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Rulide (Roxythromycin)
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Rulide

Generic Rulide is used to treat infections in different parts of the body caused by bacteria (acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin).

Other names for this medication:
Acevor, Allolide, Aristomycin, Asmetic, Assoral, Azuril, Bazuctril, Biaxsig, Bicofen, Biostatik, Cadithro, Claramid, Crolix, Delitroxin, Delos, Dorolid, Elrox, Erybros, Floxid, Infectoroxit, Inferoxin, Ixor, Kensodic, Klomicina, Ladlid, Macrolid, Macrosil, Makrodex, Monobac, Nirox, Odonticina, Overal, Pedilid, Pedrox, Ramivan, Redotrin, Remora, Renicin, Ridinfect, Ritosin, Rocky, Rokilide, Rokithrid, Roksimin, Roksolit, Rolexit, Rolicyn, Rolid, Romac, Romyk, Rossitrol, Rotramin, Roxacine, Roxithromycine, Roxithromycinum, Roxitromicina, Rulid,

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Also known as: Roxythromycin.

Description

Generic Rulide belongs to macrolides group of antibiotics which are prescribed for treating serious bacterial infections such as acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin). It acts on the bacteria which causes the above mention bacterial infections caused by the bacteria. It kills completely or slows the growth of these sensitive bacteria in our body.

Generic name of Generic Rulide is Roxithromycin.

Rulide is also known as Roxithromycin, Roximycin, Biaxsig, Roxar, Surlid.

Brand name of Generic Rulide is Rulide.

Dosage

Take Generic Rulide by mouth with food.

If you have trouble swallowing the tablet whole, it may be crushed or chewed with a little water.

Swallow Generic Rulide tablets whole with a glass of water.

Generic Rulide should be taken at least 15 minutes before food or on an empty stomach (i.e. more than 3 hours after a meal).

Generic Rulide works best if you take it on an empty stomach.

For treating bacterial infections, Generic Rulide is usually taken for 5 to 10 days.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Rulide suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Rulide and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep in a tight, light-resistant container. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Rulide are:

  • rulide generic name

Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Rulide if you are allergic to Generic Rulide components.

Try to be careful with Generic Rulide if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Rulide taking suddenly.

rulide generic name

The epididymal penetration of roxithromycin was studied in order to evaluate the drug for use in the treatment of epididymo-orchitis. Seventeen patients hospitalized for surgery as part of treatment for prostatic adenoma or prostatic cancer were premedicated orally with roxithromycin 150 mg bd for three days followed by 150 mg pre-operatively (3 h before surgical incision). Roxithromycin concentrations in serum and epididymis were determined by microbiological assay. The mean epididymal concentrations were 6.48 +/- 4.88 and 5.98 +/- 3.92 mg/kg for left and right epididymis respectively and the corresponding mean tissue/serum ratios 0.88 +/- 0.57 and 0.84 +/- 0.53. The wide intersubject variation in the concentration of roxithromycin found in serum and tissue is commonly seen with other macrolide antibiotics. The concentrations observed in this study in serum and tissue were greater than the MIC90s for Chlamydia trachomatis (0.25 to 1 mg/L), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (0.5 mg/L).

rulide generic name

The variability of diagnostic tests used in patients with CAP is remarkable but their yield is of little effect. Patients with CAP candidates for ambulatory therapy can receive empiric antibiotic therapy with roxithromycin. In this series, roxithromycin had a high clinical effectiveness and was well tolerated.

rulide generic name

The occurrence, bioaccumulation, and trophic magnification of pharmaceutically active compounds, (PhACs) including antibiotics (roxithromycin and erythromycin), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen and diclofenac), a non-selective β-adrenoceptor blocker (propranolol), an antiepileptic drug (carbamazepine), and steroid estrogens (17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol), were investigated in Taihu Lake, China. All eight PhACs were widely detected in surface water and sediment samples with maximal concentrations in the range of 8.74-118 ng L(-1) and 0.78-42.5 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. The investigated organisms in the natural freshwater food web in Taihu Lake included phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos, and fish, and the maximal concentrations of target compounds in these biota samples ranged from 0.65 to 132 ng g(-1) dw. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for all target PhACs were lower than 1000 L kg(-1), suggesting their low bioaccumulation potential in aquatic organisms from Taihu Lake. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were estimated at 1.11 for roxithromycin, 0.31 for propranolol, and 1.06 for diclofenac, indicating none of these PhACs underwent trophic magnification in this freshwater food web.

rulide generic name

Mean age of the patients was 41.3 +/- 11.7 years and 71.7 % were females. Beta-lactams (41.5 %) were the antibiotics most commonly causing reactions and the most common reaction was urticaria (68.8 %). Double test was performed in 26 (ciprofloxacin + clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin + tetracyline, clarithromycin + tetracycline, ciprofloxacin + ampicillin and ciprofloxacin + roxithromycin) and triple test in 27 patients (ciprofloxacin + tetracycline + clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin + tetracycline + ampicillin, clarithromycin + tetracycline + clindamycin and clarithromycin + ciprofloxacin + ampicillin). Only four patients had positive reactions during triple and double tests. There were no serious adverse reactions. Sixty-five days have been spent with triple-double tests where it would be 136 days with the conventional method.

rulide generic name

The mean (+/- SD) pharmacokinetic parameters of lovastatin lactone with and without roxithromycin were maximum concentration (Cmax) 8.49+/-6.80/16.3+/-9.4 ng ml(-1), time to Cmax (tmax) 1.8+/-0.4/1.7+/-0.6 h, terminal plasma half-life (t1/2) 4.3+/-2.0/3.7+/-2.5 h, area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) 53+/-60/85+/-67 ng ml(-1) h. The respective parameters of lovastatin acid were Cmax 24.6+/-13.4/17.8+/-11.0 ng ml(-1), tmax 3.7+/-1.1/4.1+/-0.7 h, t1/2 3.2+/-2.5/4.3+/-2.8 h, AUC0-infinity 149+/-123/105+/-58 ng ml(-1) h. Mean bioavailability of lovastatin lactone was lower and that of lovastatin acid was higher with concomitant treatment. However, the differences were significant only with respect to lovastatin lactone (AUC and Cmax) and Cmax of lovastatin acid.

rulide generic name

The in vitro activities of the new spectinomycin analog U-63366, the new macrolide roxithromycin (RU 28965), and five new quinolone derivatives (pefloxacin, rosoxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin) were studied against 23 multiresistant strains of Haemophilus ducreyi (beta-lactamase producers) isolated in Paris and were compared with the activities of tetracycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, spectinomycin, erythromycin, and nalidixic acid. All strains were uniformly susceptible to the seven new antibiotics tested. Ciprofloxacin had the greatest inhibitory effect in vitro (the MIC for 90% of the strains tested [MIC90] was 0.016 microgram/ml), and U-63366 was the most active aminoglycoside-aminocyclitol antibiotic (MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml).

rulide generic name

Three hundred thirty-six clinically significant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were collected from laboratories of different hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Most of these isolates were from pulmonary and otitis media (68.2%), and 31.8% were extrapulmonary (blood and CSF). Of the 336 isolates, 44.6% were susceptible to penicillin, and 55.4% were penicillin non-susceptible (35.7% were intermediate and 19.7% were fully resistant). The isolates showed 9.0% resistance to co-amoxiclav, 31.8% to cefuroxime and 39.4% to cefprozil. None of the isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone. Overall macrolide resistance rates were 22.6% to erythromycin, 18.5% to roxithromycin, 17.9% to azithromycin and 17.3% to clarithromycin. Most penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci were of serogroups/types 19 (21.0%), 6 (10.8%), 18 (8.6%), 23 (8.1%) and 14 (7.0%). Serogroups 9, 15, and 1 were found in 5.4%, 4.3%, and 2.2% of the isolates, respectively. Nontypeable strains constituted 6.5%. In exploring the mechanism of resistance to macrolides, 28 of 76 (36.8%) of isolates were erythromycin-resistant due to ribosomal mechanism (all were constitutive type, none were inducible), whereas 48 (63.2%) isolates were resistant due to an efflux mechanism. Good antibiotic control with periodical antibiotic surveillance and appropriate use of pneumococcal vaccine may improve current treatment of pneumococcal infections.

rulide generic name

A 6-month retrospective audit of hospitalized patients with proven legionnaires' disease around the time of the Melbourne Aquarium outbreak was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS version 8.0 (SAS Institute Inc., NC, USA).

rulide generic name

The MICs of azithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin were determined (by an agar dilution method) for 65 strains of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for endocarditis and gastrointestinal infections, for 20 strains of non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria and for 16 strains of anaerobic bacteria. The MICs of azithromycin were up to eight times lower than those of erythromycin and (except in the case of Flavobacterium spp.) up to 16 times lower than those of roxithromycin. Azithromycin was ineffective against strains showing a high degree of erythromycin resistance.

rulide generic name

The in vitro activities of the 14-membered macrolides (14M) clarithromycin (CL), roxithromycin (RO), dirithromycin (DI) and flurithromycin (FL), a 15-membered macrolide (15M) azithromycin (AZ), and the 16-membered macrolides (16M) josamycin (JM), spiramycin (SP), miocamycin (MI) and rokitamycin (RK) were compared with erythromycin (ER). CL was two- to four-fold more potent than ER against all organisms except Haemophilus and Campylobacter jejuni against which it was two-fold less active. RO and DI were generally two- to four-fold less active than ER. FL was two-fold less active than ER. AZ was equal to or two-fold less active than ER against Gram-positive bacteria and two- to four-fold more active than ER against Gram-negative bacteria, such as Haemophilus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Branhamella. The 16M were generally four- to eight-fold less active than ER against most aerobic bacteria and two-fold less active than ER against anaerobic bacteria. RK was generally two-fold more active than the other 16M. Bacteria carrying a constitutive-type of MLS resistance were resistant to the 14M, 15M and 16M, whereas bacteria with an inducible-type of resistance were susceptible to the 16M but resistant to the 14M and 15M. Addition of serum to the medium increased the activity of ER, CL, DI, FL, AZ and SP. The activity of RO was reduced four- to six-fold and the activity of MI was reduced by two-fold by adding serum to the medium. The activity of JO was unaffected by serum. All the macrolides were one- to four-fold more active at pH 8.0 than at pH 6.5. All the macrolides were bacteriostatic against Staphylococcus aureus 553, except RO and MI which were slowly bactericidal. All the macrolides were slowly bactericidal against Haemophilus influenzae 1435.

rulide generic name

Tuberculosis (TB) is a growing international health concern, since it is the leading infectious cause of death in the world today. Moreover, the resurgence of TB in industrialized countries and the worldwide increase in the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections in immunocompromised hosts have prompted the quest for new antimycobacterial drugs. In particular, the appearance of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of M. tuberculosis, which exhibit in vitro resistance to at least two major antituberculous drug (usually INH and RFP) and cause intractable TB, has greatly contributed to the increased incidence of TB. Because of the global health problems of TB, the increasing rate of MDR-TB and the high rate of a co-infection with HIV, the development of potent new antituberculous drugs without cross-resistance with known antimycobacterial agents is urgently needed. In this article, I reviewed the following areas. First, I briefly reviewed some new findings (mainly reported after 2000) on the pharmacological status of rifamycin derivatives (rifabutin, rifapentine, and rifalazil), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, sitafloxacin, moxifloxacin, and others), and new macrolides (clarithromycin, azithromycin, and roxithromycin). Second, I described other types of agents which are being developed as antimycobacterial drugs. Some of the agents discussed are already under preliminary clinical investigation, and others appear to be promising candidates for future development. In this review, the status of the development of new antimycobacterial, especially antituberculous agents including oxazolidinone (PNU-100480), 5'-nitroimidazole (CGI 17341), 2-pyridone (ABT-255), new riminophenazines, nitroimidazopyran (PA-824), new ketolides (ABT-773, telithromycin) and defensins (human neutrophil peptide-I), was examined. Third, the development of new antitubercular drugs was discussed according to the potential pharmacological target. New critical information on the whole genome of M. tuberculosis recently elucidated and increasing knowledge on various mycobacterial virulence genes will promote the progression in the identification of genes that code for new drug targets. Using such findings on mycobacterial genomes, drug development using quantitative structure-activity relationship may be possible in the near future. In this review, I described the screening of drugs that have an inhibitory activity against dTDP-rhamnose synthesis of M. tuberculosis, as a new drug target of the organism. In addition, I discussed the usefulness of antisense oligo DNAs specific to mycobacterial genes encoding certain metabolic enzymes or virulence factors that play roles in the bacterial escape from antimicrobial mechanisms of host macrophages. Fourth, I reviewed the drug vehicles which enable efficacious drug delivery to their target in vivo. The usefulness of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microsphere technology, which enables the encapsulated drugs to deliver the requested doses of them for prolonged time periods by a single shot without causing any toxicity and, moreover, enables the highly targeted delivery of the drugs to host macrophages, was discussed. Fifth, I described adjunctive immunotherapy for the management of patients with mycobacterial infections by giving certain immunomodulators in combination with antimycobacterial drugs. Adjuvant clinical trials using IL-2 or GM-CSF have been found to be efficacious to some extent in improving patients with tuberculosis or disseminated MAC infections. However, it seems that these immunopotentiating cytokines as well as IFN-gamma and IL-12 are not so promising for the therapeutic agents of mycobacterial infections because of the possible induction of immunosuppressive cytokines during adjuvant therapy and, in some cases, severe side-effect. Thus, the development of new classes of immuno-modulators other than cytokines, particularly those with no severe side-effect, is needed. This review dealt with ATP and its analogues which potentiate macrophage antimycobacterial activity via a purinergic P2X7 receptor. Finally, I described the roles of type II alveolar epithelial cells in the establishment of mycobacterial infections in the host lungs and the profiles of drug susceptibilities of M. tuberculosis and MAC organisms replicating within the type II pneumocytes. These findings are useful to precisely assess or predict the in vivo therapeutic activity of a given antimycobacterial drug from its in vitro activity. In this article, I have thoroughly reviewed the status of the development of new antimycobacterial drugs. There are a number of difficulties in the drug-design for the development of new drug formulations with increased potential for antimycobacterial effects, excellent pharmacokinetics, and tolerability. It should be emphasized that the most urgent goal of chemotherapy of tuberculosis and MAC infections, especially that associated with HIV infection, is to develop highly active, low-cost drugs which can be used not only in industrialized countries but also in developing countries, since the incidences of AIDS-associated intractable tuberculosis is rapidly increasing in the latter.

rulide generic name

Pharmacological agents that can normalize or enhance the ciliary and mucociliary activity of the tubotympanum should also be able to break the vicious circle of chronic otitis media with effusion (OME). Roxythromycin (RXM) has been shown to enhance the ciliary activity in vitro and also stimulate the mucociliary activity in vivo and may therefore, when clinically applied, prevent not only occurrence but also recurrence of clinical OME. The present study was designed to discuss the possible preventive effect of RXM on endotoxin-induced OME in the guinea pig. A total of 120 guinea pigs were used. The normal control group was treated with intratympanic injection of 0.1 ml of physiologic saline solution. The saline-control group was treated with oral administration of physiologic saline solution for 14 successive days. The low-dosage group and the high-dosage group were treated with oral administration of 5 and 50 mg/kg of sairei-to for 14 successive days, respectively. Then, the saline-control group, the low-dosage group and the high-dosage group were treated with intratympanic injection of 0.1 ml of lipopolysaccharide solution (100 micrograms/ml) derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae. All 10 animals in the four groups were sacrificed 1, 3, and 7 days after the intratympanic injection, to examine ciliary activity, mucociliary clearance time, and mucosal pathology of the tubotympanum. The saline-control group exhibited middle ear effusions and pathologies similar to human OME. The incidence of middle ear effusions was significantly reduced in the low-dosage and high-dosage groups. Throughout the observation period, the ciliary activity in the tubotympanum was significantly reduced in the saline-control group as compared with that of the normal control group. By contrast, the ciliary activity in the low-dosage and high-dosage groups was not so reduced in the Eustachian tube and the middle ear close to the orifice. Mucociliary clearance time in the low-dosage and high-dosage groups was not different from that in the normal control group throughout the period. The tubotympanum in the saline-control group exhibited mucosal pathologies characteristic of OME in human. By contrast, the low-dosage and high-dosage groups exhibited much milder pathological changes in the tubotympanum than those in the saline-control group. In conclusion, clinical application of RXM could be an effective measure to prevent the occurrence of OME and also the recurrence of the disease, especially in OME-prone individuals.

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rulide generic name 2016-08-03

Several macrolides have been reported to cause QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias such as torsades de pointes. To clarify the underlying ionic mechanisms, we examined the effects of six macrolides on Buy Generic Hyzaar the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG)-encoded potassium current stably expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. All six drugs showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the current with the following IC(50) values: clarithromycin, 32.9 microM; roxithromycin, 36.5 microM; erythromycin, 72.2 microM; josamycin, 102.4 microM; erythromycylamine, 273.9 microM; and oleandomycin, 339.6 microM. A metabolite of erythromycin, des-methyl erythromycin, was also found to inhibit HERG current with an IC(50) of 147.1 microM. These findings imply that the blockade of HERG may be a common feature of macrolides and may contribute to the QT prolongation observed clinically with some of these compounds. Mechanistic studies showed that inhibition of HERG current by clarithromycin did not require activation of the channel and was both voltage- and time-dependent. The blocking time course could be described by a first-order reaction between the drug and the channel. Both binding and unbinding processes appeared to speed up as the membrane was more depolarized, indicating that the drug-channel interaction may be affected by electrostatic responses.

rulide generic name 2017-05-01

The pattern of distribution of bacteria, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and virus isolated from the same specimen recovered from the throat swab or the sputum of 479 patients with respiratory infections who were seen in six private clinics in Sendai City of Japan during the period from October to November in 1992 (period I) and from January to February in 1993 (period II) was documented. Of the 479 patients, 234 had acute pharyngitis, 145 had acute bronchitis, 96 had influenza, 21 had acute tonsillitis, 5 had acute pneumonia and 9 had other respiratory infections. One hundred (42.4%) strains of potential pathogen and one strain of M. pneumoniae were recovered from 236 cases in period I, and 66 (27.2%) strains of potential pathogen, one strain of M. pneumonae and 73 strains of Influenza virus (30.0%: 43 of type A Hong-Kong and 30 of type B) from 243 cases in period II. Of the 166 strains, major isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (56 strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae (12 strains), Streptococcus pyogenes (15 strains), Haemophilus influenzae (17 strains), Esherichia coli (4 strains), Klebsiella spp. (35 strains), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 strains) and Acinetobacter Crestor Goes Generic spp. (23 strains). Only one strain of S. aureus was resistant to methicillin (MIC: 50 micrograms/ml). None of S. pneumoniae was resistant to 1 microgram/ml of ampicillin. Ciprofloxacin was administered to 113 cases and roxythromycin to 220 cases by doctors in charge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

rulide generic name 2015-11-19

Among 4200 patients of ENT clinic with otitis, 868 had chronic otitis media purulenta (COMP). Epi- and mesoepitympanitis developed in 272 of them. Exacerbation of COMP was treated locally with drugs immobilized on sorbents and new-generation medicines--ofloxacin and roxitromycin. Complicated epi- and mesoepitympanitis need surgical treatment. Special attention should be given to complete removal of all the affected tissues and postoperative control over wound healing. The course of healing can be evaluated by changes in cytological picture of the wound surface. 255 radical operations were performed. A complete postoperative epidermisation failed only in 16 (7.3%) patients Avapro 300 Generic .

rulide generic name 2015-09-05

In vitro, the effect of macrolides on polarised P-glycoprotein-mediated Generic Crestor 10mg Price digoxin transport was investigated in Caco-2 cells. In a pharmacoepidemiological study, we analysed the serum digoxin and digitoxin concentrations with and without coadministration of P-glycoprotein inhibitors in hospitalised patients.

rulide generic name 2017-07-20

The effect of amikacin and two new macrolides (roxithromycin and azithromycin) used either alone or in combination with recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to inhibit or kill Mycobacterium avium complex in human macrophages was examined in vitro. Macrophage monolayers infected with M. avium complex (strain 101, serotype 1) were treated with antibiotics or TNF by using three different protocols: (i) antibiotics or TNF was added to the monolayers immediately after infection and washed out after 24 h, (ii) antibiotics or TNF was replenished daily for 4 dys, or (iii) infected macrophage monolayers Lasix Generic Name were treated with antibiotics plus TNF for 4 consecutive days. The number of viable intracellular bacteria was determined after 2 and 4 days of treatment by lysing cultured macrophages. Treatment for 24 h resulted in an inhibition of growth, as determined by macrophage lysis at day 4, for all three antimicrobial drugs and killing of 22% of intracellular bacteria after treatment with TNF. After treating the monolayers with amikacin, roxithromycin, or azithromycin for 4 consecutive days and replenishing the drug concentration daily, we observed 18 +/- 6, 20 +/- 4, and 22 +/- 1% killing, respectively. TNF (100 U/ml) was added daily to the monolayers, which resulted in 54 +/- 5% killing after 4 days. Combinations of antibiotics with TNF were associated with 62 +/- 3% killing with TNF-azithromycin, 73 +/- 6% killing with TNF-roxithromycin, and 56 +/- 4% killing of intracellular M. avium complex with TNF-amikacin after 4 days. The mycobactericidal effect was enhanced (91 +/- 4% killing by roxithromycinamikacin). Combinations of antimicrobial agents with immunomodulators like TNF may be useful for treatment of M. avium complex infection.

rulide generic name 2016-11-20

To determine the effect Cleocin Gel Generic of the macrolide, roxithromycin (RX), on arterial vasoactivity.

rulide generic name 2017-05-15

The chlorination behaviours of 12 antibiotics belonging to six classes at environmentally relevant concentrations were systematically examined under typical conditions relevant to municipal wastewater Biaxin Cost At Walmart chlorination. Cefotaxime, cefalexin, ampicillin and tetracycline were completely removed under all three initial free chlorine dosages (5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L). The removal efficiencies of sulphamethoxazole, sulphadiazine, roxithromycin, anhydro-erythromycin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were closely correlated to the residual free chlorine concentration, and no further significant mass removal was observed after the residual free chlorine concentration decreased to less than ≈ 0.75 mg/L. Ammonia plays a critical role during chlorination because of its competition with antibiotics for free chlorine to form combined chlorine, which reacts slowly with these antibiotics. Except for norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, the removal behaviours of the 10 other target antibiotics under ammonia nitrogen concentrations ranging from 2 to 15 mg/L were characterised by a rapid initial removal rate upon contact with free chlorine during the first 5 s-1 min (depending on the specific antibiotic and ammonia nitrogen concentration) and then a much slower removal rate. Free chlorine was responsible for the reaction with antibiotics during the rapid stage (first 5 s-1 min), whereas combined chlorine reacted with antibiotics in the subsequent slow stage. Combined chlorine can remove norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin at a relatively faster rate. The presence of suspended solids at 30 mg/L slightly decreased the antibiotic removal rate. The kinetic rate constants decreased by 2.1-13.9%, while the half-lives increased by 2.0-15.0% compared to those of a 0 mg/L suspended solid for the target antibiotics.

rulide generic name 2016-01-02

To examine the potential anti-androgenic activity of anti-acne therapeutic agents, nadifloxacin (NDFX), RXM, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), and glycolic acid (GA), we carried out the transient transfection assays using the CV-1 cells as a more sensitive assay Injection Lasix Generic Name system.

rulide generic name 2017-11-25

The high absorption potential of telithromycin combined with the low Km and Vm values and the high dose level suggest that in humans the efflux pump may not limit ketolide absorption and that the interaction with other P-GP substrates may not significantly increase its oral absorption.

rulide generic name 2017-01-21

A selective, rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantitative determination of azithromycin in human plasma and its application in a pharmacokinetic study. With roxithromycin as internal standard, sample pretreatment involved a one-step extraction with diethyl ether of 0.5 mL plasma. The analysis was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C(18) column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, i.d., 1.7 microm) with gradient elution at flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. The mobile phase was 50 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI). Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 1-1000 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD) values were below 15% and accuracy (RE) was -1.3% to 5.7% at all QC levels. The method was applicable to clinical pharmacokinetic study of azithromycin in healthy volunteers following oral administration.

rulide generic name 2015-05-05

We studied the immunological and histopathological factors that affect the prognosis of chronic rhinosinusitis under long-term low-dose macrolide therapy. Sixteen patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were given 200 mg clarithromycin or 150 mg roxithromycin orally once a day without other concurrent treatments for 2-3 months. Measurement of the serum IgE level, blood cell count and differential leukocyte count of the peripheral blood, cytological assessment of the nasal smear and computed tomographic (CT) scans of the paranasal sinuses were performed before treatment. The opacity of the sinuses was estimated and scored by the CT images. After treatment, anterior ethmoidal mucosa samples were collected, an infiltrated inflammatory cells, interferon (IFN)-gamma-positive cells and interleukin (IL)-4-positive cells were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. The severity of nasal symptoms was scored before and after treatment, and the improvement rate of the score (symptomatic improvement rate) was calculated. Patients with normal levels of serum IgE (