine receptors located on normal as well as tumorous pituitary cells. Moreover, they can effectively decrease excessive PRL secretion as well as the size of the tumor in patients having prolactinoma. Furthermore, dopamine agonists can also be used in other pituitary tumors. The major requirement for its use is that the tumor cells should express D(2) receptors. Therefore, in addition to prolactinomas, targets of dopamine agonist therapy are somatotroph tumors, nonfunctioning pituitary tumors, corticotroph pituitary tumors, Nelson's syndrome, gonadotropinomas, and thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumors. It is also an option for the treatment of pituitary disease during pregnancy. Differences between the effectiveness and the resistance of different dopaminergic agents as well as the future perspectives of them in the therapy of pituitary tumors are discussed.

parlodel 5 mg 2015-01-02

The long term effects of a de novo treatment with levodopa versus bromocriptine were compared in respectively 13 and 15 previously untreated patients with Parkinson's disease in a prospective randomised trial. Thirteen patients were treated with levodopa alone (mean dose 444, SEM 63 mg daily) whereas 15 others received bromocriptine alone (mean dose 50, SEM 6 mg daily) during 37, SEM 4 and 32, SEM 4 months respectively. For a similar decrease in the Columbia rating scale, the nature of long term side effects was different in the two groups: three patients on levodopa developed peak-dose dyskinesias and one other dystonia. With bromocriptine, one patient developed a severe psychosis whereas 3 others suffered from primary lack of efficacy (1 case) or late decrease in efficacy (2 cases). These results demonstrate the potential of D2 dopamine agonists (like bromocriptine) in the de novo treatment of Parkinson's disease; however, their use is limited by their lack of efficacy and/or the occurrence of neuropsychiatric side effects.