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The quality attributes of extemporaneous delayed-release liquid formulations of lansoprazole for oral administration were evaluated.
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Lansoprazole safely and effectively reduces duodenal ulcer recurrence and ulcer-related symptoms.
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Chronic gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori is the strongest known risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, yet the effects of bacterial eradication on carcinogenesis remain unclear. Animal models provide important insights into factors that are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and we previously utilized such a model to demonstrate that an in vivo-adapted H. pylori strain, 7.13, rapidly and reproducibly induces inflammation-mediated gastric carcinoma. In the current study, we used this bacterial strain as a prototype to define the role of targeted antimicrobial therapy in gastric carcinogenesis. Mongolian gerbils were infected with H. pylori for 4 or 8 weeks, treated with antimicrobial agents or vehicle, and then euthanized at 8 weeks after the completion of therapy. All infected gerbils developed gastritis; however, inflammation was significantly attenuated in animals receiving antimicrobial therapy. Gastric dysplasia or cancer developed in >60% of the gerbils that remained persistently colonized with H. pylori, but in none of the animals treated with antibiotics following 4 weeks of infection. Infection with H. pylori for 8 weeks prior to therapy resulted in an attenuation, but not complete prevention, of pre-malignant and malignant lesions. Similarly, antibiotic therapy initiated at 4, but not 8, weeks after H. pylori challenge significantly reduced expression of the Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma within colonized gastric mucosa. These results indicate that treatment of H. pylori in this model decreases the incidence and severity of lesions with carcinogenic potential. The effectiveness of eradication is dependent upon the timing of intervention, providing insights into mechanisms that may regulate the development of malignancies arising within the context of inflammatory states.
Prospective study to assess the accuracy of the urea breath test during the first days of therapy with proton pump inhibitors.
Gastroesophageal reflux is common among patients with postnasal drainage. We investigated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy improved symptoms in patients with postnasal drainage without sinusitis or allergies.
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Background Tranexamic acid reduces haemorrhage through its antifibrinolytic effects. In a previous version of the present review, we found that tranexamic acid may reduce mortality. This review includes updated searches and new trials.Objectives To assess the effects of tranexamic acid versus no intervention, placebo or other antiulcer drugs for upper gastrointestinal bleeding.Search methods We updated the review by performing electronic database searches (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index) and manual searches in July 2014.Selection criteriaRandomised controlled trials, irrespective of language or publication status.Data collection and analysis We used the standard methodological procedures of the The Cochrane Collaboration. All-cause mortality, bleeding and adverse events were the primary outcome measures. We performed fixed-effect and random-effects model meta-analyses and presented results as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used I² as a measure of between-trial heterogeneity. We analysed tranexamic acid versus placebo or no intervention and tranexamic acid versus antiulcer drugs separately. To analyse sources of heterogeneity and robustness of the overall results, we performed subgroup, sensitivity and sequential analyses.Main results We included eight randomised controlled trials on tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Additionally, we identified one large ongoing pragmatic randomised controlled trial from which data are not yet available. Control groups were randomly assigned to placebo (seven trials) or no intervention (one trial). Two trials also included a control group randomly assigned to antiulcer drugs(lansoprazole or cimetidine). The included studies were published from 1973 to 2011. The number of participants randomly assigned ranged from 47 to 216 (median 204). All trials reported mortality. In total, 42 of 851 participants randomly assigned to tranexamic acid and 71 of 850 in the control group died (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.87; P value 0.007; I² = 0%). The analysis was not confirmed when all participants in the intervention group with missing outcome data were included as treatment failures, or when the analysis was limited to trials with low risk of attrition bias. Rebleeding was diagnosed for 117 of 826 participants in the tranexamic acid group and for 146 of 825 participants in the control group (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.00; P value 0.07; I² = 49%).We were able to evaluate the risk of serious adverse events on the basis of only four trials. Our analyses showed 'no evidence of a difference between tranexamic acid and control interventions regarding the risk of thromboembolic events.’ Tranexamic acid appeared to reduce the risk of surgery ina fixed-effect meta-analysis (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.95), but this result was no longer statistically significant in a random-effects meta-analysis (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.04; P value 0.07). No difference was apparent between tranexamic acid and placebo in the assessment of transfusion (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.11; I² = 0%), and meta-analyses that compared tranexamic acid versus antiulcer drugs did not identify beneficial or detrimental effects of tranexamic acid for any of the outcomes assessed.Authors' conclusions This review found that tranexamic acid appears to have a beneficial effect on mortality, but a high dropout rate in some trials means that we cannot be sure of this until the findings of additional research are published. At the time of this update in 2014, one large study(8000 participants) is in progress, so this review will be much more informative in a few years. Further examination of tranexamic acid would require inclusion of high-quality randomised controlled trials. Timing of randomisation is essential to avoid attrition bias and to limit the number of withdrawals. Future trials may use a pragmatic design and should include all participants with suspected bleeding or with endoscopically verified bleeding, as well as a tranexamic placebo arm and co-administration of pump inhibitors and endoscopic therapy. Assessment of outcome measures in such studies should be clearly defined. Endoscopic examination with appropriate control of severe bleeding should be performed, as should endoscopic verification of clinically significant rebleeding. In addition, clinical measures of rebleeding should be included. Other important outcome measures include mortality (30-day or in-hospital), need for emergency surgery or blood transfusion and adverse events (major or minor).
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Pretreatment with H2RA had no significant influence on the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy.
305 patients were treated with a regimen containing 400 mg of clarithromycin (C400 group), and 296 patients with a regimen containing 800 mg (C800 group). Overall cure rates between the two groups were not significantly different, but the cure rate in the C800 group was significantly better than that in the C400 group among patients infected with clarithromycin-sensitive strains (p = 0.03). This difference could be attributed to differences among smokers versus non-smokers: the cure rate among smokers in the C800 group (91.0%) was better than that in the C400 group (80.0%, p = 0.003).
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H pylori eradication therapy for peptic ulcer patients with a mean age of 52.9 years at registration did not significantly decrease the incidence of gastric cancer.
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Due to the prevalence of both gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, it is likely that patients may be coprescribed gastric parietal cell proton pump inhibitors and beta-adrenergic antagonists. Therefore, the objectives of this phase I study were to assess the potential effects of the coadministration of lansoprazole on the pharmacokinetics of propranolol and to evaluate the safety of propranolol with concomitant lansoprazole dosing. In a double-blind fashion, 18 healthy male nonsmokers were initially randomized to receive either 60 mg oral lansoprazole, each morning for 7 days, or an identical placebo (period 1). On day 7, all subjects were concomitantly administered oral propranolol, 80 mg. After a minimum of 1 week following the last dose of either lansoprazole or placebo, subjects were crossed over to the opposite treatment for another 7 days (period 2). Subjects were again administered oral propranolol on day 7. During both treatment periods, blood samples for the determination of plasma propranolol and 4-hydroxy-propranolol were obtained just before the dose and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours postdose. Plasma propranolol and 4-hydroxy-propranolol concentrations were determined by using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The Cmax, tmax, AUC0-infinity, and t1/2 values for propranolol, as well as the AUC0-infinity for 4-hydroxy-propranolol, were calculated and compared between the lansoprazole and placebo regimens. The mean age of the 15 subjects who successfully completed the study was 31 years (range: 24-38 years), and their average weight was 174.8 pounds (range: 145-203 pounds). There were no statistically significant differences between the lansoprazole and placebo regimens for the propranolol Cmax, tmax, AUC0-infinity, and t1/2 values. Also, there were no statistically significant differences between regimens for the 4-OH-propranolol AUC0-infinity. Safety evaluations, which included adverse events, vital signs, clinical laboratory determinations, ECG, and physical examinations, revealed no unexpected clinically significant findings and did not suggest a drug-drug interaction. In conclusion, lansoprazole does not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of propranolol, suggesting that it does not interact with the CYP2D6- or CYP2C19-mediated metabolism of propranolol. Modification of a propranolol dosage regimen in the presence of lansoprazole is not indicated, based on the pharmacokinetic analysis and the lack of a clinically significant alteration in the pharmacodynamic response.