In the first part the authors have discussed the botanical identity of the drug 'Thamalaki' as it is used in Kerala. The second part deals with the identity of a few more drugs namely, 'Puskaramula, Punarnava, Suryavartha and Nirgundi'.
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Punarnava Mandura may work as Rasayana in geriatric anemia by providing highly significant results on clinical features of Pandu Roga, Dehabala, Agni Bala and Sattwa Bala and by improving QOL. of patients of geriatric anemia.
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The incidence of anemia rises with age. The consequences of anemia are many and serious, affecting not only individual's health, but also the development of societies and countries. Pandu Roga can be effectively compared with anemia on the ground of its similar signs and symptoms.
Boerhavia diffusa (B. diffusa), also known as Punarnava, is an indigenous plant in India and an important component in traditional Indian medicine. The accurate identification and collection of this medicinal herb is vital to enhance the drug's efficacy and biosafety. In this study, a DNA barcoding technique has been applied to identify and distinguish B. diffusa from its closely-related species. The phylogenetic analysis was carried out for the four species of Boerhavia using barcode candidates including nuclear ribosomal DNA regions ITS, ITS1, ITS2 and the chloroplast plastid gene psbA-trnH. Sequence alignment revealed 26% polymorphic sites in ITS, 30% in ITS1, 16% in ITS2 and 6% in psbA-trnH, respectively. Additionally, a phylogenetic tree was constructed for 15 species using ITS sequences which clearly distinguished B. diffusa from the other species. The ITS1 demonstrates a higher transition/transversion ratio, percentage of variation and pairwise distance which differentiate B. diffusa from other species of Boerhavia. Our study revealed that ITS and ITS1 could be used as potential candidate regions for identifying B. diffusa and for authenticating its herbal products.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate any possibility of teratogenic effects in Boerhaavia diffusa (Punarnava), a widely used herbal medicine for renal and urinary tract diseases by Ayurvedic physicians in India. The ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa (BDE) was administered daily in a dose of 250 mg/kg, body weight p.o., to pregnant albino female rats during the entire period of gestation. BDE was found to be devoid of any teratogenic effect as litter size and survival rate of foetuses were the same as for the normal control group and no foetal anomaly could be detected.
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Significant earlier recovery of weakness was observed with Livwin as compared to placebo at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Serum bilirubin and ALT was observed in normal range in significantly more number of patients with Livwin treatment as compared to placebo at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. AST was observed in normal range in significantly more number of patients with Livwin treatment as compared to placebo at 2 and 4 weeks.
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The roots of Boerhaavia diffusa L., commonly known as 'Punarnava', are used by a large number of tribes in India for the treatment of various hepatic disorders. In the present study the effect of seasons, thickness of roots and form of dose (either aqueous or powder) were studied for their hepatoprotective action to prove the claims made by the different tribes of India. The hepatoprotective activity of roots of different diameters collected in three seasons, rainy, summer and winter, was examined in thioacetamide intoxicated rats. The results showed that an aqueous extract (2 ml/kg) of roots of diameter 1-3 cm, collected in the month of May (Summer), exhibited marked protection of a majority of serum parameters, i.e. GOT, GPT, ACP and ALP, but not GLDH and bilirubin, thereby suggesting the proper size and time of collection of B. diffusa L. roots for the most desirable results. Further, the studies also proved that the aqueous form of drug (2 ml/kg) administration has more hepatoprotective activity than the powder form; this is probably due to the better absorbtion of the liquid form through the intestinal tract.
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Punarnava Mandura is more effective on Garbhini Pandu in comparison to Dhatri Lauha.
Veerataru is quoted to be effective in various conditions of Mootravaha Srotodushti such as Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria), Mootraghata (Anuria), Ashmari (Urinary calculi), Sharkara (Concretions) etc., by various Acharyas. Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria) is a disease of Basti (Bladder). It comes under Mootraapravruttijanyavyadhi, where Kruchchhrata (Shoola -Pain and Daha-Burning) during mootra pravrutti is the chief symptom. As per modern view, dysuria is a leading feature of lower or mid urinary tract infection. Antibiotics have their own limitations due to re-infections and recurrence even after long-term therapy, due to development of resistance of the microorganisms to the drugs. By considering all the above facts and to fulfill the lacuna about the absence of scientific data of Veerataru, the present research work had been taken up especially to evaluate its efficacy on Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria). Patients suffering from Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria) were selected and divided into two groups, i.e. Group A received Kwatha (decoction) of Veerataru-Dichrostachys cinerea Linn. (Trial drug) and Group B received Kwatha of Punarnava-Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Standard control) respectively. The effects of therapy were assessed by a specially prepared clinical research proforma. The result showed better symptomatic relief in Group A, i.e. trial drug as compared to Group B, i.e. standard control group.
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In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava) roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol : chloroform fraction (BDF 5) had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48 h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200 μg mL(-1) significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant.
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Livwin is found effective in uncomplicated patients of acute viral hepatitis. Epigastric pain and diarrhea were reported with Livwin treatment.
At the end of study, drug has shown beneficial effect in patients of anemia by providing highly significant result in chief complaints, associated symptoms, Kshaya of Dhatu and Agni Bala, Deha Bala and Sattwa Bala. It has also improved quality-of-life (QOL) of the patients. Moderate and mild improvement was observed in 30 and 70% of the patients respectively.
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In this study, there were 29 patients in each group, receiving either Livwin (containing Ashwagandha, Arjuna, Bhumyamalaki, Daruharidra, Guduchi, Kutki and Punarnava) or placebo capsules containing lactose powder (500 mg). Both drugs were given orally two capsules two times a day for eight weeks followed by treatment free period of four weeks. Recovery of patients was assessed by noting symptomatic recovery and by measuring levels of serum bilirubin, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase at baseline, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks.