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Paxil

Generic Paxil is a medication with highly developed components which is taken in treatment of serious disorders such as panic and social anxiety disorders, female premenstrual dysphoric disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Generic Paxil acts as an anti-depression remedy. Generic Paxil operates by giving brains balance and mental stability.

Other names for this medication:
Aropax, Casbol, Deroxat, Divarius, Eutimil, Frosinor, Motivan, Parotur, Paroxat, Paroxetina, Paroxetinum, Pexep cr, Pexeva, Sereupin, Seroxat, Tagonis, Xet

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Also known as:  Paroxetine.

Description

Generic Paxil is found by professionals of medicine to combat mental dangerous disorders (depression, panic and social anxiety disorders, female premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder). Target of Generic Paxil is to control and keep brain's balance.

Generic Paxil operates by giving brains balance and mental stability.

Paxil is also known as Paroxetine, Pari, Pexep, Parolin, Seroxat.

Generic Paxil is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).

Generic name of Generic Paxil is Paroxetine.

Brand names of Generic Paxil are Paxil CR, Pexeva, Paxil.

Dosage

Generic Paxil is available in tablets (10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg) and oral suspension. You should take it by mouth with meals of without it.

It is better to take Generic Paxil every day at the same time for nearly 4 weeks.

Generic Paxil cannot be given to patients under 18 years.

Take Generic Paxil and remember that its dosage depends on health state of patients.

For depression

Normal starting dose is 25 mg once a day.

For panic and social anxiety disorders

Normal starting dose is 12.5 mg once a day.

For aged people or patients with kidney or liver problems

Normal dose is 12.5 mg once a day.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Paxil suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Paxil and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Paxil overdosage: seizures, confused mental state, coma, tremor, nausea, blurred vision, retching, sweating, decreased urination, aggression, rapid heartbeat.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Paxil are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Paxil if you are allergic to Generic Paxil components.

Be careful with Generic Paxil if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take Generic Paxil if you take medications as isocarboxazid (Marplan); monoamine oxidase inhibitors as MAOIs (rasagiline (Azilect)); pimozide (Orap); tranylcypromine (Parnate), phenelzine (Nardil), selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam); thioridazine (Mellaril).

Do not take it if you are under 18.

Be careful with Generic Paxil if you suffer from liver or kidney disease, manic depression, seizures, epilepsy, suicidal thoughts.

Be careful with Generic Paxil if you take medications as blood thinner as warfarin (Coumadin); naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn); phenothiazine as prochlorperazine (Compazine), chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), mesoridazine (Serentil); St. John's wort, tramadol (Ultram); tryptophan; aspirin; lithium (Lithobid, Eskalith); nabumetone (Relafen); ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin); risperidone (Risperdal); indomethacin; almotriptan (Axert), frovatriptan (Frova), sumatriptan (Imitrex), naratriptan (Amerge), rizatriptan (Maxalt), or zolmitriptan (Zomig); atomoxetine (Strattera); etodolac (Lodine); heart rhythm medication as flecainide (Tambocor) or propafenone (Rhythmol); diclofenac (Voltaren); cimetidine (Tagamet); amitriptyline (Elavil), citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), fluvoxamine (Luvox), imipramine (Tofranil), nortriptyline (Pamelor), or sertraline (Zoloft); piroxicam (Feldene).

Try to be careful with Generic Paxil usage in case ever had drug abuse.

Avoid alcohol.

Try to avoid machine driving.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Paxil taking suddenly.

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Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major concern in pharmacotherapy and are more common among women. Immortalized human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) are emerging as a novel tool for studying interindividual variability in drug response, including ADRs. In the present study, we compared sensitivities of LCLs from unrelated healthy male and female donors to growth inhibition by a panel of common drugs. We observed large interindividual drug sensitivity variations with similar mean sensitivities recorded for LCLs from male and female donors for most tested drugs. A notable exception was observed for the typical antipsychotic haloperidol and the atypical antipsychotic risperidone, which exhibited, on average, more robust in vitro growth inhibition in male as compared with female LCLs. An opposite finding was observed for the antidepressant paroxetine, which was more potent for inhibiting the growth of female as compared with male LCLs. These observations are discussed in the context of the higher incidence of dystonia reported for male schizophrenia patients treated with haloperidol and the higher efficacy of paroxetine in female major depression patients.

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To investigate the association between the use of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and the occurrence of QT interval prolongation in an elderly surgical population.

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A single dose of Paroxetine (40 mg) or placebo was administered four hours before bedtime on nights separated by one week in a double blind randomized crossover manner. The moving time average of genioglossus muscle activity (EMGgg) expressed as a percentage of maximum was measured using a mouthpiece electrode customized for each subject. The peak inspiratory and tonic values of EMGgg and the corresponding esophageal pressure deflections (DP) during the last three occluded breaths of obstructive apneas during NREM sleep were analyzed.

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This study suggests that paroxetine is effective for improving cardiac function in patients with AMID and such effect correlates with GRK2 reduction.

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It has been proposed that the desensitization of 5-HT(1A) (5-hydroxytryptamine; serotonin) receptors following chronic therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is necessary for their therapeutic efficacy. Stimulation of the 5-HT(1A) receptors decreases serotonin (5-HT) synthesis and release, but it is not clear if the receptors are fully desensitized following chronic SSRI treatment. The main objective of this study was evaluation of ability of 5-HT(1A) receptors to modulate 5-HT synthesis after 14-day paroxetine treatment. 5-HT(1A) receptor sensitivity following chronic administration of the SSRI paroxetine was assessed by the ability of an acute challenge with the 5-HT(1A) agonist, flesinoxan, to modulate 5-HT synthesis in the rat brain. The rates of 5-HT synthesis were measured using the alpha-[(14)C]methyl-l-tryptophan autoradiographic method. The rats were treated for 2 weeks with paroxetine (10mg/(kgday), s.c., delivered by osmotic minipump). After this treatment, the rats received an acute challenge with flesinoxan (5mg/kg, i.p.), while the control rats were injected with the vehicle. Forty minutes following the flesinoxan injection, the tracer, alpha-[(14)C]methyl-l-tryptophan, was injected over 2min. 5-HT synthesis rates were calculated from autoradiographically measured tissue tracer concentrations and plasma time-activity curves. The results demonstrated that the acute flesinoxan challenge produced a significant decrease in 5-HT synthesis rates throughout the rat brain. The greatest decrease was observed in the ventral hippocampus, somatosensory cortex and the ascending serotonergic cell bodies. In comparison with data reported on an acute challenge with flesinoxan in naïve rats (rats without any other treatment), the results presented here suggest a greater effect of flesinoxan on synthesis reduction in rats chronically treated with paroxetine. The results also suggest that the 5-HT receptors were not fully desensitized by paroxetine treatment, and that the stimulation of 5-HT(1A) receptors with an agonist is still capable of reducing 5-HT synthesis.

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What are the current recommendations for the long-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)? GAD is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 4% to 7% in the general population. GAD is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable worry or anxiety about a number of events or activities that the individual experiences on more days than not over a 6-month period. Onset of GAD symptoms usually occurs during an individual's early twenties; however, high rates of GAD have also been seen in children and adolescents. The clinical course of GAD is often chronic, with 40% of patients reporting illness lasting >5 years. GAD is associated with pronounced functional impairment, resulting in decreased vocational function and reduced quality of life. Patients with GAD tend to be high users of outpatient medical care, which contributes significantly to healthcare costs. Currently, benzodiazepines and buspirone are prescribed frequently to treat GAD. Although both show efficacy in acute treatment trials, few long-term studies have been performed. Benzodiazepines are not recommended for long-term treatment of GAD, due to associated development of tolerance, psychomotor impairment, cognitive and memory changes, physical dependence, and a withdrawal reaction on discontinuation. The antidepressant venlafaxine extended-release (XR) has received approval for the treatment of GAD in the United States and many other countries. Venlafaxine XR has demonstrated efficacy over placebo in two randomized treatment trials of 6 months' duration as well as in other acute trials. Paroxetine is the first of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to receive US approval for the treatment of GAD. Paroxetine demonstrated superiority to placebo in short-term trials, and investigations into the use of other SSRIs are ongoing. This suggests that other SSRIs, and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, are likely to be effective in the treatment of GAD. Of the psychological therapies, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) shows the greatest benefit in treating GAD patients. Treatment gains after a 12-week course of CBT may be maintained for up to 1 year. Currently, no guidelines exist for the long-term treatment of GAD.

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To appraise the evidence for comparative efficacy and tolerability of drug treatments in patients with generalised anxiety disorder.

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Low concentrations of the neurotransmitter serotonin and its 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid metabolite in the central nervous system have been associated with increased aggressive behavior in animals and humans. Controlled clinical trials of serotonin agonists in depressed adults have suggested that aggressive behavior is less likely during treatment with these medications than with placebo, but there have been no previous studies of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and aggression in children. We prospectively followed the course of aggressive behavior in 19 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (not selected for aggressiveness) who received open clinical trials of fluoxetine, paroxetine, or sertraline. The patients received standard doses (equivalent to fluoxetine 10-40 mg daily) for a minimum of 5 weeks. The starting dose was 15 +/- 5 mg, and dosages were raised at a mean rate of 5 mg every 4 days up to a mean dose of 25 +/- 10 mg daily. Results from trials of the three SSRIs were clustered because the sample sizes were not sufficient for separate analyses. Overall, there were no statistically meaningful improvements in the level of aggressive behavior, as measured on a modified version of the Overt Aggression Scale, over the course of these patients' SSRI trials. Symptoms of physical aggression toward others or self were manifest in 12 of the 19 patients while on SSRIs. Of the 19 patients, 13 were assessed both on and off SSRIs: verbal aggression (p = 0.04), physical aggression toward objects (p = 0.05), and physical aggression toward self (p < 0.02) occurred significantly more frequently on SSRIs than off; no increase was observed in physical aggression toward others. Patients with the highest baseline aggressivity scores did not show greater improvement during SSRI treatment. Further research is warranted, particularly to explore whether SSRIs may have therapeutic effects on aggression at higher (or lower) doses than were administered in this open trial.

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This study assessed whether fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine differ in efficacy and tolerability in depressed patients and the impact of baseline insomnia on outcomes. Patients (N = 284) with DSM-IV major depressive disorder were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to fluoxetine, paroxetine, or sertraline for 10 to 16 weeks of treatment. Using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) sleep disturbance factor score, patients were categorized into low (<4) or high (>or=4) baseline insomnia subgroups. Changes in depression and insomnia were assessed. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), reasons for discontinuation, and AEs leading to discontinuation. In addition, AEs were evaluated within insomnia subgroups to determine emergence of activation or sedation. Depression improvement, assessed with the HAM-D-17 total score, was similar among treatments in all patients (p = 0.365) and the high (p = 0.853) and low insomnia (p = 0.415) subgroups. Insomnia improvement, assessed with the HAM-D sleep disturbance factor score, was similar among treatments in all patients (p = 0.868) and in the high (p = 0.852) and low insomnia (p = 0.982) subgroups. Analyses revealed no significant differences between treatments in the percentages of patients with substantial worsening, any worsening, worsening at endpoint, or improvement at endpoint in the HAM-D sleep disturbance factor in either insomnia subgroup. Treatments were well tolerated in most patients. No significant differences between treatments in the incidence of AEs suggestive of activation or sedation were seen in the insomnia subgroups. These data show no significant differences in acute treatment efficacy and tolerability across fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine in major depressive disorder patients. Improvement in overall depression and in associated insomnia was achieved by most patients regardless of baseline insomnia.

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We conducted a 9-year cohort study by using population-wide data from British Columbia. We identified new users of antidepressants who were 10 to 18 years of age with a recorded diagnosis of depression. Study outcomes were hospitalization attributable to intentional self-harm and suicide death.

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paxil 30mg dose 2016-04-25

In a double blind controlled study, rTMS results in a similar antidepressant effect to sham in combination with paroxetine. Both groups had the same delay in scale's scores improvement. rTMS seems not to be efficient as an Metaglip Dosage Forms add-on treatment to pharmacological medication in non-resistant major depression.

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Data were combined Zoloft Overdose Symptoms to estimate mean switch rates and subjected to meta-analysis to determine the relative risks of antidepressant-associated mood elevations in bipolar I disorder versus bipolar II disorder and in bipolar II disorder versus MDD.

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We compared the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), paroxetine and placebo in the treatment of noncardiac Avalide Generic Names chest pain (NCCP). We also investigated whether pre- to mid-treatment reduction of (heart-focused) anxiety mediated mid- to post-treatment pain reduction.

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Although serotonin reuptake inhibitors are recommended as first-line agents for major depressive disorder, delayed onset of action is problematic, and faster effective treatment is needed. Sulpiride, a dopamine-mediated agent, has been reported to show faster antidepressant efficacy, and we examined the efficacy of adjunctive sulpiride in combination with Actos Overdose paroxetine (PAX), compared with PAX alone, to clarify whether the combined treatment exerts faster effect. Forty-one major depressive disorder patients were enrolled in this 12-week open-label trial and were randomly assigned to a PAX (10-40 mg/d) or a PAX (10-40 mg/d) plus sulpiride (100 mg/d) group. Assessments included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale on an intent-to-treat basis, and safety was also monitored. Thirty-three patients completed the study. Both PAX + sulpiride and PAX treatments showed a mean reduction in the total Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score of 34.4 to 5.6 and 32.2 to 10.4, respectively (P < 0.001). The combined treatment group had a significantly superior outcome in terms of the change in the total Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale scores between week 1 and the study end point (P < 0.05). Median times to response among responders alone for the combined treatment and monotherapy were 2 and 6 weeks, respectively. Both treatments were well tolerated, with no clinically significant differences in safety measures except for an elevation of prolactin in the combined treatment group. The combination treatment may be a safe and effective strategy for accelerating antidepressant response.

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This retrospective data analysis explored the relationship between codeine and its metabolites morphine, hydrocodone and hydromorphone. The objectives were: (i) to determine urine concentrations and mole fractions of codeine and metabolites and (ii) to examine the effect of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 inhibition on metabolite mole fractions. De-identified urine specimens were collected between September 2010 and July 2011 and analyzed using LC-MS-MS to determine codeine, morphine, hydrocodone and hydromorphone concentrations. Geometric mean urine concentrations were 0.833, 0.085 and 0.055 for morphine, hydrocodone and hydromorphone, respectively. Mole fractions were 0.23, 0.025 and 0.014 for morphine, hydrocodone and hydromorphone, respectively. The fraction of excreted codeine in the urine increased (slope = 0.06 ± .01, R² = 0.02) with total moles. As the total amount of codeine and metabolites increased, the fraction of codeine increased, while the fraction of active metabolites decreased. CYP2D6 inhibition with paroxetine, fluoxetine, bupropion and methadone significantly decreased the fraction of morphine excreted. The prevalence of codeine metabolism to morphine was considerably higher than codeine to hydrocodone. The urine concentration of codeine excreted was the greatest, followed by morphine and Micronase Medication hydrocodone. Subjects should be monitored during concomitant use of codeine and CYP2D6 inhibitors as this affects the amount of morphine metabolite formation.

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Both depressed and comparison participants performed the task as expected, with greater response latency during high versus low-load trials. The response-latency load-effect did not differ between groups. In contrast Colic Syrup Zantac to the null findings for behavioral data, pretreatment, depressed patients showed diminished activity in the dLPFC (BA46 left, t(25)=1.9, p = 0.035) and diminished functional connectivity between the dLPFC and dACC. Moreover, right dLPFC (BA46 right, t(25)=2.17, p < 0.02) showed increased activity after treatment.

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The paroxetine and black box warnings had modest and relatively targeted effects on the intended populations. These changes, Nexium Generic Equivalent which were greatest for youth, were broadly consistent with the FDA warnings and the scientific literature.

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Thirty-six articles were included. Full economic evaluations (n = 5) were based on Cytoxan Pills conventional decision-making modeling or population-summary data, using time horizons < or =12 months. Cognitive-behavioral therapy by a public-salaried psychologist and evidence-based care generated savings compared with current care. Pharmacotherapy with extended-release venlafaxine treatment was cost-effective compared with diazepam; escitalopram was cost-effective compared with paroxetine because of productivity gains. Full economic evaluations addressed 55.3% to 68.4% of the 38 items on the quality-assessment checklist. Partial evaluations were reported; GAD incurred larger mean marginal health care costs compared with other anxiety disorders (a difference of US $2138 in year-1999 values). GAD patients with severe pain interference incurred significantly higher costs than did patients with pain but no GAD. Furthermore, GAD patients used more services from a primary care provider or specialist than did patients with other psychiatric disorders. Comorbidities were associated with greater absenteeism than was having a diagnosis of GAD alone. Mean (SE) utility scores for quality-of-life assessments among patients with GAD (15D, 0.783 [0.019]; EuroQoL EQ-5D, 0.589 [0.038]) were similar to those for patients who were 20 years older and reported somatic conditions such as Parkinson's disease or heart failure.

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Umbilical cord concentrations of antidepressants and their metabolites were almost invariably lower than corresponding maternal concentrations. Maternal doses predicted umbilical Geodon Renal Dosing concentrations of fluoxetine and sertraline. Mean umbilical cord to maternal serum ratios were significantly lower for sertraline than fluoxetine, suggesting that sertraline may produce less fetal medication exposure than fluoxetine near delivery.

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We searched Medline (1948-2013), the Cochrane Library (1800-2013), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (1986-2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (2013) and meeting abstracts. We included randomized trials comparing antidepressants to placebo or no treatment for cancer-related depression. We used random effects to calculate standardized mean differences (SMD).

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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed antidepressant medications worldwide. However, over the past decade, their use during pregnancy, a period of extreme vulnerability to the onset of depression, has become highly concerning to patients and their healthcare providers in terms of safety to the developing fetus. Exposure to SSRIs in pregnancy has been associated with miscarriage, premature delivery, neonatal complications, birth defects-specifically cardiac defects-and, more recently, neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood, specifically autism spectrum disorders. Studies addressing the effect of individual SSRIs indicate a small but higher risk for birth defects with maternal fluoxetine and paroxetine use. Though the excess in absolute risk is small, it may still be of concern to some patients. Meanwhile, antenatal depression itself is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, and discontinuing antidepressant treatment during pregnancy is associated with a high risk of relapse of depression. Whether the observed adverse fetal effects are related to the mother's medication use or her underlying maternal illness remains difficult to determine. It is important that every pregnant woman being treated with an SSRI (or considering such treatment) carefully weighs the risks of treatment against the risk of untreated depression for both herself and her child. The importance of recognizing a higher risk for the development of adverse outcomes lies in the potential for surveillance and possibly a timely intervention. Therefore, we recommend that pregnant women exposed to any SSRI in early pregnancy be offered options for prenatal diagnosis through ultrasound examinations and fetal echocardiography to detect the presence of birth defects. Tapering off or switching to other therapy in early pregnancy, if appropriate for the individual, may also be considered on a case-by-case basis.

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The inhalation of 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) in healthy subjects produces an increase in blood pressure and heart rate, and increased feelings of anxiety, fear and tension (Bailey et al. 2005). As this state is similar to that of general anxiety rather than panic, we further validated this by examining the effects of anxiolytic medication. Two separate studies in healthy volunteers are described; study one is a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a single dose of 2 mg lorazepam and study two describes the effects of 21 days of treatment with paroxetine. Gas challenges were air and 7.5% CO2 inhaled for 20 minutes, delivered on day 0 (before treatment) and day 21 (after treatment) in the paroxetine study. Subjective effects were measured using visual analogue scales and questionnaires. When compared with placebo, lorazepam 2 mg significantly reduced peak CO2-induced subjective fear, feelings of wanting to leave, tension and worry. In the paroxetine study, when compared with day 0, day 21 showed a significantly attenuated peak CO2-induced nervousness and a trend for reduced ratings of anxiety, fear, feel like leaving, tense and worried. In these studies we have shown that this CO2 model of anxiety is sensitive to lorazepam and to a lesser extent paroxetine. This gives support to its utility as an experimental model of general anxiety disorder in healthy volunteers.

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We reported previously that (S)-5-[3-[(1,4-benzodioxan-2-ylmethyl)amino]propoxy]-1,3-benzodioxole hydrochloride (MKC-242) (3 mg kg(-1), i.p.), a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, accelerated the re-entrainment of hamster wheel-running rhythms to a new 8 hr delayed or advanced light-dark cycle, and also potentiated the phase advance of the wheel-running rhythm produced by light pulses. The molecular mechanism underlying MKC-242-induced potentiation of this phase shift, however, has not yet been elucidated. We examined the effects of MKC-242 on light-induced mPer1 and mPer2 mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of mice. MKC-242 (5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) potentiated light-induced mPer1 and mPer2 expression in the SCN of mice housed in constant darkness for 2 days, when mRNA levels were observed 3 hr after light-exposure. More potentiating action of MKC-242 on mPer2 expression in the SCN was observed in mice housed in constant darkness for 9-10 days. This facilitatory action of MKC-242 on mPer1 expression was antagonized by WAY100635, a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor blocker, indicating that MKC-242 activated 5-HT(1A) receptors. Other drugs such as 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.), paroxetine (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.), buspirone (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.), and diazepam (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) did not display a potentiating action on light-induced mPer1 and mPer2 expression in the SCN. In the behavioral experiments, we found that MKC-242 (5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) potentiated light-induced phase delays of free-running rhythm in mice. The present results suggest that prolonged increase of mPer1 or mPer2 expression in the SCN by MKC-242 may be involved in the potentiation of photic entrainment by MKC-242 in mice.