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After oral dosing, a mean peak plasma concentration of repaglinide of 27.74 ng. ml(-1) (range: 16.84-36.65 ng. ml(-1)) was observed with a time to peak concentration of 0.5 h. Approximately 20% of repaglinide and its associated metabolites were distributed into red blood cells. No measurable (14)C-radioactivity was present in whole blood samples 6 h after dosing. Within 96 h of dosing with (14)C-repaglinide, 90% of the administered dose appeared in the faeces and 8% was excreted in urine. In the plasma, the major compound was repaglinide (61%). In the urine, the major metabolites were unidentified polar compounds, the aromatic amine (M(1)) (24%), and the dicarboxylic acid (M(2)) (22%). In the faeces, the major metabolite was M(2) (66% of administered dose). Therefore, repaglinide was excreted predominantly as metabolites and the major in vivo metabolite of repaglinide in humans was M(2). During regular dosing for 6 days, the morning plasma trough levels of repaglinide were, with very few exceptions, almost always too low to measure, indicating the absence of accumulation at this dose of 2 mg four times daily. Repaglinide was well tolerated, and there were no episodes of hypoglycaemia.
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Oral anticancer drugs have numerous pharmacologic interactions that should be monitored during pharmacotherapy. Given its position, the hospital pharmacist is the key professional for identifying and assessing the pharmacologic interactions or oral anticancer drugs that may have clinical consequences.
Subjects (n = 121) received oral repaglinide (4 mg). Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min and serum concentrations of repaglinide were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Subjects were also genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for CYP3A4*4, *5 and*18 and by an allele-specific multiplex PCR for CYP2C8*2, *3, *4 and *5 alleles.
In 1995, several new molecules under study as potential insulinotropic agents for the treatment of non-insulindependent diabetes mellitus were identified as analogs of meglitinide, previously known as the non-sulfonylurea moiety of glibenclamide. Three of these molecules, namely repaglinide, nateglinide and mitiglinide are or will be soon available for administration to diabetic patients. The present report aims at reviewing both preclinical studies and clinical investigations concerning the latter three meglitinide analogs. Their insulinotropic action seems attributable, like that of hypoglycaemic sulfonylureas, to a primary effect on the ATP-sensitive K+ channels of pancreatic insulin-producing cells. These meglitinide analogs differ from one another, however, by their potency as insulinotropic agents and by the time course of their biological effects, especially in terms of the reversibility of such effects.
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After the trial, fasting and postprandial PG and postprandial insulin improved significantly in both groups (P < 0.05). The maximum insulin concentration occurred earlier in the repaglinide group than that in the gliclazide group. AUC(ins) increased in both groups (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between groups. ΔI(30)/ΔG(30) increased in both groups (P < 0.05), especially in the repaglinide group (P < 0.05). Triglyceride and total cholesterol decreased significantly in the repaglinide group in some time points, while no significant change was observed in the gliclazide group.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacogenetic variability in the disposition of repaglinide in healthy Chinese subjects.
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5,985 patients with Type 2 diabetes in Germany were surveyed prospectively. These patients were assessed before and after a mean of 46 days treatment with repaglinide. At baseline, available data showed that 64% of patients had previously received therapy with conventional oral antidiabetic drugs, 22% were on diet alone, and 13% were naive to any treatment.
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that results from defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action. An elevated rate of basal hepatic glucose production in the presence of hyperinsulinemia is the primary cause of fasting hyperglycemia; after a meal, impaired suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin and decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake by muscle contribute almost equally to postprandial hyperglycemia. In the United States, five classes of oral agents, each of which works through a different mechanism of action, are currently available to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The recently completed United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) has shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disorder that can be treated initially with oral agent monotherapy but will eventually require the addition of other oral agents, and that in many patients, insulin therapy will be needed to achieve targeted glycemic levels. In the UKPDS, improved glycemic control, irrespective of the agent used (sulfonylureas, metformin, or insulin), decreased the incidence of microvascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy). This review examines the goals of antihyperglycemic therapy and reviews the mechanism of action, efficacy, nonglycemic benefits, cost, and safety profile of each of the five approved classes of oral agents. A rationale for the use of these oral agents as monotherapy, in combination with each other, and in combination with insulin is provided.
In this review we present the agents that are in use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Sulfonylureas of the 1st and 2nd generation increase insulin secretion but can induce hyperinsulinemia and sometimes prolonged hypoglycemia. Glimepiride is a new 3rd generation sulfonylurea with some advantages over the other members of this group, such as a lower risk of hypoglycemia, no interaction with cardiovascular KATP-channels and a possibility that it may increase insulin sensitivity. There are also newer insulin secretagogues (such as neteglinide and repaglinide) with a rapid onset of action on the beta-cell, therefore inducing a more physiological profile of insulin secretion during meals. The category of insulin sensitizers includes metformin and thiazolidinediones. Metformin effectively reduces hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and macroangiopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. This agent increases the sensitivity of the liver and peripheral tissues to insulin and, therefore, it could be considered as a drug of choice for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) increase the sensitivity of the tissues to insulin. This mechanism of action makes them powerful therapeutic tools for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (and possibly other insulin resistant states) either alone or in combination with other oral agents. The category of agents that interfere with the absorption of glucose and lipids includes alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose and miglitol) and lipase inhibitors (or-listat). alpha-Glucocidase inhibitors improve the time relationship between plasma insulin and glucose increases after a meal. Therefore, these agents may be used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, either alone at a very early stage of this disease (when insulin secretion is still adequate), or in combination with insulin secretagogues. alpha-Glucosidase inhibition may also prove useful as a supplement to insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipase orlistat may prove a useful adjunct to hypocaloric diets in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity.
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Post-prandial hyperglycaemia, which occurs early in the development of impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), has been receiving increased attention recently. Post-prandial hyperglycaemia is likely to promote or aggravate fasting hyperglycaemia and contributes entirely to HbA1c elevation, which is associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications in people with T2DM. Moreover, post-prandial hyperglycaemia is coupled with coagulation activation and may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in people with or without diabetes. For these reasons, reduction of post-prandial hyperglycaemia is an important target in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or T2DM. Several treatments have therefore been developed to reduce post-prandial hyperglycaemia; of these, repaglinide, a prandial glucose regulator taken orally before each meal, is now available. Drugs that reduce post-prandial hyperglycaemia significantly also decrease HbA1c (up to 2% with repaglinide) and fasting glucose concentrations (up to 3.9 mmol/l with repaglinide), with consequent decreases in coagulation activation and, in some studies, post-prandial lipidaemia. In clinical trials in patients with T2DM, repaglinide significantly reduced 2-hr post-prandial glucose concentrations and significantly reduced the risk of hypoglycaemia, compared with sulphonylureas, especially when participants missed or postponed a meal. Treatment with the prandial glucose regulator repaglinide allows patients with T2DM to have a more flexible lifestyle, which is likely to improve their quality of life and compliance.
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A total of 56 healthy volunteers ingested a single 0.25-mg dose of repaglinide. Plasma repaglinide and blood glucose concentrations were measured for up to 7 hours. All subjects were genotyped for the -11187G>A and 521T>C SNPs in SLCO1B1 and the 3435C>T and 2677G>T/A SNPs in ABCB1 , as well as for the CYP2C8*3 (416G>A, 1196A>G), CYP2C8*4 (792C>G), and CYP3A5*3 (6986A>G) alleles.
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The combination of gemfibrozil and itraconazole has only a limited influence on the pharmacokinetics of nateglinide. This is in marked contrast to the substantial effect of this combination on the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide. The findings suggest that in vivo gemfibrozil, probably due to its metabolites, is a much more potent inhibitor of CYP2C8 than of CYP2C9.
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In real-life conditions, use of agents that are not recommended in elderly adults with diabetes mellitus with moderate to severe renal impairment is frequent, but metformin is associated with lower cardiovascular event rates even in these individuals.
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Several new pharmacological agents have recently been developed to optimise the management of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. The aim of this article is to briefly review the various therapeutic agents available for management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to suggest a potential approach to drug selection. There are three general therapeutic modalities relevant to diabetes care. The first modality is lifestyle adjustments aimed at improving endogenous insulin sensitivity or insulin effect. This can be achieved by increased physical activity and bodyweight reduction with diet and behavioural modification, and the use of pharmacological agents or surgery. This first modality is not discussed in depth in this article. The second modality involves increasing insulin availability by the administration of exogenous insulin, insulin analogues, sulphonylureas and the new insulin secretagogue, repaglinide. The most frequently encountered adverse effect of these agents is hypoglycaemia. Bodyweight gain can also be a concern, especially in patients who are obese. The association between hyperinsulinaemia and premature atherosclerosis is still a debatable question. The third modality consists of agents such as biguanides and thiazolidinediones which enhance insulin sensitivity, or agents that decrease insulin requirements like the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease with multiple underlying pathophysiological processes. Therapy should be individualised based on the degree of hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia or insulin deficiency. In addition, several factors have to be considered when prescribing a specific therapeutic agent. These factors include efficacy, safety, affordability and ease of administration.
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Repaglinide eliminated myocardial IPC, probably by its effect on the KATP channel. Vildagliptin did not damage this protective mechanism in a relevant way in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD, suggesting a good alternative treatment in this population.