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Retrovir (Zidovudine)
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Retrovir

Generic Retrovir is used for treating HIV infection when used along with other medicines. It is also used with other medicines to help prevent women from passing the HIV virus to the fetus during pregnancy.

Other names for this medication:
AZT, ZDV, azidothymidine

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Also known as:  Zidovudine.

Description

Generic Retrovir is an antiviral. It works by blocking the reproduction of the HIV virus.

Generic name of Generic Retrovir is Zidovudine.

Retrovir is also known as Zidovudine, Azidothymidine, Zidovir, Retrovis.

Brand name of Generic Retrovir is Retrovir.

Dosage

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Retrovir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Retrovir are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Be careful with Generic Retrovir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Retrovir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you are allergic to Generic Retrovir components.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you have an enlarged liver, high lactic acid levels in the blood, or abnormal liver function tests.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you are taking doxorubicin, ribavirin, stavudine, or any medicine that contains zidovudine.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems, bone marrow problems, low white blood cell levels, kidney problems, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, or other liver problems.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you take zalcitabine because severe pancreas problems may occur, fluconazole, ganciclovir, interferon alfa, probenecid, valproic acid, or any medicine that contains zidovudine because they may increase the risk of Generic Retrovir 's side effects; doxorubicin, ribavirin, or stavudine because they may decrease Generic Retrovir 's effectiveness.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you are very overweight.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

retrovir brand name

All nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) must first be metabolized to their triphosphate forms in order to be active against HIV. Zidovudine (ZDV), abacavir (ABC) and lamivudine (3TC) have proven to be an efficacious combination. In order simultaneously to measure intracellular levels of the triphosphates (-TP) of ZDV, ABC (carbovir, CBV) and 3TC, either together or individually, we have developed a cartridge-LC-MS/MS method. The quantitation range was 2.5-250 pg/microl for 3TC-TP, 0.1-10.0 pg/microl for ZDV-TP and 0.05-5.00 pg/microl for CBV-TP. This corresponds to 0.1-11.0 pmol 3TC-TP per million cells, 4-375 fmol ZDV-TP per million cells and 2-200 fmol CBV-TP per million cells, extracted from 10 million cells. Patient samples demonstrated measured levels in the middle regions of our standard curves both at pre-dose and 4h post-dose times.

retrovir 250 mg

CD4 lymphocyte and survival data from two completed trials, a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of zidovudine in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) disease (BW-02 study) and a randomized trial of two different doses of zidovudine in patients with advanced HIV disease (ACTG-002 study) were used to determine the degree to which CD4 lymphocyte counts reflect zidovudine-associated survival benefit. Proportional hazards models were used, and CD4 lymphocyte counts were smoothed by using empirical Bayes estimates. The geometric mean of the CD4 lymphocyte counts increased by 71 and 46 cells/mm3 for patients in the BW-02 and ACTG-002 studies, respectively, followed by a progressive decline. Higher pretreatment CD4 lymphocyte counts (p = 0.001), greater increases in CD4 lymphocytes at 8 weeks (p = 0.1), and smaller declines in the slope (p = 0.001) were associated with a lower risk of death. The most current CD4 lymphocyte count was most prognostic of death (p = 0.001). The risk of death was greater for patients with lower CD4 lymphocytes and this risk increased sharply when the CD4 lymphocyte counts fell below 50 cells/mm3. The hazard of death was higher for placebo recipients at all levels of CD4 lymphocytes compared with zidovudine recipients. Although higher CD4 lymphocyte counts are associated with improved survival, these increases account for only a small proportion of the survival benefit of zidovudine in these two studies.

retrovir 200 mg

Randomised controlled trials of HIV-infected patients 5 years of age and older were included. Primary outcomes of interest included mortality, severe adverse events, virologic response to ART, and adherence/tolerance/retention. Secondary outcomes included immunologic response to ART, development of ART drug resistance, and prevention of sexual transmission of HIV.

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Fifty-four percent of centers responded. Seventy-two percent of practitioners had been involved in HIV-related care for more than 5 years. The most common subspecialities of respondents were infectious diseases (37%) and general pediatrics (28%). Although 65% of respondents found their HIV practice more stressful than their other responsibilities, the majority of physicians (65%) felt that their HIV-related responsibilities enhanced their careers. Sixty-eight percent had some concern about contracting HIV and 24% had been exposed to HIV by needle stick injury. Polymerase chain reaction and HIV culture were the main diagnostic tests used, 78 and 62%, respectively. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and zidovudine therapy for primary HIV infection were the first line drugs used by almost all respondents. Only 9% were using intravenous immunoglobulin routinely. Fifty-two percent routinely advocated zidovudine for prophylaxis of HIV infection with needle stick injury. Eighty-three percent of those surveyed thought that all pregnant women should be tested for HIV and 88% advocated treating mother/infant pairs with zidovudine if the mother is HIV-infected.

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Diagnosis of ADC and CD4 cell count, clinical features, neuropsychological abnormalities, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and course in patients with ADC.

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Serial neurologic examinations, neurocognitive tests, and brain growth assessments (head circumference measurements and head computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies) were performed in 831 infants and children who participated in a randomized double-blind clinical trial of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group study 152 conducted between 1991 and 1995 enrolled antiretroviral therapy-naive children. Subjects were stratified by age (3 to <30 months of age or 30 months to 18 years of age) and randomized in equal proportions to the three treatment groups.

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These results suggest that metacavir has not a high risk for potential mitochondrial-related effects in rhesus monkeys.

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None of the three protease inhibitors tested had any significant effect on the intracellular phosphorylation of the five nucleoside analogues. It is particularly important to focus on the active triphosphate anabolites and data for control vs ritonavir (10 microM) incubations in U937 cells were as follows: ZDVTP, 0.19 +/- 0.02 vs 0.21 +/- 0.2 pmol/10(6) cells (mean +/- s.d.; n = 5); d4TTP, 0.30 +/- 0.13 vs 0.27 +/- 0.26; 3TCTP, 0.32 +/- 0.12 vs 0.26 +/- 0.19; ddCTP, 0.07 +/- 0.04 vs 0.06 +/- 0.02, ddATP, 0.014 +/- 0.003 vs 0.018 +/- 0.006 pmol/10(6) cells.

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This paper comments on the extent of the public health benefit of perinatal zidovudine treatment and breast-feeding replacement initiatives in the poorer developing countries. This kind of intervention may prevent many infants from getting HIV infection. However, additional funds, as well as additional staff, staff training, and improved capacity and resources are needed to integrate this intervention successfully into antenatal and delivery care. In addition, replacement feeding methods must be accessible and there should be support in using them safely, not only for HIV-positive women but also for untested women who fear that they may be infected with the disease, and for those at risk of infection in the breast-feeding period. However, a more comprehensive, broad-based approach to HIV prevention and care in relation to pregnancy that include treatment for both women and infants is presented. It promotes prolonged health and survival in women, which would consequently contribute to improved infant and child health and survival.

retrovir dosing

Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I) was administered to mice to determine its effect on hematopoiesis. Mice given intraperitoneal (IP) injections of 5 micrograms rhIGF-I for 7 days exhibited a significant increase in bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic progenitor cells, suggesting that rhIGF-I acts as a hematopoietic growth factor. Treatment with rhIGF-I also resulted in increases in erythroid precursor cells. Mice were then placed on azidothymidine (AZT), which produces significant myelotoxic effects. Splenic and BM progenitor cell content and hematocrit values were all significantly increased if rhIGF-I (5 micrograms injected IP every day for 28 days) was concurrently administered with AZT. Additionally, when mice were initially myelosuppressed by several weeks of AZT treatment, the subsequent administration of rhIGF-I resulted in an increase in hematopoietic progenitor cell content. No significant pathologic effects or weight changes were observed in mice receiving repeated injections of rhIGF-I at this dose and schedule. Thus, rhIGF-I exerts hematopoietic growth-promoting effects in vivo and may be of potential clinical use in promoting hematopoiesis in the face of myelotoxic therapy.

retrovir generic

To determine the infectivity and replication strategy of bovine foamy virus (BFV) in different cultured cells using the BFV indicator cell line (BICL) system.

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retrovir tablets spc 2015-08-17

This review supports ZDV+3TC+ Neem Toothpaste Review LPV/r as the preferred 3-drug regimen for PEP in children.

retrovir drug interactions 2015-10-20

Entre 2008 et 2010, l'accès au Atarax Buy TPAA s'est nettement amélioré en Ukraine, mais la mise en œuvre de l'option B de la politique de l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé a été lente. Pour que la TME soit éliminée en Ukraine, l'amélioration de la rétention des femmes dans les services de soins du VIH et la poursuite du déploiement de l'option B sont des points urgents à régler.

retrovir 300 mg 2017-08-29

Adherence to a fixed dose combination of dual nucleoside antiretroviral therapy was compared between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients newly started on a fixed dosed combination of lamivudine (3TC) 150 mg/zidovudine (ZDV) 300 mg versus its components taken as separate pills. Medicaid pharmacy claims data were used for analyses. To examine the association between treatment group and medication adherence, three types of multivariate regressions were employed. In addition, all regressions were conducted for the whole population using data from 1995 to 2001 as well as a subpopulation, which excluded data prior to September 1997. Model covariates included patient characteristics, healthcare utilization, and non-study antiretroviral therapy use. The likelihood of > or =95% adherence among patients on combination therapy was three times greater than patients taking 3TC and ZDV in separate pills. Also, combination therapy patients had on average 1.4 fewer adherence failures per year of follow-up and nearly double the time to adherence failure compared to the separate pills group. Consistency among study results suggests that Rebetol Capsule fixed dose combination therapies such as lamivudine (3TC) 150 mg/ zidovudine (ZDV) 300 mg should be considered when prescribing HIV treatment that includes an appropriate dual nucleoside.

retrovir generic 2017-10-16

Three classes of antiretroviral agents are usually available for the treatment of HIV infection: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (IN), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (INN) and protease inhibitors (IP). Two methods by reversed-phase liquid chromatography were developed for the analysis of 19 antiretroviral molecules belonging to these three therapeutic classes and used in medicinal Zoloft Overdose Fatal products. Both of these HPLC techniques use a C18 column and UV detection. The first method is for IN family analysis and allows eight molecules to be separated: zalcitabine, lamivudine, amdoxovir, emtricitabine, didanosine, stavudine, zidovudine and abacavir. The second method is for INN and IP family analysis and allows 11 molecules to be separated: fosamprenavir, nevirapine, indinavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, atazanavir, ritonavir, lopinavir, efavirenz, nelfinavir and tipranavir. The combination of these two methods makes possible the quality control of mono-, bi- or tri-therapy pharmaceutical products and the detection of illegal products sold particularly in developing countries.

retrovir syrup 2017-02-15

The CSF influx rate of zidovudine was the highest, although moderate, followed by that of stavudine. The permeability coefficients of the other drugs tested were low. Zidovudine influx into the CSF is independent of thymidine transport systems, and more importantly is limited by an Flavoxate Urispas Dosage efflux mechanism. This efflux involves an apical (CSF-facing) carrier belonging to the solute carrier (Slc) 22 family of organic anion transporters, and can be inhibited by a therapeutic concentration of benzbromarone.

retrovir oral suspension 2015-10-31

The strategy of intensification with abacavir in patients who are virologically suppressed on a stable antiretroviral regimen does not confer a clinical Viagra Online Generic or virologic benefit. As antiretroviral regimens have become more potent since this trial was completed, it will be even more difficult to prove that late intensification of already virologically suppressed patients will add benefit. However, studies are warranted with drugs with new mechanisms of action to determine whether the level of persistent viremia below 50 copies/ mL can be further reduced and what influence this may have on latent HIV reservoirs.

retrovir syrup dosage 2016-03-16

The mean lactate level in group A was 2319 micromol/l (S.D. +/-1231, median 1741 micromol/l), in group B 1257 micromol/l (S.D. +/-607, median 1087), Group C 1285 (S.D. +/-451, median 1245 micromol/l) and 951 micromol/l (S.D. +/-270, median 979) in the healthy controls. No significant differences in pyruvate, L/P, Bic and beta-HB/AA were seen in the four groups. The mean lactate level in Risperdal User Reviews patients on stavudine was 1980 micromol/l (S.D. +/-1197) versus 1051 micromol/l (S.D. +/-395, P=0.01) in patients on zidovudine. All patients with lactate values above 2700 micromol/l (eight) experienced adverse events.

retrovir pediatric dosing 2015-08-26

Study based on a convenience sample of women unaware of their HIV serostatus when they were admitted to delivery in public maternity hospitals in Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre, Brazil, between March 2000 and Viagra 100 Mg April 2002. Women were counseled and tested using the Determine HIV1/2 Rapid Test. HIV infection was confirmed using the Brazilian algorithm for HIV infection diagnosis. In utero transmission of HIV was determined using HIV-DNA-PCR. There were performed descriptive analyses of sociodemographic data, number of previous pregnancies and abortions, number of prenatal care visits, timing of HIV testing, HIV rapid test result, neonatal and mother-to-child transmission interventions, by city studied.

retrovir dosing 2015-01-24

She presented with severe anaemia (PCV of 0.05), White cell and platelet counts were within normal limits and reticulocyte count of 0.001%. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were diagnostic of pure red cell aplasia on a background hypocellular marrow. She was transfused with four (4) units of packed cells and Zidovudine was replaced with Stavudine. She made remarkable improvement and remains transfusion independent afterwards Vasotec Normal Dosage .

retrovir syrup zidovudine 2015-05-05

Individual variation in response to antiretroviral therapy is well-known, but it is not clear if demographic characteristics such as gender, age, and ethnicity are responsible for the variation. To optimize anti-HIV therapy and guide antiretroviral drug discovery, determinants that cause variable responses to therapy need to be evaluated. We investigated the determinants of intracellular concentrations of nucleoside analogs using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 40 healthy donors. We observed individual differences in the concentrations of the intracellular nucleoside analogs; the mean concentrations of the triphosphate metabolite of ethynylstavudine (4'-Ed4T), zidovudine (AZT), and lamivudine (3TC) were 0.71 pmol/10(6) cells (minimum and maximum, 0.10 and 3.00 pmol/10(6) cells, respectively), 0.88 pmol/10(6) cells (minimum and maximum, 0.10 and 15.18 pmol/10(6) cells, respectively), and 1.70 pmol/10(6) cells (minimum and maximum, 0.20 and 7.73 pmol/10(6) cells, respectively). Gender and ethnicity had no effect on the concentration of 4'-Ed4T and 3TC metabolites. There was a trend for moderation of the concentrations of AZT metabolites by gender (P = 0.17 for gender·metabolite concentration). We observed variability in the activity and expression of cellular kinases. There was no statistically significant correlation between thymidine kinase 1 (TK-1) activity or expression and thymidine analog metabolite concentrations. The correlation between the activity of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and the 3TC monophosphate metabolite concentration showed a trend toward significance (P = 0.1). We observed an inverse correlation between the multidrug-resistant protein 2 (MRP2) expression index and the concentrations of AZT monophosphate, AZT triphosphate, and total AZT metabolites. Our findings suggest that the observed variation in clinical response to nucleoside analogs may be due partly to the individual differences in the intracellular concentrations, which in turn may be affected by the cellular kinases involved in the phosphorylation pathway and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins.

retrovir medication 2016-03-19

Presented here is a case of a patient who was treated successfully with HAART of stavudine (D4T), abacavir (Ziagen), ritonavir (Norvir), and saquinavir (Invirase). His last CD4 count before HAART was discontinued was 131 cells/mm(3), and viral load was less than 50 copies/mL. He discontinued his HAART regimen for 2 years and presented to the emergency room with complaints of a severe headache with neck pain, lightheadedness, nausea, disorientation, and unsteady gait. Lumbar puncture results showed cryptococcal infection, and the patient was admitted for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis with amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine. Cryptococcal choroiditis was diagnosed after treatment of the meningitis. After resolution, his resultant visual acuities were 10/350 in the right eye and 10/600 in the left eye. He is on a maintenance dose of antifungal therapy and has been reinitiated on HAART of abacavir/zidovudine/lamivudine (Trizivir) and lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra).

retrovir generic name 2017-07-25

Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum), belonging to the class Mollicutes, is a human pathogen colonizing the urogenital tract and causes among other things respiratory diseases in premature infants. We have studied the salvage of pyrimidine deoxynucleosides in U. urealyticum and cloned a key salvage enzyme, thymidine kinase (TK) from U. urealyticum. Recombinant Uu-TK was expressed in E. coli, purified and characterized with regards to substrate specificity and feedback inhibition. Uu-TK efficiently phosphorylated thymidine (dThd) and deoxyuridine (dUrd) as well as a number of pyrimidine nucleoside analogues. All natural ribonucleoside/deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, except dTTP, served as phosphate donors, while dTTP was a feedback inhibitor. The level of Uu-TK activity in U. urealyticum extracts increased upon addition of dUrd to the growth medium. Fluoropyrimidine nucleosides inhibited U. urealyticum and M. pneumoniae growth and this inhibitory effect could be reversed by addition of dThd, dUrd or deoxytetrahydrouridine to the growth medium. Thus, the mechanism of inhibition was most likely the depletion of dTTP, either via a blocked thymidine kinase reaction and/or thymidylate synthesis step and these metabolic reactions should be suitable targets for antimycoplasma chemotherapy.

retrovir drug 2016-03-24

Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine are essential components of perinatal HIV prevention in resource-constrained settings, but can induce resistance to other non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs. We aimed to investigate whether this complication would be reduced with a single peripartum intervention of tenofovir and emtricitabine.

retrovir brand name 2017-07-23

3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) is one of the primary chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Unfortunately, AZT therapy is accompanied by severe side effects. Using Golgi-enriched membrane fractions, we have determined that 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine monophosphate, the primary AZT metabolite in treated cells, potently inhibits protein glycosylation. This inhibition results from direct competition with several pyrimidine-sugars for transport into Golgi membranes. This potential mechanism of cytotoxicity does not involve 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine triphosphate, the AZT metabolite most likely responsible for its antiviral effects; thus, it may be possible to develop novel therapeutic strategies that prevent inhibition of glycosylation without affecting the anti-HIV properties of AZT.

retrovir cost 2015-07-20

Some risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes were directly associated with HIV and treatment and others were shared with the general antenatal population. Monitoring of pregnancy outcomes in Ukraine will be important as use of antenatal combination ART increases.