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L-Dopa is the major symptomatic therapy for Parkinson's disease, which commonly occurs in elderly patients. However, the effects of chronic use on mood and cognition in old subjects remain elusive. In order to compare the effects of a chronic pulsatile L-Dopa treatment on emotional and cognitive functions in young (3 months) and old (18 months) intact rats, an L-Dopa/carbidopa treatment was administered every 12 h over 4 weeks. Rats were assessed for behavioural despair (repeated forced swimming test, RFST), anhedonia (sucrose preference test, SPT) and spatial learning (Morris water maze, MWM) in the late phase of treatment (T). Neuronal expression of Fos in the hippocampus at the early and late phases of T, as well as after MWM was studied. The density and ratio of dopamine D5r, D3r and D2r receptors were also evaluated in the hippocampus using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Young rats showed similar patterns during behavioural tests, whereas aged treated rats showed increased immobility counts in RFST, diminished sucrose liquid intake in SPT, and spatial learning impairment during MWM. Fos expression was significantly blunted in the aged treated group after MWM. The density of D5r, D3r and D2r was increased in both aged groups. The treatment reduced the ratio of D5r/D3r and D5r/D2r in both groups. Moreover, aged treated subjects had significant lower values of D5r/D3r and higher values of D5r/D2r when compared with young treated subjects. These results indicate that chronic L-Dopa treatment in itself could trigger emotional and cognitive dysfunctions in elderly subjects through dopamine receptor dysregulation.
Motor fluctuations and non-response to carbidopa-levodopa (Sinemet) therapy are major problems in the long-term management of Parkinson's disease. Levodopa manipulation, addition of adjuvants, and drug holidays are often unsuccessful. Others have shown that the clinical state of stabilized Parkinsonians can be reversed with intravenous administration of large neutral amino acids. Reasoning that dietary protein might precipitate motor oscillations and non-response, a low-protein daytime diet (7 g) was offered to fifteen patients. Eighty-six percent of this sample demonstrated immediate sensitivity to Sinemet. While on a low-protein diet, patients' clinical function was predominantly choreatic. Eight patients required a 10-60 percent reduction in their daily levodopa dose in order to minimize this choreatic tendency. Discontinuation of adjuvants did not compromise motor independence. Conversely, while on a high-protein diet (160 g), patients were predominantly immobile with markedly elevated plasma amino acid and levodopa levels. Consequently, elimination of dietary protein from breakfast and lunch can offer an effective and easily modified method for the amelioration of motor fluctuations and non-response to Sinemet in Parkinson's disease during working hours.
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The present report describes a case of choreoathetotic movements which were most probably induced by sildenafil in a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with levodopa/carbidopa (LD/CD).
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Thirty-eight patients newly diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease (mean age, 57.3 years; mean Parkinson's disease duration, 2.7 years) in the earlier phase of the disease (mean Hoehn/Yahr stage, 2; mean motor scores, 11.4) were given selegiline (Deprenyl), 10 mg daily, and maintained on this drug alone until significant clinical worsening warranted the addition of low-dose levodopa (Sinemet, 25/100 three to four doses per day). Five of these patients were not yet receiving additional levodopa despite some worsening of motor scores. Of the 33 patients now taking combined therapy, seven have been followed up for 6 months or less. Twenty-four (92%) of the 26 patients taking combined therapy for a mean of 26 months (8.5 to 99 months) who have had Parkinson's disease for 6 years showed a dramatic improvement in their parkinsonism shortly after the addition of levodopa, with significant decreases in their rated motor scores, such improvement being maintained at their latest neurologic evaluation. Eighteen (75%) of these 24 patients responded to the combined selegiline/levodopa therapy with degrees of improvement equal to or greater than 50%, compared with their motor status at the start of combined therapy just before the addition of levodopa. This degree of "reversal" of parkinsonism on addition of levodopa (mean carbidopa/levodopa dose, 98/389 mg) was not observed in any of these same patients receiving selegiline alone for an average of 13.8 months. Four patients taking combined therapy developed mild, transient, abnormal involuntary movements, and end-of-dose pattern of response after more than 2 years of combined therapy (24.75 and 33.5 months, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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This case report describes a 15-year-old male patient with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System Level III, who developed severe new cognitive and motoric impairments after the administration of haloperidol. He received this dopamine antagonist and typical antipsychotic medication for an acute postoperative episode of agitation. He improved when he received the dopamine agonists amantadine and carbidopa/levodopa. This case suggests that dopamine blockade may be deleterious for individuals with cerebral palsy. Potential explanations for the events observed in this case are also presented.
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DL-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (DL-threo-DOPS) was administered during 10 days to 4 patients with longstanding Parkinson's disease in addition to their treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA)-carbidopa (Sinemet). All patients tended to improve in their symptoms freezing, all day life activity and mood. There were no improvements in rigidity, tremor, and akinesia (in general). During the DL-threo-DOPS-treatment cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum and urine concentrations of catecholamines were measured. The results show that DL-threo-DOPS is transported to the brain and CSF in a way comparable with L-DOPA. However, no measurable increase of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MOPEG) in CSF could be demonstrated. This suggests that the synthesis of noradrenaline from DL-threo-DOPS in the brain is doubtful. In addition measurements in urine reveals that at the dose used Sinemet prevents peripheral decarboxylation of DL-threo-DOPS into noradrenaline. Other possible metabolic pathways of DL-threo-DOPS are discussed.
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Together these results support the hypothesis that, in healthy men, dopamine is not closely linked to euphorogenic effects of abused substances but does affect the salience of reward-related cues and the ability to respond to them preferentially.
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Economic appraisal differs from clinical assessment, and decision makers benefit from analysis of naturalistic, actual practice data. Despite reviewing the initial trial-based, 'piggy-back' economic analysis, TLV was uncertain of the cost effectiveness in actual practice and deferred a final decision until observational data from the DAPHNE study became available. Second, acceptance of economic modelling and use of temporary reimbursement conditional on additional evidence development provide a mechanism for risk sharing between TLV and manufacturers, which enabled patient access to a drug with proven clinical benefit while necessary evidence to support claims of cost effectiveness could be generated.
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Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and systemic exposure (AUCt, AUCinf) for LD and CD increased dose-proportionally over the range of the IPX066 capsule strengths. Comparison of 1 and 2 IPX066 245-mg LD capsules showed dose-proportional pharmacokinetics for Cmax and AUCt. Sprinkling the capsule contents on applesauce did not affect the pharmacokinetics. A high-fat, high-calorie meal delayed the initial increase in LD concentration by approximately 1 to 2 hours, reduced Cmax by 21%, and increased AUCinf by 13% compared with the fasted state.
Following concomitant administration with levodopa/carbidopa CR 200 mg/50 mg, single doses of nebicapone 50 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg significantly and dose-dependently inhibited S-COMT activity, increased systemic exposure to levodopa, and reduced 3-OMD formation.
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Parkinson's disease clinic at a tertiary care university teaching hospital.