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Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major concern in pharmacotherapy and are more common among women. Immortalized human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) are emerging as a novel tool for studying interindividual variability in drug response, including ADRs. In the present study, we compared sensitivities of LCLs from unrelated healthy male and female donors to growth inhibition by a panel of common drugs. We observed large interindividual drug sensitivity variations with similar mean sensitivities recorded for LCLs from male and female donors for most tested drugs. A notable exception was observed for the typical antipsychotic haloperidol and the atypical antipsychotic risperidone, which exhibited, on average, more robust in vitro growth inhibition in male as compared with female LCLs. An opposite finding was observed for the antidepressant paroxetine, which was more potent for inhibiting the growth of female as compared with male LCLs. These observations are discussed in the context of the higher incidence of dystonia reported for male schizophrenia patients treated with haloperidol and the higher efficacy of paroxetine in female major depression patients.
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To investigate the association between the use of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and the occurrence of QT interval prolongation in an elderly surgical population.
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A single dose of Paroxetine (40 mg) or placebo was administered four hours before bedtime on nights separated by one week in a double blind randomized crossover manner. The moving time average of genioglossus muscle activity (EMGgg) expressed as a percentage of maximum was measured using a mouthpiece electrode customized for each subject. The peak inspiratory and tonic values of EMGgg and the corresponding esophageal pressure deflections (DP) during the last three occluded breaths of obstructive apneas during NREM sleep were analyzed.
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This study suggests that paroxetine is effective for improving cardiac function in patients with AMID and such effect correlates with GRK2 reduction.
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It has been proposed that the desensitization of 5-HT(1A) (5-hydroxytryptamine; serotonin) receptors following chronic therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is necessary for their therapeutic efficacy. Stimulation of the 5-HT(1A) receptors decreases serotonin (5-HT) synthesis and release, but it is not clear if the receptors are fully desensitized following chronic SSRI treatment. The main objective of this study was evaluation of ability of 5-HT(1A) receptors to modulate 5-HT synthesis after 14-day paroxetine treatment. 5-HT(1A) receptor sensitivity following chronic administration of the SSRI paroxetine was assessed by the ability of an acute challenge with the 5-HT(1A) agonist, flesinoxan, to modulate 5-HT synthesis in the rat brain. The rates of 5-HT synthesis were measured using the alpha-[(14)C]methyl-l-tryptophan autoradiographic method. The rats were treated for 2 weeks with paroxetine (10mg/(kgday), s.c., delivered by osmotic minipump). After this treatment, the rats received an acute challenge with flesinoxan (5mg/kg, i.p.), while the control rats were injected with the vehicle. Forty minutes following the flesinoxan injection, the tracer, alpha-[(14)C]methyl-l-tryptophan, was injected over 2min. 5-HT synthesis rates were calculated from autoradiographically measured tissue tracer concentrations and plasma time-activity curves. The results demonstrated that the acute flesinoxan challenge produced a significant decrease in 5-HT synthesis rates throughout the rat brain. The greatest decrease was observed in the ventral hippocampus, somatosensory cortex and the ascending serotonergic cell bodies. In comparison with data reported on an acute challenge with flesinoxan in naïve rats (rats without any other treatment), the results presented here suggest a greater effect of flesinoxan on synthesis reduction in rats chronically treated with paroxetine. The results also suggest that the 5-HT receptors were not fully desensitized by paroxetine treatment, and that the stimulation of 5-HT(1A) receptors with an agonist is still capable of reducing 5-HT synthesis.
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What are the current recommendations for the long-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)? GAD is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 4% to 7% in the general population. GAD is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable worry or anxiety about a number of events or activities that the individual experiences on more days than not over a 6-month period. Onset of GAD symptoms usually occurs during an individual's early twenties; however, high rates of GAD have also been seen in children and adolescents. The clinical course of GAD is often chronic, with 40% of patients reporting illness lasting >5 years. GAD is associated with pronounced functional impairment, resulting in decreased vocational function and reduced quality of life. Patients with GAD tend to be high users of outpatient medical care, which contributes significantly to healthcare costs. Currently, benzodiazepines and buspirone are prescribed frequently to treat GAD. Although both show efficacy in acute treatment trials, few long-term studies have been performed. Benzodiazepines are not recommended for long-term treatment of GAD, due to associated development of tolerance, psychomotor impairment, cognitive and memory changes, physical dependence, and a withdrawal reaction on discontinuation. The antidepressant venlafaxine extended-release (XR) has received approval for the treatment of GAD in the United States and many other countries. Venlafaxine XR has demonstrated efficacy over placebo in two randomized treatment trials of 6 months' duration as well as in other acute trials. Paroxetine is the first of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to receive US approval for the treatment of GAD. Paroxetine demonstrated superiority to placebo in short-term trials, and investigations into the use of other SSRIs are ongoing. This suggests that other SSRIs, and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, are likely to be effective in the treatment of GAD. Of the psychological therapies, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) shows the greatest benefit in treating GAD patients. Treatment gains after a 12-week course of CBT may be maintained for up to 1 year. Currently, no guidelines exist for the long-term treatment of GAD.
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To appraise the evidence for comparative efficacy and tolerability of drug treatments in patients with generalised anxiety disorder.
Low concentrations of the neurotransmitter serotonin and its 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid metabolite in the central nervous system have been associated with increased aggressive behavior in animals and humans. Controlled clinical trials of serotonin agonists in depressed adults have suggested that aggressive behavior is less likely during treatment with these medications than with placebo, but there have been no previous studies of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and aggression in children. We prospectively followed the course of aggressive behavior in 19 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (not selected for aggressiveness) who received open clinical trials of fluoxetine, paroxetine, or sertraline. The patients received standard doses (equivalent to fluoxetine 10-40 mg daily) for a minimum of 5 weeks. The starting dose was 15 +/- 5 mg, and dosages were raised at a mean rate of 5 mg every 4 days up to a mean dose of 25 +/- 10 mg daily. Results from trials of the three SSRIs were clustered because the sample sizes were not sufficient for separate analyses. Overall, there were no statistically meaningful improvements in the level of aggressive behavior, as measured on a modified version of the Overt Aggression Scale, over the course of these patients' SSRI trials. Symptoms of physical aggression toward others or self were manifest in 12 of the 19 patients while on SSRIs. Of the 19 patients, 13 were assessed both on and off SSRIs: verbal aggression (p = 0.04), physical aggression toward objects (p = 0.05), and physical aggression toward self (p < 0.02) occurred significantly more frequently on SSRIs than off; no increase was observed in physical aggression toward others. Patients with the highest baseline aggressivity scores did not show greater improvement during SSRI treatment. Further research is warranted, particularly to explore whether SSRIs may have therapeutic effects on aggression at higher (or lower) doses than were administered in this open trial.
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This study assessed whether fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine differ in efficacy and tolerability in depressed patients and the impact of baseline insomnia on outcomes. Patients (N = 284) with DSM-IV major depressive disorder were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to fluoxetine, paroxetine, or sertraline for 10 to 16 weeks of treatment. Using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) sleep disturbance factor score, patients were categorized into low (<4) or high (>or=4) baseline insomnia subgroups. Changes in depression and insomnia were assessed. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), reasons for discontinuation, and AEs leading to discontinuation. In addition, AEs were evaluated within insomnia subgroups to determine emergence of activation or sedation. Depression improvement, assessed with the HAM-D-17 total score, was similar among treatments in all patients (p = 0.365) and the high (p = 0.853) and low insomnia (p = 0.415) subgroups. Insomnia improvement, assessed with the HAM-D sleep disturbance factor score, was similar among treatments in all patients (p = 0.868) and in the high (p = 0.852) and low insomnia (p = 0.982) subgroups. Analyses revealed no significant differences between treatments in the percentages of patients with substantial worsening, any worsening, worsening at endpoint, or improvement at endpoint in the HAM-D sleep disturbance factor in either insomnia subgroup. Treatments were well tolerated in most patients. No significant differences between treatments in the incidence of AEs suggestive of activation or sedation were seen in the insomnia subgroups. These data show no significant differences in acute treatment efficacy and tolerability across fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine in major depressive disorder patients. Improvement in overall depression and in associated insomnia was achieved by most patients regardless of baseline insomnia.
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We conducted a 9-year cohort study by using population-wide data from British Columbia. We identified new users of antidepressants who were 10 to 18 years of age with a recorded diagnosis of depression. Study outcomes were hospitalization attributable to intentional self-harm and suicide death.