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Universal quantitative models using NIR reflectance spectroscopy were developed for the analysis of API contents (active pharmaceutical ingredient) in roxithromycin and erythromycin ethylsuccinate tablets from different manufacturers in China. The two quantitative models were built from 78 batches of roxithromycin samples from 18 different manufacturers with the API content range from 19.5% to 73.9%, and 66 batches erythromycin ethylsuccinate tablets from 36 manufacturers with the API content range from 28.1% to 70.9%. Three different spectrometers were used for model construction in order to have robust and universal models. The root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) and the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of the model for roxithromycin tablets were 1.84% and 1.45%, respectively. The values of RMSECV and RMSEP of the model for erythromycin ethylsuccinate tablets were 2.31% and 2.16%, respectively. Based on the ICH guidelines and characteristics of NIR spectroscopy, the quantitative models were then evaluated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and model transferability. Our study has shown that it is feasible to build a universal quantitative model for quick analysis of pharmaceutical products from different manufacturers. Therefore, the NIR method could be used as an effective method for quick, non-destructive inspection of medicines in the distribution channels or open market.
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The efficacy and tolerance of roxithromycin 150 mg b.i.d. were compared with those of erythromycin stearate 500 mg b.i.d. in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Out of 86 patients recruited for the study, 79 were evaluable for tolerance and 76 for efficacy. These patients were evenly distributed among the 3 investigational clinics, with 26, 25 and 28 patients, respectively. The diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections was based on clinical, laboratory, radiological and/or physical findings and, when available, bacteriological and serological findings. The duration of treatment was 10 days, with follow-up at post-treatment visits directly after treatment and 6 weeks thereafter. The clinical outcome was satisfactory with no significant difference between the drugs. More patients reporting adverse events were on erythromycin than on roxithromycin (51.3% vs 17.5%; p = 0.003). The results suggest that roxithromycin is as effective as erythromycin stearate in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections and causes fewer adverse effects.
The susceptibility of 180 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyrogenes from six regions of The Netherlands to the macrolide antibiotics azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin was analysed. The results of a microbroth MIC method, the E-test method and a disk diffusion assay were compared, and the MBC determined. In addition, the susceptibility to erythromycin of 436 clinical isolates of S. pyogenes from the Leiden region was determined. The microbroth MIC90s of azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin for group A streptococci were < or = 0.5 mg/L. Erythromycin had the lowest MIC90 (0.09 mg/L). The MIC data obtained with the E-test method suggested that clarithromycin and erythromycin had slightly higher anti-streptococcal activity than azithromycin and roxithromycin in vitro. MICs obtained with the E-test were lower than those found with the microbroth method. Only minor discrepancies were observed among the three methods. The MBC50 for both clarithromycin and erythromycin was 0.75 mg/L and 5.0 mg/L for azithromycin and roxithromycin. None of the 180 strains and two of the collection of 436 strains (0.5%) were resistant to erythromycin and the other macrolides tested; MICs ranged from 1 to 16 mg/L. The erythromycin-resistant strains showed an inducible type of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS) resistance.
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Over a 12 month period 101 patients with extra-hospitalary pneumonia who attended the Emergency Department were studied. Of these, 53 were treated as out patients (5 with amoxicillin-clavulanic, 25 with erythromycin and 23 with roxithromycin at daily doses of 300 mg for 10 days). The treatment was randomly chosen, with no patient selection, thus making heterogeneous groups and, therefore, the study could not be comparative.
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The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of five macrolides (roxithromycin, erythromycin, troleandomycin, josamycin and spiramycin) were tested against 284 bacterial strains belonging to various species of Gram positive (staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, Listeria sp, Corynebacterium sp, Bacillus sp) and Gram negative bacteria (Neisseria sp, H. influenzae, P. multocida). The activity of these compounds on the whole strains showed near results: 71.8% of susceptible strains to erythromycin and spiramycin, 70% to josamycin, 67.6% to roxithromycin, 65.5% to troleandomycin. Resisting strains were MLSB resistant cocci Gram positive, H. influenzae and P. multocida strains. Species usually less studied (nongroupable streptococci, Corynebacterium sp, Bacillus sp) were very susceptible to macrolides with MICS equal or inferior to 1 mg/l for the two last genus. A bactericidal effect was observed for 38.8% of 72 tested strains (erythromycin), 36.1% (josamycin), 34.7% (spiramycin), 31.9% (roxithromycin), 20.8% (troleandomycin). Among various tested species, this bactericidal effect concerned especially group A streptococci, N. meningitidis and Corynebacterium (except D2 and JK species).
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The use of inhalatory antibiotic in infectious exacerbations in patients with bronchiectasis was better than the oral way.
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The formation of cold agglutinins is frequently observed during Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. Nevertheless, severe hemolysis is exceptional. We report a case of life-threatening hemolytic anemia caused by M. pneumoniae. As the leucocyte count was excessively elevated, the differential diagnosis primarily comprised hematological malignancies. The presence of cold agglutinins indicated the correct diagnosis, which was confirmed by highly elevated levels of both IgG and IgM antibodies to M. pneumoniae and a chest X-ray suggestive of atypical pneumonia. The patient was treated with roxithromycin and showed a favorable recovery within ten days after admission. This case demonstrates that, even in patients with clinically mild pneumonia, M. pneumoniae may be the cause of severe anemia.
In vitro post-antibiotic effect (PAE) induced by erythromycin, roxithromycin, josamycin and spiramycin has been compared on Staphylococcus aureus. Three MLSB sensitive and three MLSB inducible resistant S. aureus strains have been used. delta t was the time required for culture to increase by 1 log10 after drug removal in comparison with controls. For erythromycin and roxithromycin delta t ranged from 6 minutes at 1 x MIC to 48 minutes at 4 x MIC (average of the six strains at 4 x MIC: 33 minutes). For josamycin and spiramycin, delta t ranged from 36 at 1/2 x MIC to 138 minutes at 4 x MIC (average at 4 x MIC: 101 minutes). No difference was observed between MLSB sensitive and MLSB inducible resistant S. aureus strains. In our experimental conditions, PAEs observed with josamycin and spiramycin (16-membered-ring macrolides) were 2.5 to 3 times longer than those observed with erythromycin and roxithromycin (14-membered-ring macrolides). These results added to biological differences previously observed between 14-membered-ring and 16-membered-ring macrolides.
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The clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis include coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, abdominal aortic aneurysm and peripheral vascular disease. World-wide, CAD and stroke are the leading causes of death and disability. The recognition of atherosclerosis as an inflammatory disease in its genesis, progression and ultimate clinical manifestations has created an interesting area of vascular research. Apart from those well-known traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, novel and potentially treatable atherosclerotic risk factors such as homocysteine (an amino acid derived from the metabolism of dietary methionine that induces vascular endothelial dysfunction) and infections have emerged. In fact, the century-old 'infectious' hypothesis of atherosclerosis has implicated a number of micro-organisms that may act as contributing inflammatory stimuli. Although cytomegalovirus, Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae are the three micro-organisms most extensively studied, this review will focus on C. pneumoniae. Collaborative efforts from many disciplines have resulted in the accumulation of evidence from seroepidemiological, pathological, animal model, immunological and antibiotic intervention studies, linking C. pneumoniae with atherosclerosis. Seroepidemiological observations provide circumstantial evidence, which is weak in most prospective studies. Pathological studies have demonstrated the preferential existence of C. pneumoniae in atherosclerotic plaque tissues, while animal model experiments have shown the induction of atherosclerosis by C. pneumoniae. Finally, immunological processes whereby C. pneumoniae could participate in key atherogenic and atherothrombotic events have also been identified. Although benefits of the secondary prevention of atherosclerosis have been demonstrated in some antibiotic intervention studies, a number of negative studies have also emerged. The results of the ongoing large prospective human antibiotic intervention trials may help to finally establish if there is a causal link between C. pneumoniae infection and atherosclerosis.
The role of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in precipitating acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unclear. Some studies have indicated that intervention with macrolide antibiotics might reduce coronary events in patients with ACS. A double blind, randomized, placebo-control trial was conducted on 84 ACS patients. Patients were randomized to 30 days of treatment with roxithromycin (150 mg, twice daily) or matching placebo. The follow-up period was 90 days, and the primary clinical end point included cardiovascular death, unplanned revascularization and recurrent angina/MI. Anti-C. pneumoniae IgG positive in 24 of 43 (55.8%) patients in the roxithromycin group and 23 of 41 (56.1%) patients in the placebo group. Anti-C. pneumoniae IgA positive in 20 of 43 (46.5%) patients in the roxithromycin group and 13 of 41 (31.7%) patients in the placebo group. Thirty-three cardiac events occurred (2 cardiovascular deaths, 9 CABG, 12 PTCA and 10 recurrent angina/MI) with 17 events in the roxithromycin group and 16 events in the placebo group. There was no significant difference of cardiac events between the roxithromycin and placebo groups. The present study suggests that antibiotic therapy with roxithromycin is not associated with reduction of cardiac events as reported by other investigators. However, therapeutic interventions may need to be specifically targeted to a group of patients who are confirmed with chronic C. pneumoniae infection.
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Since serious sequelae may follow streptococcal infections, eradication is viewed as necessary for successful therapy. Studies were therefore conducted to compare the effectiveness of azithromycin with other macrolide antibiotics and amoxycillin to eliminate these organisms in experimental localized infections. In a Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection induced by transtracheal challenge, the pathogen was not recovered after therapy with azithromycin (ED50 7.9 mg/kg), while clarithromycin was not effective (ED50 > 100 mg/kg). However, in a S. pneumoniae middle ear infection, azithromycin and clarithromycin were effective (ED50 2.9 and 6.3 mg/kg, respectively) in eradicating the pathogen from this closed space infection. Against a localized Streptococcus pyogenes infection (implanted inoculated disc), azithromycin effectively eradicated the pathogen, while clarithromycin, roxithromycin and erythromycin did not. Eradication of a viridans streptococcus or Streptococcus gordonii (formerly Streptococcus sanguis) from heart tissue in experimental bacterial endocarditis was also evaluated. Azithromycin given prophylactically or therapeutically was efficacious in eliminating the viridans streptococcus and S. gordonii in the bacterial endocarditis model of infection; erythromycin was only marginally effective in the same studies. All studies provided evidence of the bactericidal action of azithromycin in vivo and demonstrated the ability of the compound to eradicate streptococcal pathogens in localized infections.
An automated on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) system was developed for the determination of macrolide antibiotics including erythromycin (ETM), roxithromycin (RTM), tylosin (TLS) and tilmicosin (TMC) in environmental water samples. A Capcell Pak MF Ph-1 column packed with restricted access material (RAM) was used as SPE column for the concentration of the analytes and clean-up of the sample. One milliliter water sample was injected into the conditioned SPE column and the matrix was washed out with 3 mL high purity water. By rotation of the switching valve, macrolides (MLs) were eluted in the back-flush mode and transferred to the analytical column by the chromatographic mobile phase. The matrix effect was evaluated by the directly injection LC-MS and on-line SPE-LC-MS methods. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) obtained are in the range of 2-6 and 7-20 ng L(-1), respectively, which means that the proposed method is suitable for trace analysis of MLs at low level concentration. The intra- and inter-day precisions are in the range of 2.9-7.2% and 3.3-8.9%, respectively. In the three fortified levels (20, 200 and 2000 ng L(-1)), recoveries of MLs ranging from 86.5% to 98.3% are obtained.
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In comparison to placebo, roxithromycin 300 mg daily for 4 weeks reduced the expansion rate of AAAs.