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Thirty nine subjects with a first episode of psychosis referred to the Nova Scotia Early Psychosis Program in Halifax, Canada, were invited to participate in this study. Standardized clinical, laboratory, and neuropsychological assessments were performed at baseline and following treatment with quetiapine at intervals out to 2 years.
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Prevalent antipsychotic polypharmacy adds substantial cost to the treatment of schizophrenia. Comparison of medication costs need to address the costs of all antipsychotics. A better understanding of concomitant antipsychotic costs provides a more accurate portrayal of antipsychotic medication costs in the treatment of schizophrenia.
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The use of quetiapine as a drug to treat various substance use disorders as well as a drug of abuse is examined.
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For a patient starting with acute depression or in remission at 40 years of age (which was the average age in the clinical trials), quetiapine 300 mg/day was a cost-effective strategy compared with olanzapine 15 mg/day over a 5-year time frame. With acute bipolar depression as a starting episode, the 5-year medical costs were £323 higher and QALYs were 0.038 higher for quetiapine compared with olanzapine, corresponding to a cost-effectiveness ratio of £8600 per QALY gained.
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Quetiapine, originally developed as an antipsychotic, demonstrates efficacy in clinical studies of schizophrenia, bipolar mania and depression, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. This broad spectrum of efficacy was not predicted from the preclinical pharmacology of quetiapine. Binding studies in vitro show that quetiapine and its major active human metabolite, norquetiapine, have moderate to high affinity for dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, while norquetiapine alone has high affinity for the norepinephrine transporter (NET). This positron emission tomography (PET) study measured NET occupancy in human subjects treated with extended-release quetiapine (quetiapine XR) at doses relevant in the treatment of depression. PET measurements using the specific NET radioligand (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D2 were performed before and after quetiapine XR treatment at 150 and 300 mg/d for 6-8 d in nine healthy males (aged 21-33 yr). Regions of interest were defined for the thalamus, using the caudate as reference region. NET occupancy was calculated using a target:reference region ratio method. Plasma concentrations of quetiapine and norquetiapine were monitored during PET measurements. Following quetiapine XR treatment, the mean NET occupancy in the thalamus was 19 and 35%, respectively, at quetiapine XR doses of 150 and 300 mg/d. The estimated plasma concentration of norquetiapine corresponding to 50% NET occupancy was 161 ng/ml. This is the first demonstration of NET occupancy by an antipsychotic in the human brain. NET inhibition is accepted as a mechanism of antidepressant activity. NET occupancy may therefore contribute to the broad spectrum of efficacy of quetiapine.
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In the model analysis, adjunctive quetiapine with lithium or valproate was associated with a 54% reduction in the occurrence of acute mood events, a 29% reduction in acute mood event-related hospitalization costs, and a 4% improvement in QALY gains, with 5% lower total direct costs than placebo + lithium/valproate. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (in year-2007 pound) were 506 per additional acute mood event avoided, 4261 per additional acute mood event-related hospitalization prevented, and -7453 per additional QALY gained. The sensitivity analyses indicated that these results were robust.
Agitation can present as an emergency in the course of numerous psychiatric conditions including intoxication, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and delirium. This article reviews relevant literature regarding the definition, etiology, measurement, and management of episodic agitation and pays particular attention to intramuscular treatments. The impact of changes in methodology between the era of first- and second-generation antipsychotics, the implications of those changes for external validity of studies of second-generation studies, and the recent evolution of expert consensus are discussed.
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Eight of the 25 (32 %) "switch" patients dropped out due to psychotic exacerbation during the 8 weeks. In the remaining 17 (68 %) patients, serum prolactin levels were significantly decreased without any significant change in PANSS scores after switching. The 17 patients who completed the switch had previously demonstrated significantly lower positive symptom scores compared to the 8 dropout patients.
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RGS4 genotypes predicted both the severity of baseline symptoms and relative responsiveness to antipsychotic treatment. Although these analyses are exploratory and replication is required, these data provide support for RGS4 in schizophrenia pathogenesis and suggest a functional role for RGS4 in differential antipsychotic treatment efficacy of schizophrenia.
No large-scale randomized trial has compared the effect of different second-generation antipsychotic drugs and any first-generation drug on alcohol, drug and nicotine use in patients with schizophrenia. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness study randomly assigned 1432 patients formally diagnosed with schizophrenia to four second-generation antipsychotic drugs (olanzapine, risperidone quetiapine, and ziprasidone) and one first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) and followed them for up to 18 months. Secondary outcome data documented cigarettes smoked in the past week and alcohol and drug use severity ratings. At baseline, 61% of patients smoked, 35% used alcohol, and 23% used illicit drugs. Although there were significant effects of time showing reduction in substance use over the 18 months (all p < 0.0001), this study found no evidence that any antipsychotic was robustly superior to any other in a secondary analysis of data on substance use outcomes from a large 18-month randomized schizophrenia trial.
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From October 2005 to January 2011, a prospective, randomized, open-label study was undertaken. 202 first-episode drug-naïve patients were randomly assigned to Aripiprazole (N = 78), Ziprasidone (N = 62), or Quetiapine (N = 62) and followed-up for 3 months. The primary effectiveness measure was all-cause of treatment discontinuation. In addition, an analysis based on intention-to-treat populations was conducted in the analysis for clinical efficacy.
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A total of 407 patients made up the safety population, consisting of 59 older adults (aged >or=55 years) and 348 younger adults. A total of 403 patients made up the efficacy population, consisting of 59 older adults and 344 younger adults. Efficacy outcomes were analyzed using covariance models (ANCOVA); descriptive statistics are presented for safety outcomes.
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Despite the limitations of the design, our results suggest that the generic quetiapine, Ketilept in patients with acute schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder is therapeutic equivalent to the innovator drug in terms of efficacy, tolerability and safety.
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This study aims to assess the abnormalities in the brains of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients treated with quetiapine using another advanced nonrigid registration method, hierarchical attribute matching mechanism for elastic registration, through the application of DBM in the entire brain.