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Tegretol (Carbamazepine)
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Also known as:  Carbamazepine.

Description

Generic Tegretol target is the treatment of simple and complex forms of seizure. It is also used to treat nerve pain of the face such as trigeminal neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy, bipolar disorder. Generic Tegretol is acting by reducing the action of nerve which causes pain and seizures. It is anticonvulsant.

Generic name of Generic Tegretol is Carbamazepine.

Tegretol is also known as Carbamazepine, Tegrital.

Brand names of Generic Tegretol are Tegretol, Tegretol XR, Epitol, Equetro, Carbatrol.

Dosage

Generic Tegretol is available in tablets (100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg), chewable tablets, extended release tablets and suspension.

Do not crush, chew, or break the extended release tablets.

Before taking the liquid form of Generic Tegretol you should shake it.

Chewable tablets should be chewed before swallowing.

The treatment with Generic Tegretol can be resulting after 4 weeks.

For trigeminal neuralgia treatment

The starting dose of Generic Tegretol is 100 mg taken twice a day.

For bipolar disorders treatment

The starting dose of Generic Tegretol is 200-400 mg a day in divided doses.

Take Generic Tegretol at the same time every day, with or without food.

Take Generic Tegretol tablets orally with water.

Avoid grapefruit and grapefruit juice.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Tegretol suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Tegretol and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Tegretol overdosage: fast heartbeat, difficulties with shallow and breathing, nausea, impatience, muscle twitches, seizures, dizziness, slurred speech, tremors, languor, vomiting, problems with urinating.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Protect from moisture. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Tegretol are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Tegretol if you are allergic to Generic Tegretol components.

Do not take Generic Tegretol if you ever had an allergy to antidepressants such as desipramine (Norpramin), amitriptyline (Elavil), imipramine (Tofranil), clomipramine (Anafranil), doxepin (Sinequan), nortriptyline (Pamelor).

Do not take Generic Tegretol if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take Generic Tegretol if you are taking such medicines as selegiline (such as Eldepryl, Emsam), tranylcypromine (such as Parnate), isocarboxazid (such as Marplan)), MAO inhibitor (phenelzine (such as Nardil), sleeping drugs.

Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Generic Tegretol if you suffer from or have a history of liver or heart disease; mental illness; lupus, glaucoma, bone marrow suppression.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Tegretol.

Be careful with sunlight. Try to protect your skin.

If you experience drowsiness and dizziness while taking Generic Tegretol you should avoid any activities such as driving or operating machinery.

Avoid alcohol while taking Generic Tegretol.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Tegretol taking suddenly.

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Benzodiazepines are the mainstay of treatment for mild-to-moderate alcohol withdrawal in outpatient settings, but they can interact with alcohol, cause motor incoordination, or be abused. This study compared the therapeutic responses of the benzodiazepine lorazepam and the anticonvulsant carbamazepine for the outpatient treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal in terms of patients' previous detoxification histories, and compared the effects of these 2 medications on drinking behaviors in the immediate postdetoxification period.

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While 10% of healthy men had sexual dysfunctions, male epilepsy patients experience sexual problems in 40-70%. The cause of sexual dysfunction in epilepsy is multifactorial, but there are three main factors: the epilepsy itself, antiepileptic treatment and psychiatric/psychic problems. Antiepileptics with hepatic enzyme induction potential (carbamazepine, phenytoin) enhance the metabolism of sexual steroids. Valproic acid as an enzyme inhibitor and drug with high protein binding affinity elevates the free serum levels of androgens. Certain antiepileptic drugs may have negative cognitive side effects, some of them can induce psychiatric disorders. These drugs can facilitate male sexual dysfunctions through these psychic side effects. The metabolic and endocrine alterations caused by carbamazepine may return to normal level after replacement of carbamazepine with oxcarbazepine. After an oxcarbazepine-carbamazepine replacement, carbamazepine-induced impotency can be cured. According some new data lamotrigine can also help in sexual dysfunction. The therapy of sexual dysfunction in epilepsy depends on its cause. In cases of hormonal alterations, the fist step is a change of antiepileptic regimen. Instead of enzyme-inductor antiepileptics and valproate, new antiepileptic drugs should be prescribed. At present, the most investigated antiepileptic drug is the oxcarbazepine with positive effect on antiepileptic-induced male sexual dysfunction, however, lamotrigine seems to be also beneficial. If the hormonal and sexual dysfunctions cannot be eliminated by drug changes, androgenic therapy or bromocriptine may be required. Testosterone may not only be beneficial on sexual functions, but can reduce also the seizure frequency. Independent of etiology, erectile dysfunctions can be successfully treated by sildenafil.

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Although the unfavorable effects of early antiepileptic drugs, valproic acid, and carbamazepine (CBZ) on cognitive functions and visual functions have been investigated, the unfavorable effects of levetiracetam (LEV) on cognitive and visual functions remain unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference between the adverse effects by comparing the P300 and P100 latencies of LEV with epileptic patients using CBZ or sodium valproate (VPA) and healthy subjects.

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Photodermatosis with hydroxychloroquine have rarely been described in the literature, while quinine from which hydroxychloroquine is derived, is well known for its risk of photosensibilization. The main differential diagnosis of these drug eruptions is an eruption caused by the photodermatosis that initially required treatment with hydroxychloroquine.

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With the increasing use of treated wastewater and biosolids in agriculture, residues of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in these reused resources may contaminate food produce via plant uptake, constituting a route for human exposure. Although various PPCPs have been reported to be taken up by plants in laboratories or under field conditions, at present little information is available on their metabolism in plants. In this study, we applied carrot cell cultures to investigate the plant metabolism of PPCPs. Five phase I metabolites of carbamazepine were identified and the potential metabolism pathways of carbamazepine were proposed. We also used the carrot cell cultures as a rapid screening tool to initially assess the metabolism potentials of 18 PPCPs. Eleven PPCPs, including acetaminophen, caffeine, meprobamate, primidone, atenolol, trimethoprim, DEET, carbamazepine, dilantin, diazepam, and triclocarban, were found to be recalcitrant to metabolism. The other 7 PPCPs, including triclosan, naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, sulfamethoxazole, and atorvastatin, displayed rapid metabolism, with 0.4-47.3% remaining in the culture at the end of the experiment. Further investigation using glycosidase hydrolysis showed that 1.3-20.6% of initially spiked naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil were transformed into glycoside conjugates. Results from this study showed that plant cell cultures may be a useful tool for initially exploring the potential metabolites of PPCPs in plants as well as for rapidly screening the metabolism potentials of a variety of PPCPs or other emerging contaminants, and therefore may be used for prioritizing compounds for further comprehensive evaluations.

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Patients on CBZ (n=91), VPA (n=61), LTG (n=105), LEV (n=72) and healthy control subjects (CTR) on no medication (n=51) were extracted. All patients had anonymously provided information on seizure type and frequency and completed the Liverpool Adverse Event Profile (LAEP).

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To provide an overview of the relative analgesic efficacy of antiepileptic drugs that have been compared with placebo in neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia, and to report on adverse events associated with their use.

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A 49-year-old man was treated with cisplatin and pirarubicin for tongue cancer. After the second course of chemotherapy, partial seizures including transient motor aphasia, tonic finger movement, and loss of consciousness were observed. The EEG showed frequent diffuse (multiple) spike and slow wave discharges. Following the administration of carbamazepine and diazepam, no seizures occurred and no paroxysmal discharges were observed or EEGs. We conclude that carbamazepine and diazepam administration was effective.

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Retigabine (D-2319, 0.5-20 mg/kg i.p.) antagonised dose dependently audiogenic seizures in DBA/2 mice. Retigabine at 0.5 mg/kg i.p., a dose that per se did not affect the occurrence of audiogenic seizures significantly, potentiated the anticonvulsant activity of carbamazepine, diazepam, felbamate, lamotrigine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and valproate against sound-induced seizures in DBA/2 mice. The degree of additivity for the effect induced by retigabine was greatest for diazepam, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate, less for carbamazepine and lamotrigine and least for felbamate. The increase in anticonvulsant activity was usually associated with a comparable increase in motor impairment. However, the therapeutic index of combined treatment (drugs plus retigabine), was more favourable than the same drug plus vehicle. Since retigabine had no significant influence on the total and free plasma levels of the anticonvulsant drugs, pharmacokinetic interactions, in terms of total or free plasma levels, are not probable. However, the possibility that retigabine modifies the clearance of the anticonvulsant drugs from the brain cannot be excluded. Retigabine had no significant effect on the hypothermic effects of the anticonvulsants tested. In conclusion, retigabine showed an additive effect when administered in combination with classical anticonvulsants, most notably diazepam, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate.

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(1) The reference treatment for partial epilepsy in adults and children is carbamazepine. (2) Oxcarbazepine is available in the European Union for the treatment of partial epilepsy in adults and children aged over 6 years, alone or in combination with other antiepileptic drugs. (3) The clinical file on oxcarbazepine monotherapy of recent-onset generalised or partial epilepsy mainly contains data from one trial versus carbamazepine, two trials versus phenytoin, and one trial versus valproate sodium. In these trials, 52-60% of patients had no seizures on oxcarbazepine, a proportion not significantly different from that obtained with the comparators. Oxcarbazepine may, in fact, be slightly less effective than carbamazepine. (4) For refractory partial epilepsy (especially forms refractory to carbamazepine), oxcarbazepine is more effective than a placebo, when combined with the inadequately effective treatment, as shown in two trials. Two dose-finding studies show that 2 400 mg/day oxcarbazepine is more effective than 300 mg/day. (5) In trials comparing single-drug treatments there were fewer withdrawals for adverse events among patients on oxcarbazepine than among those on carbamazepine or phenytoin. Compared with carbamazepine, the risk of cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions seems to be lower with oxcarbazepine, while the risk of hyponatraemia is higher. This risk of hyponatraemia necessitates laboratory monitoring. (6) The risk of clinically significant interactions appears to be lower on oxcarbazepine than on carbamazepine, and is limited mainly to combined contraceptives (contraceptive inefficacy) and phenytoin. (7) In practice, carbamazepine remains the reference treatment for partial epilepsy, but oxcarbazepine is one of several second-line options, either alone or in combination with other antiepileptics.

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We evaluated the use of a new, controlled-release capsule form of carbamazepine, Carbatrol capsules, in an open-label, multicenter study of 124 patients with complex partial seizures. Ninety-one percent of the patients successfully completed the 6-month trial with good seizure control, with a significant improvement in quality of life. We conclude that switching patients with complex partial seizures from multiple daily-dose carbamazepine to twice-daily Carbatrol on a milligram-to-milligram basis is relatively safe.

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Three age-matched (p = 0.286) and sex-matched (p = 0.398) groups were studied: drug-naive TLE (n = 20); TLE on CBZ (n = 20); and healthy controls (n = 40). All groups underwent overnight polysomnography. Scoring and analysis of arousals and cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters were performed. Comparison of arousal parameters and CAP parameters was performed using either one-way analysis of variance or the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by pairwise comparisons (p ≤ 0.05).

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The old AEDs generation (benzodiazepines, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital and valproic acid) is teratogenic: minor congenital malformations, such as facial dysmorphism and other anomalies, occur in 6-20% of infants exposed to AEDs in utero; this value is two times greater than the value reported in the general population. Major congenital malformations (MCM) such as cleft lip and cleft palate, heart defects (atrial septal defect, Fallot's tetralogy, ventricular septal defect, aortic coarctation, patent ductus arteriosus, and pulmonary stenosis) and urogenital anomalies were estimated to be 4-6% of infants born from mothers treated with AEDs, compared to 2-3% of the general population.

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tegretol xr generic 2016-12-13

Further study Bactrim F Tab is required to establish whether carbamazepine-induced concomitant rashes and blood dyscrasias are valid associations insofar as monitoring is concerned.

tegretol overdose symptoms 2016-01-16

Amitriptyline and lamotrigine are the only oral drugs proven to be effective in the treatment of CPSP in a placebo-controlled study. IV drugs such as lidocaine, propofol, and ketamine have shown efficacy for short-term control of Geodon Dosing Im CPSP, but their application and potential side effects make them unsuitable for long-term treatment. The novel antiepileptic drug gabapentin has been reported to control CPSP in a few patients.

tegretol alcohol liver 2016-01-16

While diagnoses were made prospectively, treatment response was assessed retrospectively, and Priligy Online Review was based on non-randomized, naturalistic therapy.

tegretol 75 mg 2015-08-05

It is shown here that carbamazepine (CBZ) would undergo direct photolysis and reaction with (•)OH as the main phototransformation pathways in surface waters. Environmental lifetimes are expected to vary from a few weeks to several months, and predictions are in good agreement with available field data. Acridine (I) and 10,11-dihydro-10,11-trans-dihydroxy-CBZ (V) are the main quantified phototransformation intermediates upon direct photolysis and (•)OH reaction, respectively. The photochemical yield of mutagenic I from CBZ is in the 3-3.5% range, and it is similar for both direct photolysis and (•)OH reaction: it would undergo limited variation with environmental conditions. In contrast, the yield of V would vary in the 4-8.5% range depending on the conditions, because V is formed from CBZ by (•)OH (9.0% yield) more effectively than upon direct photolysis (1.4% yield). Other important photointermediates, mostly formed from CBZ upon (•)OH reaction, are an aromatic-ring-dihydroxylated CBZ (VI) and N,N-bis(2-carboxyphenyl)urea (VII). Compounds VI and VII are formed by photochemistry and are not reported as human metabolites; thus, they could be used as tracers of CBZ phototransformation in surface waters. Interestingly, VI has recently been detected Cenforce Online Net in river water.

tegretol patient reviews 2015-05-06

There was a slight predominance of men (55.11%) over women (44,8%). A great majority of the patients did not have family history of epilepsy, and Alcohol Zithromax the average age of on set was 20.062 years. Idiopathic epilepsy was predominant with a 48,3%, 26,77% were cryptogenic and 25,19% symptomatic. Of this, the most frequent etiology was sclerosis and atrophy of the temporal lobe, followed by cerebrovascular disease. As to image studies 96,06% had CT, MRI or both; and 94,48% had an EEG. Of all the patients a great majority are receiving treatment with one antiepileptic drug (81,88%). Valproic acid and carbamazepine are the most commonly used. 51,98% of patients have not had a seizure in at least 8 months.

tegretol generic carbamazepine 2017-05-01

Pooled class I studies demonstrated a significantly lower risk of early post-traumatic seizures ( Allegra Otc Dose those occurring within 7 days after injury) in patients given phenytoin prophylaxis compared to controls (relative risk 0.37, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.74). Pooled class I and class II studies demonstrated no significant difference in the risk of late post-traumatic seizures (those occurring beyond 7 days after injury) in patients given AED prophylaxis compared to controls (relative risk 1.05, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.35). Serum AED levels were suboptimal in these studies and adverse effects were mild but frequent.

tegretol with alcohol 2016-05-05

There are limited pharmacokinetic data Mestinon Iv Dose for the use of carbamazepine, levetiracetam, lidocaine, paraldehyde, topiramate, valproic acid, and vigabatrin for neonates with seizures refractory to treatment with first-line antiepileptic agents. Further research is needed to elucidate target AED serum concentrations (if any) required to optimize effectiveness and minimize dose-related adverse effects in neonates.

tegretol 200 mg 2017-10-08

We studied the influence of an add-on medication with oxcarbazepine on the cyclosporine trough level in a kidney transplant recipient with Tulsi Vasaka Syrup pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Two weeks after the beginning of the trial we observed a decrease of the cyclosporine trough and the Na serum levels. Both could be corrected by a small-dose reduction of oxcarbazepine, an augmentation of the cyclosporine dosis, and oral sodium chloride substitution. After this episode the cyclosporine trough and the Na serum levels remained stable. Seizure frequency was reduced by 95%. The influence of oxcarbazepine on the cyclosporine serum level has to be studied carefully in other patients after transplantation before the use of oxcarbazepine can be recommended in patients with an immunosuppressive medication with cyclosporine. Our data suggest that oxcarbazepine may be an effective drug with tolerable side effects in this group of patients.

tegretol anxiety reviews 2017-12-29

The rapid and safe reduction of manic symptoms is an important initial goal of the pharmacologic treatment of acute mania. The pharmacokinetics and studies of pharmacologic loading of lithium, valproate, and carbamazepine were reviewed. In addition, the feasibility of administering other agents with potential efficacy in mania, e.g., atypical antipsychotics and new anticonvulsants, was discussed. Further double-blind, controlled studies with adequate sample sizes comparing loading strategies with more gradual titration schedules of candidate antimanic agents are needed Flagyl Syrup 60ml .

tegretol drug class 2016-08-14

To review the efficacy of oxcarbazepine, relative to placebo and other agents, in the prevention of affective episodes of bipolar affective disorder. The efficacy of oxcarbazepine was considered in terms of episode recurrence, general and social functioning. Adverse effects, overall acceptability to participants and mortality were also considered.

tegretol generic cost 2016-01-08

For the purposes of drug approval, the interchangeability of a generic drug and the corresponding brand-name drug is based on the criterion of "essential similarity," which requires that the generic drug have the same amount and type of active principle, the same route of administration, and the same therapeutic effectiveness as the original drug, as demonstrated by a bioequivalence study. However, bioequivalence and therapeutic effectiveness are not necessarily the same.

tegretol 40 mg 2015-09-15

A great many animal models for audiogenic seizures have been described. The extent to which these models may provide insight into neuroscience fields such as abnormal locomotor behavior (wild running), seizures and anticonvulsants, and neuroinsults and neuroprotectors is examined here by our study of magnesium deficiency-dependent audiogenic seizures (MDDASs) in adult mice. MDDASs were induced in all of the eight tested adult murine strains and are presented as a sequence of four successive components (latency, wild running, convulsion, and recovery phase periods). Compared with several classic seizure tests, the nutritional MDDAS model responded to low doses of prototype antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), valproic acid (VPA), ethosuximide (ESM), and diazepam (DZP). Modulation by AEDs of the four components of MDDAS indicated that this seizure test was discriminatory, distinguishing between phenytoinergic (PHT, CBZ), GABAergic (PB, VPA, DZP), and ethosuximide (ESM) compounds. Suitability of the MDDAS test for evaluation of neuroprotective compounds was also examined: it showed partial (melatonin) and complete (WEB2170, an anti-PAF agent) reduction of recovery phase by non-anticonvulsant doses of test compounds. These neuroprotective responses were compared with neuroprotective potentials determined in a model of neonatal cerebral injury induced by focal injection of ibotenate (a glutamate analog). WEB2170 and melatonin reduced the size of lesions in white matter, but only WEB2170 protected cortical plate against ibotenate-induced lesions. In addition to the original neuroprotective behavior of WEB2170, studies on the neuroprotectors also supported GABAergic anticonvulsant activity of melatonin in the MDDAS test.

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Lamotrigine (LTG) and Vigabatrin (VGB) has been licensed widely as adjunctive therapy for partial and secondary generalized seizures. We compared the efficiency of Lamotrigine and Vigabatrin as adjuvant therapy for 33 patients (16 male and 17 female) with drug-resistant partial epileptic seizures (simple and complex) with secondary generalization receiving combination therapy (carbamazepine--CBZ and valproic acid--VPA). Patients were enrolled if they had experienced two partial seizures (simple or complex) and one secondary generalization/month, despite combination therapy. Neurologic evaluation including CT, MRI and EEG was performed every 3 months during observation. Blood specimens for CBZ and VPA plasma concentration were obtained prior to the first LTG or VGB dose and twice a year during the treatment. The assessment of LTG and VGB effectiveness was performed in 2-month intervals during 2-3 years for vigabatrin (mean daily dose 2.0 g) and 1-2 years for Lamotrigine (mean daily dose 0.3 g). The treatment (CBZ, VPA or both) with Vigabatrin or Lamotrigine as adjunctive therapy was effective in about a half of patients with refractory epilepsy. Findings suggest that the reduction in partial seizures (simple or complex) frequency with Vigabatrin is greater than that with Lamotrigine. On the other hand, Lamotrigine seems to be more effective in patients with partial epileptic seizures with secondary generalization.

tegretol xr reviews 2016-02-29

Hence, brain microdialysis was successfully used to evaluate a dissolution rate enhancing formulation.