trental pentoxifylline tablets
All clinical trials and case reports evaluating pharmacologic efficacy in terms of clinical response, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes, and neuropathology were considered for inclusion. Selection was not restricted by study design because most information consists of open uncontrolled trials and case reports.
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Morris Water maze testing revealed that PTX administration in cerebral ischemia significantly improved hippocampal-dependent memory and cognitive spatial abilities after reperfusion as compared to sham-operated and vehicle-treated animals. After the behavioral test, the rats were sacrificed and brain sections were stained with Nissl staining. There were no significant differences between number of pyramidal cells in both control and PTX groups.
To evaluate the efficiency of pentoxifylline (PTX), a methyl xanthine derivative, in preventing renal scar formation after the induction of pyelonephritis in an experimental rat model with delayed antimicrobial therapy.
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The objective of this review was to determine the effects of exercise for leg pain.
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Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a potent inhibitor of mesangial cell proliferation, but its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated mesangial cells, PTX causes G1 arrest by down-regulation of cyclin D1 expression, which subsequently attenuates Cdk4 activity. In vivo, PTX similarly reduces cyclin D1 expression in mesangial cells of rats with acute Thy1 glomerulonephritis. The mechanism by which PTX reduces cyclin D1 is also investigated. PTX blocks Akt but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation in response to PDGF and abrogates cyclin D1 induction by PI3K, suggesting an effect of PTX on Akt itself. Indeed, PTX is capable of blocking the membrane translocation of Akt, and enforced targeting of Akt to cell membrane prevents the inhibition of Akt and cyclin D1 by PTX. Because PTX is known to increase intracellular cAMP levels by inhibiting phosphodiesterase, the role of protein kinase A (PKA) in these events is investigated. The PKA antagonist N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinoline (H89) abolishes cell proliferation effects of PTX and restores cyclin D1 expression as well as Akt membrane translocation and activation by PDGF, whereas dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin recapitulate the functions of PTX in mesangial cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that PTX, acting through PKA, interferes with PDGF signaling to Akt activation by blocking Akt membrane translocation, thereby inhibiting cyclin D1 expression and mesangial cell proliferation.
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Pentoxifylline-treated patients showed a significant decrease AST (n=37, P=0.01) and ALT (n=50, P=0.03), but no significant effect on IL-6 (n=36, P=0.33) and TNF-α (n=68, P=0.26) compared with Placebo or UDCA-controlled groups. Improvement in one or more histological variables was reported in two trails, only 1 study showed a reduction in of one or two points in fibrosis stage.
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Necrobiosis lipoidica often fails to respond adequately to therapy with topical and intralesional corticosteroids, or to systemic medications like niacinamide and pentoxifylline (Trental). On the basis of unpublished work which showed a predominance of T helper cells in lesions of necrobiosis lipoidica, and recalling the case of a woman whose necrobiosis lipoidica improved after she was started on cyclosporine for a renal transplant, systemic cyclosporine was successfully used in the cases of two young women who had insulin-dependent diabetes and were disfigured by severe, ulcerating necrobiosis lipoidica on the anterior lower legs. Response to treatment was monitored with photographs. In both cases the ulcers resolved, and remained in remission after cyclosporine was stopped.
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Pentoxifylline, recently approved for the treatment of intermittent claudication, is hepatically cleared with a high degree of first-pass metabolism. Subsequently, the effect of cimetidine on pentoxifylline pharmacokinetics was studied in humans. Ten healthy subjects received, in random cross-over fashion, pentoxifylline 400 mg as a controlled-release tablet every 8 hours with and without cimetidine 300 mg four times a day for 7 days. Pentoxifylline and metabolite plasma concentrations over one dosing interval were measured on day 7 of each phase. The unavailability of an immediate-release pentoxifylline dosage form prevented a single dose trial. Cimetidine significantly increased (P less than .05) pentoxifylline area under the curve at steady state 26.2% from 675 +/- 97 (mean +/- SEM) to 852 +/- 108 ng. hr/mL. The average steady-state plasma concentration increased 27.4% from 84 +/- 12 to 107 +/- 14 ng/mL (P less than .05). Apparent oral clearance decreased 21.5% from 1309 +/- 304 to 1027 +/- 244 mL/min (P less than .02). Significant alterations in pentoxifylline metabolite concentrations were also observed. The results of this trial suggest cimetidine elevates pentoxifylline plasma concentrations, presumably by decreasing apparent oral clearance, although a reduction in total body clearance or an increase in gastric absorption could not be ruled out.
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Fifteen animals taken at random were submitted to adult male Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=15): Group C - control group received only mechanical ventilation; Group S - rats received live Escherichia coli (E. coli) intraperitoneally (septic) and after 6 hours they were treated with normal saline infusion and ventilated with a low tidal volume. Group S+PTX - rats received live Escherichia coli intraperitoneally (septic) and after 6 hours they were treated with pentoxifylline (PTX) infusion and ventilated with a low tidal volume. All animals were ventilated during 180 minutes. We analyzed the arterial blood gases, gravimetric indices and histomorphometric analysis.
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This study was designed to determine the effects of long-term perioperative pentoxifylline administration on random skin flap survival in an appropriate animal model. A secondary objective was to document bioavailability of pentoxifylline in the animal model by measuring blood levels of parent compound and metabolites at regular intervals and comparing these to levels measured in humans.
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Red blood cell filtration test has been performed in 37 insulin dependent diabetics (IDD) and 35 controls matched for age and sex and subdivided into age groups. IDD have been classified according to the presence of vascular complications, either affecting small and/or large vessels, assessed by clinical and instrumental methods. Results evidence a close correlation between age, fibrinogen, smoking and filtration index, both in IDD and in controls. The presence and type of vascular complication in diabetics parallels the increase in the filtration index, being the blood of macroangiopathic diabetics less filtrable than that of non angiopathics and/or controls. Metabolic control, recorded as glycosylated haemoglobin shows a slight correlation with filtration index, while blood glucose of the same specimen does not. Filtration index appears to be an useful datum for assessing angiopathic risk in diabetics. Nineteen IDD have been treated with pentoxifylline, 400 mg per os 3 times daily for 20 days and filtration time, and other metabolic variables have been assessed. Data evidenced a marked improvement in the filtration time without any change in the other metabolic variables suggesting that the effect of this drug is mainly exerted on the RBC deformability and not on plasma viscosity. The drug has been very well tolerated and revealed itself an effective therapeutic mean for influencing RBC filtration, thus preventing angiopathic phenomena.