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Prandin (Repaglinide)
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Prandin

Prandin is an efficacious medical preparation in fight against type 2 diabetes. Prandin acts by controlling and decreasing glucose (sugar in blood).

Other names for this medication:
Dexanorm, Diarepa, Enyglid, Glimet, Glukenil, Hipover, Nomopil, Novade, Novonorm, Prandil, Premil, Rapilin, Regan, Reglin, Reodon, Repaglid, Repaglinid, Repaglinida, Repaglinide, Repaglinidum, Sestrine, Singlin, Supernide, Eurepa, Repage, Page, Repide, Repa

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Glucophage, Actos, Glucotrol, Avandia, Starlix, Metformin, Insulin aspart, Glipizide, Glimepiride, Januvia, Victoza, Pioglitazone, Glyburide, Tradjenta, Amaryl, Welchol, Lantus, Levemir, Onglyza, Sitagliptin, Farxiga, Humalog, Novolog, Bydureon, Glucotrol, Toujeo

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Also known as:  Repaglinide.

Description

Prandin is created with extremely active ingredients with aim to make Prandin ideal remedy against type 2 diabetes. Target of Prandin is to control sugar level in blood.

Prandin acts by controlling and decreasing glucose (sugar in blood). You can use it in case exercise and diet does not help.

Prandin is also known as Repaglinide, Eurepa, GlucoNorm, NovoNorm, Rapilin.

Prandin is an oral anti-diabetic drug. It can be taken together with anti-diabetic medication as Glucophage.

Prandin is not taken to treat type 1 diabetes.

You can normally take insulin while using Prandin.

Dosage

It is better to take Prandin orally every day at the same time.

Usual Prandin dosage is 0.5mg - 4mg, which is taken 2-4 times a day before meal.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Prandin suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Prandin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Prandin overdosage: troublesome, retching, flushing, migraine, short breath, weakness, sweating, coma, fainting, muscle pain, hunger, pain of stomach, tremors, extreme fatigue, dizziness, seizure, slow heartbeat, dyspepsia, feeling cold, lack of appetite, fast heartbeat.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Prandin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Prandin if you are allergic to Prandin components.

Be careful with Prandin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Prandin is not taken to treat type 1 diabetes.

You can normally take insulin while using Prandin.

Do not use Prandin in case of having type 1 diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, liver disease, poor adrenal, pituitary function.

Try to be careful with Prandin in case of using such medication as sulfa drugs (Gantanol); isoniazid; niacin (Nicobid); water pills (thiazide diuretics HydroDIURIL, Dyazide); beta blockers (blood pressure medications as Tenormin, Inderal); barbiturates (sedatives as Nembutal, Seconal); calcium channel blockers (blood pressure medications as Procardia, Cardizem); Rifampin (Rimactane, Rifadin); oral contraceptives; ketoconazole (Nizoral); chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Voltaren, Motrin, Advil, Naprosyn); blood thinners (Miradon, Dicumarol); steroids as prednisone; furosemide as Lasix; clarithromycin as Biaxin; thyroid medications as Synthroid; phenytoin as Dilantin; Probenecid (ColBENEMID, Benemid); estrogens (Premarin); aspirin; erythromycin (PCE, Eryc, Ery-Tab); MAO inhibitors (antidepressants Parnate, Marplan, Nardil); glucose lowering agents (Micronase, Glucotrol); carbamazepine (Tegretol); major tranquilizers (Stelazine, Mellaril).

You can use Prandin in case exercise and diet does not help.

Prandin can be taken together with anti-diabetic medication as Glucophage.

Try to avoid unhealthy food.

Avoid consuming alcohol.

Do not stop taking Prandin suddenly.

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After oral dosing, a mean peak plasma concentration of repaglinide of 27.74 ng. ml(-1) (range: 16.84-36.65 ng. ml(-1)) was observed with a time to peak concentration of 0.5 h. Approximately 20% of repaglinide and its associated metabolites were distributed into red blood cells. No measurable (14)C-radioactivity was present in whole blood samples 6 h after dosing. Within 96 h of dosing with (14)C-repaglinide, 90% of the administered dose appeared in the faeces and 8% was excreted in urine. In the plasma, the major compound was repaglinide (61%). In the urine, the major metabolites were unidentified polar compounds, the aromatic amine (M(1)) (24%), and the dicarboxylic acid (M(2)) (22%). In the faeces, the major metabolite was M(2) (66% of administered dose). Therefore, repaglinide was excreted predominantly as metabolites and the major in vivo metabolite of repaglinide in humans was M(2). During regular dosing for 6 days, the morning plasma trough levels of repaglinide were, with very few exceptions, almost always too low to measure, indicating the absence of accumulation at this dose of 2 mg four times daily. Repaglinide was well tolerated, and there were no episodes of hypoglycaemia.

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Oral anticancer drugs have numerous pharmacologic interactions that should be monitored during pharmacotherapy. Given its position, the hospital pharmacist is the key professional for identifying and assessing the pharmacologic interactions or oral anticancer drugs that may have clinical consequences.

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Subjects (n = 121) received oral repaglinide (4 mg). Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min and serum concentrations of repaglinide were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Subjects were also genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for CYP3A4*4, *5 and*18 and by an allele-specific multiplex PCR for CYP2C8*2, *3, *4 and *5 alleles.

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In 1995, several new molecules under study as potential insulinotropic agents for the treatment of non-insulindependent diabetes mellitus were identified as analogs of meglitinide, previously known as the non-sulfonylurea moiety of glibenclamide. Three of these molecules, namely repaglinide, nateglinide and mitiglinide are or will be soon available for administration to diabetic patients. The present report aims at reviewing both preclinical studies and clinical investigations concerning the latter three meglitinide analogs. Their insulinotropic action seems attributable, like that of hypoglycaemic sulfonylureas, to a primary effect on the ATP-sensitive K+ channels of pancreatic insulin-producing cells. These meglitinide analogs differ from one another, however, by their potency as insulinotropic agents and by the time course of their biological effects, especially in terms of the reversibility of such effects.

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After the trial, fasting and postprandial PG and postprandial insulin improved significantly in both groups (P < 0.05). The maximum insulin concentration occurred earlier in the repaglinide group than that in the gliclazide group. AUC(ins) increased in both groups (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between groups. ΔI(30)/ΔG(30) increased in both groups (P < 0.05), especially in the repaglinide group (P < 0.05). Triglyceride and total cholesterol decreased significantly in the repaglinide group in some time points, while no significant change was observed in the gliclazide group.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacogenetic variability in the disposition of repaglinide in healthy Chinese subjects.

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5,985 patients with Type 2 diabetes in Germany were surveyed prospectively. These patients were assessed before and after a mean of 46 days treatment with repaglinide. At baseline, available data showed that 64% of patients had previously received therapy with conventional oral antidiabetic drugs, 22% were on diet alone, and 13% were naive to any treatment.

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that results from defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action. An elevated rate of basal hepatic glucose production in the presence of hyperinsulinemia is the primary cause of fasting hyperglycemia; after a meal, impaired suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin and decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake by muscle contribute almost equally to postprandial hyperglycemia. In the United States, five classes of oral agents, each of which works through a different mechanism of action, are currently available to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The recently completed United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) has shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disorder that can be treated initially with oral agent monotherapy but will eventually require the addition of other oral agents, and that in many patients, insulin therapy will be needed to achieve targeted glycemic levels. In the UKPDS, improved glycemic control, irrespective of the agent used (sulfonylureas, metformin, or insulin), decreased the incidence of microvascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy). This review examines the goals of antihyperglycemic therapy and reviews the mechanism of action, efficacy, nonglycemic benefits, cost, and safety profile of each of the five approved classes of oral agents. A rationale for the use of these oral agents as monotherapy, in combination with each other, and in combination with insulin is provided.

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In this review we present the agents that are in use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Sulfonylureas of the 1st and 2nd generation increase insulin secretion but can induce hyperinsulinemia and sometimes prolonged hypoglycemia. Glimepiride is a new 3rd generation sulfonylurea with some advantages over the other members of this group, such as a lower risk of hypoglycemia, no interaction with cardiovascular KATP-channels and a possibility that it may increase insulin sensitivity. There are also newer insulin secretagogues (such as neteglinide and repaglinide) with a rapid onset of action on the beta-cell, therefore inducing a more physiological profile of insulin secretion during meals. The category of insulin sensitizers includes metformin and thiazolidinediones. Metformin effectively reduces hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and macroangiopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. This agent increases the sensitivity of the liver and peripheral tissues to insulin and, therefore, it could be considered as a drug of choice for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) increase the sensitivity of the tissues to insulin. This mechanism of action makes them powerful therapeutic tools for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (and possibly other insulin resistant states) either alone or in combination with other oral agents. The category of agents that interfere with the absorption of glucose and lipids includes alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose and miglitol) and lipase inhibitors (or-listat). alpha-Glucocidase inhibitors improve the time relationship between plasma insulin and glucose increases after a meal. Therefore, these agents may be used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, either alone at a very early stage of this disease (when insulin secretion is still adequate), or in combination with insulin secretagogues. alpha-Glucosidase inhibition may also prove useful as a supplement to insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipase orlistat may prove a useful adjunct to hypocaloric diets in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity.

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Post-prandial hyperglycaemia, which occurs early in the development of impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), has been receiving increased attention recently. Post-prandial hyperglycaemia is likely to promote or aggravate fasting hyperglycaemia and contributes entirely to HbA1c elevation, which is associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications in people with T2DM. Moreover, post-prandial hyperglycaemia is coupled with coagulation activation and may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in people with or without diabetes. For these reasons, reduction of post-prandial hyperglycaemia is an important target in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or T2DM. Several treatments have therefore been developed to reduce post-prandial hyperglycaemia; of these, repaglinide, a prandial glucose regulator taken orally before each meal, is now available. Drugs that reduce post-prandial hyperglycaemia significantly also decrease HbA1c (up to 2% with repaglinide) and fasting glucose concentrations (up to 3.9 mmol/l with repaglinide), with consequent decreases in coagulation activation and, in some studies, post-prandial lipidaemia. In clinical trials in patients with T2DM, repaglinide significantly reduced 2-hr post-prandial glucose concentrations and significantly reduced the risk of hypoglycaemia, compared with sulphonylureas, especially when participants missed or postponed a meal. Treatment with the prandial glucose regulator repaglinide allows patients with T2DM to have a more flexible lifestyle, which is likely to improve their quality of life and compliance.

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A total of 56 healthy volunteers ingested a single 0.25-mg dose of repaglinide. Plasma repaglinide and blood glucose concentrations were measured for up to 7 hours. All subjects were genotyped for the -11187G>A and 521T>C SNPs in SLCO1B1 and the 3435C>T and 2677G>T/A SNPs in ABCB1 , as well as for the CYP2C8*3 (416G>A, 1196A>G), CYP2C8*4 (792C>G), and CYP3A5*3 (6986A>G) alleles.

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The combination of gemfibrozil and itraconazole has only a limited influence on the pharmacokinetics of nateglinide. This is in marked contrast to the substantial effect of this combination on the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide. The findings suggest that in vivo gemfibrozil, probably due to its metabolites, is a much more potent inhibitor of CYP2C8 than of CYP2C9.

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In real-life conditions, use of agents that are not recommended in elderly adults with diabetes mellitus with moderate to severe renal impairment is frequent, but metformin is associated with lower cardiovascular event rates even in these individuals.

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Several new pharmacological agents have recently been developed to optimise the management of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. The aim of this article is to briefly review the various therapeutic agents available for management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to suggest a potential approach to drug selection. There are three general therapeutic modalities relevant to diabetes care. The first modality is lifestyle adjustments aimed at improving endogenous insulin sensitivity or insulin effect. This can be achieved by increased physical activity and bodyweight reduction with diet and behavioural modification, and the use of pharmacological agents or surgery. This first modality is not discussed in depth in this article. The second modality involves increasing insulin availability by the administration of exogenous insulin, insulin analogues, sulphonylureas and the new insulin secretagogue, repaglinide. The most frequently encountered adverse effect of these agents is hypoglycaemia. Bodyweight gain can also be a concern, especially in patients who are obese. The association between hyperinsulinaemia and premature atherosclerosis is still a debatable question. The third modality consists of agents such as biguanides and thiazolidinediones which enhance insulin sensitivity, or agents that decrease insulin requirements like the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease with multiple underlying pathophysiological processes. Therapy should be individualised based on the degree of hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia or insulin deficiency. In addition, several factors have to be considered when prescribing a specific therapeutic agent. These factors include efficacy, safety, affordability and ease of administration.

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Repaglinide eliminated myocardial IPC, probably by its effect on the KATP channel. Vildagliptin did not damage this protective mechanism in a relevant way in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD, suggesting a good alternative treatment in this population.

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prandin tab 2016-12-03

In a randomised crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers received twice daily for 3 days either 600 mg gemfibrozil, 100 mg itraconazole (first dose 200 mg), both gemfibrozil and itraconazole, or placebo. On day 3 they ingested a 0.25 mg dose of repaglinide. Plasma drug and blood glucose concentrations were followed for 7 h and serum insulin and C-peptide concentrations for 3 Flomax Generic Names h postdose.

prandin cost 2017-10-08

The ability of Gelucire 50/13 to nanosize various solid lipids was evaluated. The ability of Gelucire 50/13 to yield NLC was evaluated by using Precirol ATO 5 as a model solid lipid and various liquid lipids (oils). Gelucire 50/13 based NLC (GeluPearl) were evaluated for Diflucan Medication their ability to improve the efficacy of RPG on oral administration in comparison to RPG tablets. The short term stability of RPG-GeluPearl was evaluated at 25 °C/60% RH.

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Seven patients did not complete the study, comprising one patient who was lost to follow-up and a further six Strattera Normal Dosage through side-effects (two in week 1, one in week 15 and three after cross-over) Side-effects were classified as nausea (one in acarbose group), gastrointestinal events (four in acarbose group), and hypoglycaemia (one in repaglinide group). After 15 weeks of therapy, the repaglinide-treated patients experienced a significant decrease in HbA(1c) (-1.1%, p < 0.05), FPG (-9.5%, p < 0.05), and PPG (-14.9%, p < 0.05), when compared to the baseline values. However, the same treatment was associated with a significant increase in body weight (+2.3%, p < 0.05), BMI (+3.3%, p < 0.05) and FPI (+22.5%, p < 0.05); The increase was reversed during the cross-over phase. After 15 weeks of therapy, the acarbose-treated patients experienced a significant decrease in body weight (-1.9%, p < 0.05), BMI (-4.1%, p < 0.05), HbA(1c) (-1.4%, p < 0.05), FPG (-10.7%, p < 0.05), PPG (-16.2%, p < 0.05), FPI (-16.1%, p < 0.05), PPI (-26.9%, p < 0.05), HOMA index (-30.1%, p < 0.05), when compared to the baseline values. All these changes were reversed during the cross-over study phase, except those relating to HbA(1c), FPG and PPG. The only changes that significantly differed when directly comparing acarbose- and repaglinide-treated patients were those relating to FPI (-16.1% vs. +22.5%, respectively, p < 0.05) and HOMA index (-30.1% vs. +2.7%, p < 0.05).

prandin tablets generic 2017-09-27

Repaglinide, a carbamoylmethyl benzoic acid derivative, is the first of a new class of oral antidiabetic agents designed to normalise postprandial glucose excursions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Like the sulphonylureas, repaglinide reduces blood glucose by stimulating insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells, but differs from these and other antidiabetic agents in its structure, binding profile, duration of action and mode of excretion. In clinical trials of up to 1-year's duration, repaglinide maintained or improved glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In comparative, 1-year, double-blind, randomised trials (n = 256 to 544), patients receiving repaglinide (0.5 to 4mg before 3 daily meals) achieved similar glycaemic control to that in patients receiving glibenclamide (glyburide) < or = 15 mg/day and greater control than patients receiving glipizide < or = 15 mg/day. Changes from baseline in glycosylated haemoglobin and fasting blood glucose levels were similar between patients receiving repaglinide and glibenclamide in all studies; however, repaglinide was slightly better than glibenclamide in reducing postprandial blood glucose in I short term study (n = 192). Patients can vary their meal timetable with repaglinide: the glucose-lowering efficacy of repaglinide was similar for patients consuming 2, 3 or 4 meals a day. Repaglinide showed additive effects when used in combination with other oral antidiabetic agents including metformin, troglitazone, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, and intermediate-acting insulin (NPH) given at bedtime. In 1-year trials, the most common adverse events reported in repaglinide recipients (n = 1,228) were hypoglycaemia (16%), upper respiratory tract infection (10%), rhinitis (7%), bronchitis (6%) and headache (9%). The overall incidence of hypoglycaemia was similar to that recorded in patients receiving glibenclamide, glipizide or gliclazide (n = 597) [18%]; however, the incidence of serious hypoglycaemia appears to be slightly higher in sulphonylurea recipients. Unlike glibenclamide, the risk of hypoglycaemia in patients receiving repaglinide was not increased when Aggrenox Drug Coupons a meal was missed in 1 trial. In conclusion, repaglinide is a useful addition to the other currently available treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Preprandial repaglinide has displayed antihyperglycaemic efficacy at least equal to that of various sulphonylureas and is associated with a reduced risk of serious hypoglycaemia. It is well tolerated in a wide range of patients, including the elderly, even if a meal is missed. Furthermore, glycaemic control is improved when repaglinide is used in combination with metformin. Thus, repaglinide should be considered for use in any patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus whose blood glucose cannot be controlled by diet or exercise alone, or as an adjunct in patients whose glucose levels are inadequately controlled on metformin alone.

prandin dose range 2016-07-02

A prospective, open, randomised, cross-over study was performed to investigate the effect of 2 mg repaglinide on hyperglycemia and endothelial function during an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g glucose) in 12 subjects with diagnosed IGT. Blood samples for determination of plasma glucose were drawn fasting, 1 and 2 hours after glucose ingestion. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery with high-resolution Levitra And Alcohol ultrasound.

prandin generic cost 2017-08-21

We reviewed the literature on the subject using materials from library search, articles Tofranil Max Dose in journals, internet search and conference abstracts.

prandin repaglinide dose 2016-11-23

Repaglinide is a short-acting insulin secretagogue, which often results in considerable interindividual variability in therapeutic efficacy when widely used in a clinical setting. Among various reasons under discussion is genetic polymorphism, especially the genes related to insulin secretion and resistance. Recent studies have described the importance of PPARD in regulating the secretion and resistance of insulin. However, little is known about the impacts of PPARD genetic polymorphism on the efficacy of repaglinide. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the associations of PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) susceptibility and repaglinide therapeutic efficacy in Chinese Han T2DM patients. A total of 338 T2DM patients and 200 healthy subjects were genotyped for PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. A total of 84 patients with the same genotypes of CYP2C8*3 139Arg and OATP1B1 521TT were randomized to orally take repaglinide for 8 weeks. Then Cefixime Overdose the pharmacodynamic parameters of repaglinide and biochemical indicators were determined before and after repaglinide treatment. No significant difference was found in either allelic frequency (P = 0.298) or genotype distribution (P = 0.151) of PPARD rs2016520 between T2DM patients and healthy subjects. However, T2DM patients carrying genotype TC showed a significantly lower increase in postprandial serum insulin (mU/L) than those with wild-type TT (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism might influence the therapeutic effect of repaglinide rather than T2DM susceptibility in Chinese Han T2DM patients.

prandin tabs 2016-01-26

The CORE Diabetes Model was used to simulate long-term outcomes for a cohort of individuals with type 2 diabetes treated with either repaglinide/metformin or nateglinide/metformin. HbA1c changes Sinemet Missed Dose for each regimen were taken from a comparative study. At the end of the study, changes in HbA1c from baseline were -1.28% points and -0.67% points for repaglinide/metformin and nateglinide/metformin, respectively. Median final doses were 5.0 mg/day for repaglinide, 360 mg/day for nateglinide and 2000 mg/day metformin in each treatment arm. Costs were calculated as the annual costs for drugs plus costs of complications (US Medicare perspective) over a 30-year period. Life expectancy (LE) and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) were calculated. Outcomes and costs were discounted at 3% annually.

cost of prandin 2017-12-15

Abnormal beta-cell function, characterized as the inability of the beta-cell to mount a rapid secretory response to glucose, is a well-established pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. These studies were designed to demonstrate the importance of early insulin release on the control of meal-induced glucose excursions by capitalizing on the significant pharmacodynamic differences between several oral insulin secreting agents.

prandin tablet 2015-02-05

A case-control study of a total of 350 patients with T2DM and 207 healthy volunteers was conducted to identify their genotypes for the IGF2BP2 rs1470579 and rs4402960 polymorphisms using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Forty-two patients were randomly selected to undergo an 8-week repaglinide treatment (3 mg/d). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), fasting serum insulin (FINS), postprandial serum insulin (PINS), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum triglyceride, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) were determined before and after repaglinide treatment.

prandin online 2015-05-19

studies in younger patients with diabetes have shown that insulin profiles are more physiologic and postprandial glucose levels are lower with repaglinide than with glyburide. We conducted this study to determine if the differences in insulin/glucose profiles between repaglinide and glyburide were similar or different in the elderly.

dose of prandin 2015-04-16

Canagliflozin was primarily metabolized by uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 and 2B4 enzymes. Canagliflozin was a substrate of efflux transporters (P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein-2) but was not a substrate of uptake transporters (organic anion transporter polypeptide isoforms OATP1B1, OATP1B3, organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3, and organic cationic transporters OCT1, and OCT2). In inhibition assays, canagliflozin was shown to be a weak in vitro inhibitor (IC50 ) of CYP3A4 (27 μmol l (-1) , standard error [SE] 4.9), CYP2C9 (80 μmol l (-1) , SE 8.1), CYP2B6 (16 μmol l(-1) , SE 2.1), CYP2C8 (75 μmol l (-1) , SE 6.4), P-glycoprotein (19.3 μmol l (-1) , SE 7.2), and multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (21.5 μmol l (-1) , SE 3.1). Basic models recommended in DDI guidelines (US Food & Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency) predicted moderate to low likelihood of interaction for these CYPs and efflux transporters. PBPK DDI simulations of canagliflozin with CYP probe substrates (simvastatin, S-warfarin, bupropion, repaglinide) did not show relevant interaction in humans since mean areas under the concentration-time curve and maximum plasma concentration ratios for probe substrates with and without canagliflozin and its 95% CIs were within 0.80-1.25.

prandin 2 mg 2016-08-13

Patients' severity of illness correctly classified mortality for 89.8% of the patients (P less than 0.0001). Being younger, married, and white decreased severity adjusted risk of mortality. Exposure to the following medications increased severity adjusted risk of mortality: glyburide (odds ratio [OR] = 1.804, 95% CI from 1.518 to 2.145), glipizide (OR = 1.566, 95% CI from 1.333 to 1.839), rosiglitazone (OR = 1.805, 95% CI from 1.378 to 2.365), chlorpropamide (OR = 3.026, 95% CI from 1.096 to 8.351), insulin (OR = 2.382, 95% CI from 2.112 to 2.686). None of the other medications (metformin, acarbose, glimepiride, pioglitazone, repaglinide, troglitazone, or dipeptidyl peptidase-4) were associated with excess mortality beyond what could be expected from the patients' severity of illness or demographic characteristics. The reported excess mortality could not be explained away by use of other concurrent, nondiabetic classes of medications.

prandin recommended dosage 2017-01-28

Clopidogrel is reported to be associated with cerivastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis, and clopidogrel and its metabolites are capable of inhibiting CYP2C8 and OATP 1B1 in vitro. The objective of the present study was to identify the mechanism of clopidogrel-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) on the pharmacokinetics of OATP1B1 and/or CYP2C8 substrates in vivo. A clinical cassette small-dose study using OATPs, CYP2C8, and OATP1B1/CYP2C8 probe drugs (pitavastatin, pioglitazone, and repaglinide, respectively) with or without the coadministration of either 600 mg rifampicin (an inhibitor for OATPs), 200 mg trimethoprim (an inhibitor for CYP2C8), or 300 mg clopidogrel was performed, and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios (AUCRs) for probe substrates were predicted using a static model. Clopidogrel increased the AUC of pioglitazone (2.0-fold) and repaglinide (3.1-fold) but did not significantly change the AUC of pitavastatin (1.1-fold). In addition, the AUC of pioglitazone M4, a CYP2C8-mediated metabolite of pioglitazone, was reduced to 70% of the control by coadministration of clopidogrel. The predicted AUCRs using the mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8 by clopidogrel acyl-β-glucuronide were similar to the observed AUCRs, and the predicted AUCR (1.1) of repaglinide using only the inhibition of OATP1B1 did not reach the observed AUCR (3.1). In conclusion, a single 300 mg of clopidogrel mainly inhibits CYP2C8-mediated metabolism by clopidogrel acyl-β-glucuronide, but its effect on the pharmacokinetics of OATP1B1 substrates is negligible. Clopidogrel is expected to have an effect not only on CYP2C8 substrates, but also dual CYP2C8/OATP1B1 substrates as seen in the case of repaglinide.